Goal kick

Last updated

Saint-Etienne goalkeeper Meline Gerard takes a goal kick. 20121216 PSG-ASSE 05 - Meline Gerard.jpg
Saint-Étienne goalkeeper Méline Gérard takes a goal kick.

A goal kick, called a goalie kick in some regions, is a method of restarting play in a game of association football. Its procedure is dictated by Law 16 of the Laws of the Game. [1]

Association football Team field sport

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules that help define association football. They are the only rules of association football subscribed to by FIFA. The laws mention the number of players a team should have, the game length, the size of the field and ball, the type and nature of fouls that referees may penalise, the frequently misinterpreted offside law, and many other laws that define the sport. During a match, it is the task of the referee to interpret and enforce the Laws of the Game.

Contents

Award

A goal kick is awarded to the defending team when the ball goes out of the field of play by crossing, either on the ground or in the air, the goal line, without a goal being scored, when the last person to touch the ball was from the attacking team. If the last person to touch the ball was a member of the defending side, a corner kick is instead awarded to the attackers.

Corner kick method of restarting play in association football

A corner kick is the method of restarting play in a game of association football when the ball goes out of play over the goal line, without a goal being scored, and having last been touched by a member of the defending team. The kick is taken from the corner of the field of play nearest to where it went out. Corners are considered to be a reasonable goal scoring opportunity for the attacking side, though not as much as a penalty kick or a direct free kick near the edge of the penalty area.

A goal kick is awarded to the defending team when the ball goes directly into the goal, having last been touched by the attacking team, from a situation in which the laws do not permit an attacking goal to be scored directly. These are:

An indirect free kick is a method of restarting play in a game of association football that is awarded to a team following most types of technical infringements of the Laws of the Game. In an indirect free kick, the non-offending team is entitled to freely kick the ball from the ground at the spot of the infringement, with opponents required to be at least 10 yards (9.1 m) from the ball. The kicking team may not score a goal directly from an indirect free kick; the ball must first touch another player of either team in order for a goal to be scored. If the ball enters the goal directly from an indirect free kick, a goal kick is awarded to the opponent, unless it enters the kicker's own goal, in which case a corner kick is awarded.

Throw-in method of restarting play in association football

A throw-in is a method of restarting play in a game of football when the ball has exited the side of the field of play.

Procedure

The goalkeeper, often shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport. The goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball. The special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates.

Penalty area

The penalty area or 18-yard box is an area of an association football pitch. It is rectangular and extends 16.5m to each side of the goal and 16.5m in front of it. Within the penalty area is the penalty spot, which is 10.97 metres (36.0 ft) or 12 yards from the goal line, directly in-line with the centre of the goal. A penalty arc adjoins the penalty area, and encloses the area within 9.15m from the penalty spot; it does not form part of the penalty area and is only of relevance during the taking of a penalty kick.

Scoring in association football

In games of association football teams compete to score the most goals during the match. A goal is scored when the ball passes completely over a goal line at each end of the field of play between two centrally positioned upright goal posts 24 feet (7.32 m) apart and underneath a horizontal crossbar at a height of 8 feet (2.44 m) — this frame is also referred to as a goal. Each team aims to score at one end of the pitch, while also preventing their opponents scoring at the other. Nets are usually attached to the goal frame to catch goalscoring balls, but the ball is not required to touch the net.

Goal kicks are most often taken by goalkeepers, however this is not compulsory under the laws of the game.

Infringements

Opposing players must retain the required distance as stated above. Failure to do so promptly so may constitute misconduct and be punished by a caution (yellow card). If an opposing player enters the penalty area before the ball is in play, the goal kick may be retaken.

If any player touches the ball after it is kicked, but before it is in play (i.e. before the whole of the ball has left the penalty area), the goal kick is retaken. It is an infringement for the kicker to touch the ball a second time once the ball is in play (i.e. when it has left the penalty area), before it has been touched by another player – this is punishable by an indirect free kick to the opposing team from where the offence occurred, unless the second touch was also a more serious handling offence, which is punished by a direct free kick for the opposing team. [4]

History

Before 1863

Analogues of the goal kick are found in early codes of football. The first published set of rules for any code of football, that of Rugby School (1845), featured a "kick out" from ten yards or twenty-five yards after a team touched the ball down in its own goal area. [5] This was the ancestor of the 22-metre drop out in modern rugby union. A similar 25-yard "kick out" is found in the first version of the Sheffield rules (1858). [6] The Cambridge rules of 1856 provided for a kick-out from "not more than ten paces", [7] while the Melbourne Football Club rules of 1859 stipulated a 20-yard "kick off". [8] Published laws of the Eton field game (1857) and Harrow football (1858), meanwhile, provided for a defensive kick-off from the goal-line itself whenever the ball went behind the goal without the attacking team scoring. [9] [10]

The 1863 FA rules

The original FA rules of 1863 defined the "free kick from the goal line", the ancestor of the goal-kick, thus: [11]

In case the ball goes behind the goal line, if a player on the side to whom the goal belongs first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick from the goal line at the point opposite the place where the ball shall be touched. If a player of the opposite side first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick (but at the goal only) from a point 15 yards from the goal line opposite the place where the ball is touched. The opposing side shall stand behind their goal line until he has had his kick.

There are several differences between this "free kick from the goal line" and the modern goal-kick:

It was not possible for a player to be offside from such a kick, a feature of the laws that has remained constant to the present day.

Early developments (1863-1873)

In 1866, the law was changed to award a goal-kick to the defending team regardless of which team touched the ball. (If the attacking team touched the ball down, it was awarded a "touch down", which served as a tie-breaker if the match ended level on goals; however the defending team was still awarded a goal-kick.) [12] In 1867, following an amendment proposed by Wanderers FC, the law was simplified; both the requirement for a touch-down, and the short-lived "touch-down" tiebreaker, were completely removed from the laws. The goal-kick could now be taken from any point "within six yards from the limit of [the] goal", and the opponents were forbidden from approaching within six yards of the ball. [13]

In 1872, the law was changed again by the introduction of the corner-kick from Sheffield rules football. Under this 1872 law, a goal-kick could be awarded only when the ball was kicked directly over the goal by either side. (When the ball was kicked to the side of the goal, a corner-kick was awarded, to either the attacking or defensive side). [14]

This law was rewritten the next year (1873) on the basis of a proposal by Great Marlow FC: a goal kick was awarded when the ball was kicked out of play over the goal-line by the attacking side. The kick had to be taken from within six yards of the nearest goal post. [15] The 1873 law ran:

When the ball is kicked behind the goal-line by one of the opposite side, it shall be kicked off by any one of the players behind whose goal line it went, within six yards of the nearest goal post; but if kicked behind by any one of the side whose goal line it is, a player of the opposite side shall kick it from the nearest corner flag-post. In either case no other player shall be allowed within six yards of the ball until kicked off.

Subsequent changes

The laws of 1902 introduced the modern goal area Plan of the field of play for association football (1902).png
The laws of 1902 introduced the modern goal area

In 1890, the phrase "goal-kick" appeared in the text of the laws for the first time. The player taking the goal-kick was forbidden from kicking the ball again until it had been played by another player. It was also forbidden to score a goal directly from a goal-kick. [16] This latter prohibition would be partly reversed in 1997, when it was permitted to score a goal directly from a goal-kick, but only against the opposing team. [17] [18] [19]

In 1891, pitch markings were added to define the six-yard radius from each goal-post. [20] In 1902, the term "goal area" was introduced for the place from which the goal kick was taken; it assumed its modern dimensions as a rectangle extending six yards from each goal post. The goal-kick had to be taken from the half of the goal area nearest to the spot where the ball went out of play. [21] This requirement was removed in 1992, when it was permitted to take the goal-kick from any point within the goal-area. This change was made in order to "eliminate[] one of the common timewasting tactics". [22] [17]

In 1913 and 1914, the distance opponents were required to retreat was increased from six yards to ten yards. [23] [24] [25] In 1948, opponents were required to be completely outside the penalty area when the goal-kick was taken. [26]

In 1936, after a proposal by the Scottish Football Association, a new restriction was added: it was specified that the goal-kick has to put the ball into play beyond the penalty area; if the ball does not leave the penalty area, the kick has to be retaken. The goalkeeper was also explicitly forbidden from "receiv[ing] the ball into his hands from a goal-kick in order that he may thereafter kick it into play". [27] [28]

Amadeo Carrizo has been cited as the first goalkeeper to recognize the importance of the goal kick as a method of launching an attack. [29]

Summary

This table describes all free kicks awarded to the defending team after the ball goes out of play over the goal line, including the defensive corner kick from the 1872 laws.

DateAwarded whenLocationMinimum distance required (oppponents)Ball must leave penalty areaKicker may play ball again before it is touched by another playerAttacking goal may be scoredOwn goal may be scoredPlayer may be offside
1863Ball first touched by a defender after going out of playFrom the goal-line, in line with the place where the ball was touched downNoneN/AYesYesYesNo
1866In all cases
1867Within 6 yards of "the limit of the goal"6 yards
1872Ball goes directly above the goal

OR

Ball last touched by an attacker before going out of play

Within 6 yards of "the limit of the goal" (if ball went directly above the goal)

From the corner-flag nearest the point where the ball went out of play (otherwise)

1873Ball last touched by an attacker before going out of playWithin 6 yards of the goal post nearest the point where the ball went out of play
1890NoNoNo
1902The half of the goal area nearest the point where the ball went out of playNo
1913/1914 [25] 10 yards
1936Yes
1948Must be outside the penalty area
1992Anywhere within the goal area
1997Yes

Notes

  1. This was added to the Laws of the Game in 2012 in order to prevent goals from being scored directly from "uncontested" dropped balls [2] .

Related Research Articles

Canadian football Canadian sport in which opposing teams of twelve players attempt to score by advancing a ball by running, passing and kicking

Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (101 m) long and 65 yards (59 m) wide attempting to advance a pointed oval-shaped ball into the opposing team's scoring area.

An own goal is an event in competitive goal-scoring sports where a player scores on their own side of the playing area rather than the one defended by the opponent. Own goals sometimes result from the opponent's defensive strength, as when the player is stopped in the scoring area, but can also happen by accident. Since own goals are often added to the opponent's score, they are often an embarrassing blunder for the scoring player, but in certain sports are occasionally done for strategic reasons.

Penalty kick (association football) type of direct free kick in association football

A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, in which a player is allowed to take a single shot on the goal while it is defended only by the opposing team's goalkeeper. It is awarded when a foul punishable by a direct free kick is committed by a player in their own penalty area. The shot is taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards (11 m) from the goal line and centred between the touch lines.

In American football, a touchback is a ruling which is made and signaled by an official when the ball becomes dead on or behind a team's own goal line and the opposing team gave the ball the momentum, or impetus, to travel over or across the goal line. Since the 2018 season, touchbacks have also been awarded in college football on kickoffs that end in a fair catch by the receiving team between its own 25-yard line and goal line. Such impetus may be imparted by a kick, pass, fumble, or in certain instances by batting the ball. A touchback is not a play, but a result of events that may occur during a play. A touchback is the opposite of a safety with regard to impetus since a safety is scored when the defending team is responsible for the ball becoming dead on or behind its own goal line.

This is a glossary of terms used in Canadian football. The Glossary of American football article also covers many terms that are also used in the Canadian version of the game.

  1. Legally positioned at the kick-off or the snap. On kick-offs, members of the kicking team must be behind the kick-off line; members of the receiving team must be at least 10 yards from the kick-off line. On scrimmages, at the snap the offence must be behind the line of scrimmage; the defence must be at least one yard beyond the line of scrimmage.
  2. A player of the kicking team who can legally recover the kick. The kicker himself and any teammates behind the ball at the time of the kick are onside. Thus on kick-offs all players of the kicking team are onside, but on other kicks usually only the kicker is. The holder on a place kick is not considered onside.
  1. A defensive position on scrimmages, also called free safety. Typical formations include a single safety, whose main duty is to cover wide receivers. See also defensive back.
  2. A two-point score. The defence scores a safety when the offence carries or passes the ball into its own goal area and then fails to run, pass, or kick the ball back into the field of play.
Comparison of American and Canadian football

American and Canadian football are gridiron codes of football that are very similar. Both have their origins in rugby football. There are, however, some key differences.

Football pitch playing surface for the game of association football

A football pitch is the playing surface for the game of association football. Its dimensions and markings are defined by Law 1 of the Laws of the Game, "The Field of Play". The surface can either be natural or artificial. Artificial surfaces must be green in colour. The pitch is typically made of turf (grass) or artificial turf, although amateur and recreational teams often play on dirt fields.

Dropped-ball method of restarting play in association football

A dropped-ball is a method of restarting play in a game of association football. It is designed to offer no advantage to either side, generally being awarded when play has been stopped due to reasons other than normal gameplay, fouls, or misconduct. The rules concerning the dropped-ball are part of Law 8 of the Laws of the Game.

Direct free kick method of restarting play in association football

A direct free kick is a method of restarting play in a game of association football that is awarded to a team following most types of fouls. In a direct free kick, the fouled team is entitled to freely kick the ball from the spot of the foul, with opponents required to be at least 10 yards (9.1 m) from the ball. The kicking team may score a goal directly from a direct free kick, that is, without the ball having first touched another player. This is in contrast with an indirect free kick – a restart with a similar procedure that is usually awarded for technical infringements – where the ball must contact another player before a goal is scored. If a player commits a foul punishable by a direct freekick within his/her own penalty area, a penalty kick is awarded instead.

Kick-off (association football) method of restarting play in association football

A kick-off is the method of starting and, in some cases, restarting play in a game of association football. The rules concerning the kick-off are part of Law 8 of the Laws of the Game.

Kickoff (gridiron football)

A kickoff is a method of starting a drive in American football and Canadian football. Typically, a kickoff consists of one team – the "kicking team" – kicking the ball to the opposing team – the "receiving team". The receiving team is then entitled to return the ball, i.e., attempt to advance it towards the kicking team's end zone, until the player with the ball is tackled by the kicking team, goes out of bounds, or scores a touchdown. Kickoffs take place at the start of each half of play, the beginning of overtime in some overtime formats, and after scoring plays.

Rugby league gameplay

Like most forms of modern football, rugby league football is played outdoors on a rectangular grass field with goals at each end that are to be attacked and defended by two opposing teams. The rules of rugby league have changed significantly over the decades since rugby football split into the league and union codes. This article details the modern form of the game and how it is generally played today, however rules do vary slightly between specific competitions.

Laws of Australian rules football

The rules of Australian rules football were first formed by the Melbourne Football Club in 1859, and been refined over the years as the game evolved into its modern form. The laws significantly predate the advent of a governing body for the sport. The first national and international body, the Australasian Football Council, was formed in 1905 to govern Australian Football. Since 1994, the rules for the game known as Australian football have been governed by the AFL and the organisation's Laws of the Game committee.

Comparison of association football and futsal

Futsal began in the 1930s in South America as a version of association football, taking elements of its parent game into an indoor format so players could still play during inclement weather. Over the years, both sports have developed, creating a situation where the two sports share common traits while also hosting various differences.

Determining the Outcome of a Match is the 10th of the Laws of the Game of association football.

References

  1. "FIFA.com – The Laws of the Game – Law 16: The Goal-Kick". FIFA . Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  2. LOTG 8.2; FIFA Circular 1302 p.3
  3. LAWS OF THE GAME 2015/2016 (PDF). FIFA. p. 36. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  4. "Law 16 – The Goal Kick". FIFA . Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  5. Laws of Football as played at Rugby School (1845)  via Wikisource. KICK OUT must not be from more than ten yards out of goal if a place-kick, not more then twenty-five yards, if a punt, drop, or knock on.
  6. Sheffield Rules (1858)  via Wikisource. Kick out must not be from more than 25 yards out of goal.
  7. Cambridge Rules (1856)  via Wikisource. When the ball is behind it shall be brought forward at the place where it left the ground, not more than ten paces, and kicked off.
  8. Rules of Melbourne Football Club (1859)  via Wikisource. In case the Ball is kicked behind Goal, any one of the side behind whose Goal it is kicked may bring it 20 yards in front of any portion of the space between the 'Kick Off' posts, and shall kick it as nearly as possible in line with the opposite Goal.
  9. Laws of the Eton Field Game (1857)  via Wikisource. If a player kicks the ball behind, or on the line of the goalsticks of the opposite party, without being bullied, or should the ball be first touched by one of the defending party, no rouge is obtained, and the ball must be placed on a line with the goalsticks, and "kicked off" by one of that party.
  10. Rules of Harrow Football (1858)  via Wikisource. When the Ball goes behind the Line of either of the Bases, it must be kicked straight in (as by Rule 9), and then must not be touched by any one belonging to the Side, behind whose Base it was kicked, until it has been touched by one of the opposite Side.
  11. Laws of the Game (1863)  via Wikisource.
  12. Laws of the Game (1866)  via Wikisource. In case the ball goes behind the goal line, a player on the side to whom the goal belongs shall kick it off from the goal line, at the point opposite the place where the ball is touched by a player with any part of his body; but if a player of the opposite side first touches the ball, after it has gone behind the goal line of his adversary, one "touch down" shall be scored by his side, and in the event of no goals being got on either side, the side obtaining the greater number of "touches down" shall be the winners of the match.
  13. Laws of the Game (1867)  via Wikisource. When the ball is kicked behind the goal line, it must be kicked off by the side behind whose goal it went, within six yards from the limit of their goal. The side who thus kick the ball are entitled to a fair kick off in whatever way they please without any obstruction, the opposite side not being able to approach within six yards of the ball.
  14. Laws of the Game (1872)  via Wikisource. When the ball is kicked over the bar of the goal, it must be kicked off by the side behind whose goal it went, within six yards from the limit of their goal. The side who thus kick the ball are entitled to a fair kick off in whatever way they please; the opposite side not being allowed to approach within six yards of the ball. When the ball is kicked behind the goal line, a player of the opposite side to that which kicked it out shall kick it from the nearest corner flag. No player to be allowed within six yards of the ball until kicked.
  15. Laws of the Game (1873)  via Wikisource.
  16. Laws of the Game (1890)  via Wikisource. In no case, save the penalty-kick, shall a goal be scored from any free kick, nor shall the ball be again played by the kicker until it has been played by another player. The kick-off, the corner-flag and goal-kicks shall be free kicks within the meaning of this rule.
  17. 1 2 "History of the Laws of the Game - 1990-2000" . Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  18. "Starts and restarts of play" . Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  19. "International Football Association Board: 1997 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF). p. 139. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  20. Laws of the Game (1891)  via Wikisource. a line defining six yards from the goal posts and twelve yards from the goal lines shall also be marked out.
  21. Laws of the Game (1902)  via Wikisource. Lines shall be marked six yards from each goal-post at right angles to the goal-lines for a distance of six yards, and these shall be connected with each other by a line parallel to the goal-lines; the space within these lines shall be the goal area.
  22. "International Football Association Board: 1992 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF). p. 14. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  23. "International Football Association Board: 1914 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF).
  24. "International Football Association Board: 1914 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF).
  25. 1 2 The Laws of 1913 are ambiguous: Law 7, which governs goal-kicks and corner-kicks, states "an opponent shall not be allowed within six yards of the ball until it is kicked off"; but Law 10, which governs several types of set-piece kicks, was changed to state that "the kicker's opponents shall not approach within 10 yards of the ball until the kick is taken". The Football Association used the new 10-yard rule for goal-kicks and corner-kicks during the 1913-14 season, while the Scottish Football Association used the older 6-yard rule -- see "The New Free Kick Law". The Athletic News and Cyclists' Journal (1984): 1. 6 October 1913. This ambiguity was resolved in 1914 by requiring a 10-yard radius in both laws.
  26. "International Football Association Board: 1948 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  27. "International Football Association Board: 1936 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  28. "Lantern" (29 August 1936). "Linesmen Must Be More Attentive". Sports Argus. Birmingham (2006): 6.
  29. "Amadeo Carrizo: The Man Who Redefined Goalkeeping". 18 December 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2016.