|Purpose||Management of the Laws of the Game|
The International Football Association Board (IFAB) is the body that determines the Laws of the Game of association football. IFAB was founded in 1886 to agree standardised Laws for international competition, and has since acted as the "guardian" of the internationally used Laws. Since its establishment in 1904, FIFA, the sport's top governing body, has recognised IFAB's jurisdiction over the Laws.IFAB is known to take a highly conservative attitude regarding changes to the Laws of the Game.
The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules that help define association football. The laws mention the number of players a team should have, the game length, the size of the field and ball, the type and nature of fouls that referees may penalise, the frequently misinterpreted offside law, and many other laws that define the sport. During a match, it is the task of the referee to interpret and enforce the Laws of the Game.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.
It is a separate body from FIFA, though FIFA is represented on the board and holds 50% of the voting power. As a legacy of association football's origins in the United Kingdom, the other organisations represented are the governing bodies of the game in the four countries of the UK. Amendments to the Laws require a three-quarter supermajority vote, meaning that FIFA's support is necessary but not sufficient for a motion to pass.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Scotland, and Wales and Northern Ireland.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for majority. Changes to constitutions, especially those with entrenched clauses, commonly require supermajority support in a legislature. Parliamentary procedure requires that any action of a deliberative assembly that may alter the rights of a minority have a supermajority requirement, such as a two-thirds vote.
IFAB is made up of representatives from each of the United Kingdom's pioneering football associations—England's Football Association (The FA), the Scottish Football Association (SFA), the Football Association of Wales (FAW) and Northern Ireland's Irish Football Association (IFA)—and the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the international governing body for football. Each British association has one vote and FIFA has four. IFAB deliberations must be approved by three-quarters of the vote, or at least six of the eight votes.Thus, FIFA's approval is necessary for any IFAB decision, but FIFA alone cannot change the Laws of the Game—they need to be agreed by at least two of the UK members. As of 2016, all members must be present for a binding vote to proceed.
The Football Association (FA) is the governing body of association football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory.
The Scottish Football Association is the governing body of football in Scotland and has the ultimate responsibility for the control and development of football in Scotland. Members of the SFA include clubs in Scotland, affiliated national associations as well as local associations. It was formed in 1873, making it the second oldest national football association in the world. It is not to be confused with the Scottish Football Union, which is the name that the SRU was known by until the 1920s.
The Football Association of Wales is the governing body of association football and futsal in Wales, and controls the Welsh national football team, its corresponding women's team, as well as the Welsh national futsal team. It is a member of FIFA, UEFA and the IFAB.
The Board meets twice a year, once to decide on possible changes to the rules governing the game of Football (the Annual General Meeting (AGM)) and once to deliberate on its internal affairs (the Annual Business Meeting (ABM)). In FIFA World Cup years, the AGM is held at FIFA's offices; otherwise, it rotates between Northern Ireland, Wales, England and Scotland in that order.Four weeks before the AGM, the member associations must send their written proposals to the secretary of the host association. FIFA then prints a list of suggestions that are distributed to all other associations for examination. The AGM is held either in February or March and the ABM is held between September and October. In cases of necessity, the Board can meet in a Special Meeting in addition to the two ordinary annual meetings. As of December 2012, the last Special Meeting was hosted by FIFA in Zurich on 5 July 2012.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War. The current champion is France, which won its second title at the 2018 tournament in Russia.
The decisions of each year's Annual General Meeting of the Board regarding changes to the Laws of the Game enter into force from 1 July (and are binding on FIFA and on the other members of the Board, and, given that FIFA's Statutes establish that FIFA and its member associations and affiliates adhere to the Laws of the Game laid down by IFAB, those changes bind also FIFA's other member associations, FIFA's continental confederations of member associations, and the subnational entities of the national associations) but confederations, member associations and other bodies whose current season has not ended by 1 July may delay the introduction of the adopted alterations to the Laws of the Game in their competitions until the beginning of their next season.As well as permanent changes to the Laws, IFAB also authorises trials of potential amendments.
Though the rules of football had largely been standardised by the early 1880s, the UK's four football associations still each had slightly different rules. This posed a problem with international matches and when matches were played, the rules of the home team's national association were used. While this solution was workable, it was hardly ideal. To remedy this, the then football associations of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland met at the International Football Conference on 6 December 1882 in Manchester, in order to set forth a common set of rules that could be applied to matches between the UK football associations' national teams.
The Irish Football Association (IFA) is the governing body for association football in Northern Ireland. It organised the Ireland national football team from 1880 to 1950, which after 1954, became the Northern Ireland national football team.
The International Football Confererence was a meeting of the four football associations of the Home Nations -- England's Football Association, the Scottish Football Association (SFA), the Football Association of Wales (FAW) and the Irish Football Association (IFA) -- held at the Queen's Hotel, Manchester, on 6 December 1882. A precursor to the International Football Association Board, the meeting's major purpose was to address inconsistencies between the laws of the various associations, particularly between England and Scotland. Among the changes resulting from the conference were:
Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 534,982 as of 2018. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.9 million, and third-most populous metropolitan area, with a population of 3.3 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority for the city is Manchester City Council.
In the summer of 1885, the English FA legalized professionalism. The Scottish FA responded that it would refuse to allow professionals in its own national team, and would refuse to play international matches against an England team containing professionals.The Irish FA attempted to mediate by proposing that "an international conference should be held each year, say, in August, to be called in turn by each national association to deal with the laws of the game, and discuss other matters of interest to Association football, and at which international disputes could be adjusted".
The first meeting of IFAB took place at the FA's offices at Holborn Viaduct in London on Wednesday 2 June 1886.The FA, SFA, FAW and IFA each had equal voting rights.
Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the international organising body for the sport, was formed in Paris in 1904 and declared that, regarding the Laws of the Game itself, they would enforce the rules laid down by IFAB. In 1912, FIFA requested that its representatives be included in IFAB. At a special meeting held in January 1913 in Wrexham, IFAB agreed to FIFA's request. The first regular IFAB meeting to include FIFA occurred in June 1913. Each association (including FIFA) was entitled to send two representatives, with a four-fifths majority required to change the laws (thus that the UK associations could still change the laws against FIFA's wishes if they all voted together). One more meeting of IFAB was held, in Paris in 1914, before regular meetings were curtailed by the First World War.
For the first four post-war IFAB meetings (1920, 1921, 1922, and 1923), FIFA was once again excluded, on account of a dispute between FIFA and the home nations. From 1924, once the dispute had been resolved, FIFA once again attended IFAB meetings. In 1958, the Board agreed on its current voting system.
Since Irish partition in 1921, the IFA has evolved to become the organising body for football in Northern Ireland, with football in the Republic of Ireland being organised by the FAI. A request for the FAI to become a member of IFAB was denied at the 1923 annual general meeting.
|Year||Date||Host||Location||Venue||Votes||Notes / references|
to amend laws
|1886||June 1st||FA||Football Association Offices,|
51 Holborn Viaduct
|1887||June 1st||SFA||Scottish Football Association Offices,|
6 Carlton Place
|First meeting to amend the Laws of the Game|
|1888||June 25th||FAW||Wynnstay Arms Hotel|
|1889||June 1st||IFA||Commercial Hotel|
|1890||June 2nd||FA||Anderton's Hotel|
|1891||June 2nd||SFA||Alexandra Hotel|
|1892||June 13th||FAW||Prince of Wales Hotel|
|1893||June 10th||IFA||Hotel Shaftesbury||Date of subsequent meetings fixed to be the third Monday in June.|
|1894||June 18th||FA||Ferry Hotel|
|1895||June 17th||SFA||Alexandra Hotel|
|1896||June 15th||FAW||White Horse Hotel|
|1897||June 14th||IFA||Mourne Hotel|
|1898||June 20th||FA||Football Association Offices,|
61 Chancery Lane
|1899||June 19th||SFA||St. Enoch's Station Hotel|
|1900||June 18th||FAW||Royal Hotel|
|1901||June 17th||IFA||Royal Hotel|
|1902||June 16th||FA||Grand Hotel|
|1903||June 15th||SFA||Station Hotel||Date of subsequent meetings moved to the second Saturday in June.|
|1904||June 11th||FAW||British Hotel|
|1905||June 17th||IFA||Lake Hotel||First meeting to be held outside today's United Kingdom.|
|1906||June 9th||FA||Royal Hotel|
|1907||June 8th||SFA||Alexandra Hotel|
|1908||June 19th-20th||FAW||Rock Hotel|
|1909||June 12th||IFA||Great Northern Hotel|
|1910||June 11th||FA||Royal York Hotel|
|1911||June 11th||SFA||Station Hotel|
|1912||June 8th||FAW||Queen's Hotel|
|1913||June 14th||IFA||Northern Counties Hotel||2||2||2||2||2||80%||First meeting to include FIFA|
|1914||June 13th||FIFA||Hotel Palais D'Orsay||First meeting held outside Britain and Ireland.|
Last meeting before the First World War.
|1920||June 12th-14th||FA||Torbay Hotel||2||2||2||2||0||100%||First meeting after the First World War.|
FIFA again excluded.
|1921||June 11th||SFA||Portpatrick Hotel|
|1922||June 10th||FAW||Imperial Hotel|
|1923||June 9th||IFA||Causeway Hotel||Last meeting to exclude FIFA|
|1924||June 14th||FA||Football Association Offices,|
42 Russell Square
|1925||June 13th||FIFA||11 Rue de Londres|
|1926||June 12th||SFA||Grand Hotel|
|1927||June 11th||FAW||Grand Hotel|
|1928||June 9th||IFA||Slieve Donard Hotel|
|1929||June 8th||FIFA|| Fédération Française de Football Association Offices,|
22 Rue de Londres
|1930||June 14th||FA||Royal Exeter Hotel|
|1931||June 13th||SFA||Gleneagles Hotel|
|1932||June 11th||FAW||Imperial Hotel|
|1933||June 10th||IFA||Northern Counties Hotel||Rules amended to allow FIFA-hosted meetings to take place in "the territory of a Continental National Association", rather than being restricted to Paris.|
|1934||June 9th||FIFA||Hôtel des Anglais|
|1935||June 8th||FA||Daish's Hotel|
|1936||June 13th||SFA||Marine Hotel|
|1937||June 12th||FAW||Imperial Hotel|
|1938||June 11th, 13th||IFA||Northern Counties Hotel|
|1939||June 10th||FIFA||Hotel Negresco||Last meeting held before World War II. A meeting was scheduled for London in 1940, but was abandoned when FIFA and IFA delegates were unable to attend.|
|1947||June 14th||FA||Imperial Hotel||First meeting held after World War II.|
|1948||June 12th||FIFA||Palace Hotel||First meeting held outside Britain, Ireland and France.|
Meeting would have regularly been hosted by the SFA, but it was unanimously agreed to accept an invitation from FIFA to host this meeting.
|1949||June 11th||SFA||Hydro Hotel|
|1950||June 10th||FAW||Bulkeley Arms Hotel|
|1951||June 9th||IFA||Northern Counties Hotel|
|1952||June 14th||FIFA||Morgano-Tiberio Hotel||Date of future meetings moved to third Saturday in June.|
|1953||June 20th||FA||Cavendish Hotel|
|1954||June 19th||FIFA||Schweizerhof Hotel||The SFA agreed to forego its regularly scheduled hosting duties in order to allow FIFA to host the meeting at its 50th anniversary celebrations preceding the 1954 World Cup.|
|1955||June 18th||SFA||Marine Hotel|
|1956||June 16th||FAW||Imperial Hotel|
|1957||June 15th||IFA||Northern Counties Hotel|
|1958||June 7th||FIFA||Hotel Foresta||1||1||1||1||4||75%||Meeting held on the day before the opening of the 1958 World Cup.|
New rules adopted, with greater voting weight given to FIFA "on behalf of all other National Associations in membership with it".
Hosting rules changed to provide that "when the FIFA Congress and the World Cup coincide", FIFA should host the meeting at the World Cup venue, if practicable.
Date of meeting may be any time in June.
|1959||June 20th||FA||Pomme d'Or Hotel||First of four consecutive meetings hosted by the FA outside England in the Channel Islands|
|1960||June 18th||SFA||Rusack's Marine Hotel|
|1961||June 17th||FAW||Seabank Hotel|
|1962||June 23rd||IFA||Slieve Donard Hotel|
|1963||June 15th||FIFA||Palazzo della Camera di Commercio|
|1964||June 20th||FA||Grand Hotel|
|1965||June 19th||SFA||Caledonian Hotel|
|1966||June 11th||FAW||Marine Hotel|
|1967||June 17th||IFA||Slieve Donard Hotel||Last meeting hosted by the IFA for 13 years. The IFA withdrew from its regular hosting schedule during the 1970s owing to the "Troubles" in Northern Ireland.|
|1968||June 15th||FIFA||Hotel Excelsior|
|1969||June 21st||FA||Grand Hotel|
|1970||June 27th||SFA||Caledonian Hotel|
|1971||June 19th||FAW||Dragon Hotel|
|1972||June 10th||FIFA||Parkhotel Schönbrunn||FIFA stepped in to replace the IFA.|
|1973||June 23rd||FA||Duke of Richmond Hotel|
|1974||July 9th||FIFA||Hotel Bachmair||Meeting held two days after the final of the 1974 World Cup in nearby Munich.|
First meeting not held in June.
|1975||June 21st||SFA||Gleneagles Hotel|
|1976||June 18th||FAW||Seabank Hotel|
|1977||June 19th||FA||Royal Garden Hotel||The IFA withdrew from hosting this meeting.|
|1978||June 1st||FIFA||Hotel Sheraton||First meeting outside Europe. Held on the opening day of the 1978 World Cup.|
|1979||June 16th||SFA||Gleneagles Hotel|
|1980||June 7th||IFA||Culloden Hotel|
|1981||June 13th||FAW||Ruthin Castle||IFAB had accepted an invitation by FIFA President João Havelange to host this meeting in Brazil, but the invitation was subsequently withdrawn, with Havelange missing this meeting for personal reasons.|
|1982||July 6th||FIFA||Palacio de Congresos||Meeting held the day after the final of the 1982 World Cup|
|1983||July 9th||FA||Chewton Glen Hotel|
|1984||June 2nd||SFA||Turnberry Hotel|
|1985||June 15th||IFA||Culloden Hotel|
|1986||May 30th||FIFA||Camino Real Hotel||First (and, as of 2018, only) meeting in North America.|
Originally scheduled to be held in Zurich, but moved to Mexico in connection with the 1986 World Cup.
|1987||June 13th||FAW||Bodysgallen Hall|
|1988||June 4th||FA||Royal Lancaster Hotel|
|1989||June 7nd||SFA||Caledonian Hotel|
|1990||June 28th||FIFA||Hilton Cavalieri Hotel||Held during the 1990 World Cup|
|1991||June 8th||IFA||Culloden Hotel|
|1992||May 30th||FAW||Celtic Manor Hotel||New rules adopted by IFAB: in future years there will be two annual meetings: the Annual General Meeting, held in February / March, and the Annual Business Meeting in September / October.|
|1993||February 27th||FA||Hanbury Manor|
|1994||March 5th||FIFA||FIFA House,|
|1995||March 4th||SFA||Turnberry Hotel|
|1996||March 9th||FIFA||Copacabana Palace Hotel||Last meeting held outside Europe (as of 2018).|
Originally scheduled to be hosted by the IFA in Northern Ireland, but moved to Brazil at the instigation of outgoing FIFA President João Havelange.
|1997||March 1st,||IFA||Culloden Hotel|
|1998||March 6th||FIFA||Hôtel Plaza Athénée|
|1999||February 20th||FAW||Miskin Manor Hotel|
|2001||March 10th||SFA||Balmoral Hotel|
|2002||March 16th||FIFA||Hôtel Mont Cervin|
|2003||March 15th||IFA||Culloden Hotel|
|2004||February 28th||FIFA||Claridge's Hotel||Hosted in London by FIFA as part of its centenary celebrations, to celebrate the role of the four Home Associations in the development of the game.|
|2005||February 26th||FAW||Miskin Manor Hotel|
|2006||March 4th||FIFA||Palace Hotel|
|2007||March 3rd||FA||Lowry Hotel|
|2008||March 8th||SFA||Gleneagles Hotel|
|2009||February 28th||IFA||Slieve Donard Hotel|
|2010||March 6th||FIFA|| Home of FIFA,|
|2011||March 5th||FAW||Celtic Manor Hotel|
|2012||March 3rd||FA||Pennyhill Park Hotel|
|2013||March 2nd||SFA||Balmoral Hotel|
|2014||March 1st||FIFA||Home of FIFA,|
|2015||February 27th - March 1st||IFA||Culloden Hotel|
|2016||March 5th||FAW||St. David's Hotel and Spa|
|2017||March 3rd||FA||Wembley Stadium|
|2018||March 3rd||FIFA||Home of FIFA,|
|2019||March 2nd||SFA||Marcliffe Hotel|
Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that a player is in an offside position if any of their body parts, except the hands and arms, are in the opponents' half of the pitch, and closer to the opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent.
The Scottish Amateur Football Association (SAFA) is the organising body for amateur football across Scotland. An affiliate of the Scottish Football Association, the SAFA has in turn 50 regional associations affiliated to it and some 67 different league competitions organised by these associations. There is estimated to be over 35,000 amateur footballers in Scotland, and all of their competitions are co-ordinated at some level by the Scottish Amateur Football Association. The SAFA was formed in 1909 with the purpose of legislating for and fostering the amateur level of football in Scotland.
A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, in which a player is allowed to take a single shot on the goal while it is defended only by the opposing team's goalkeeper. It is awarded when a foul punishable by a direct free kick is committed by a player in their own penalty area. The shot is taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards (11 m) from the goal line and centred between the touch lines.
The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) is the governing body for all national table tennis associations. The role of the ITTF includes overseeing rules and regulations and seeking technological improvement for the sport of table tennis. The ITTF is responsible for the organization of numerous international competitions, including the World Table Tennis Championships that has continued since 1926.
A corner kick is the method of restarting play in a game of association football when the ball goes out of play over the goal line, without a goal being scored and having last been touched by a member of the defending team. The kick is taken from the corner of the field of play nearest to where it went out. Corners are considered to be a reasonable goal scoring opportunity for the attacking side, though not as much as a penalty kick or a direct free kick near the edge of the penalty area.
A throw-in is a method of restarting play in a game of football when the ball has exited the side of the field of play. It is governed by Law 15 of The Laws Of The Game.
In the sport of association football, fouls and misconduct are acts committed by players which are deemed by the referee to be unfair and are subsequently penalized. An offense may be a foul, misconduct or both depending on the nature of the offence and the circumstances in which it occurs. Fouls and misconduct are addressed in Law 12 of the Laws of the Game.
William McCrum was a wealthy Irish linen manufacturer and sportsman, most famous for being the inventor in 1890 of the penalty kick in football.
In association football, an assistant referee is an official empowered with assisting the referee in enforcing the Laws of the Game during a match. Although assistants are not required under the Laws, at most organised levels of football the match officiating crew consists of the referee and at least two assistant referees. The responsibilities of the various assistant referees are listed in Law 6, "The Other Match Officials". In the current Laws the term "assistant referee" technically refers only to the two officials who generally patrol the touchlines, with the wider range of assistants to the referee given other titles.
As the governing body of association football, FIFA is responsible for maintaining and implementing the rules that determine whether an association football player is eligible to represent a particular country in officially recognised international competitions and friendly matches. In the 20th century, FIFA allowed a player to represent any national team, as long as the player held citizenship of that country. In 2004, in reaction to the growing trend towards naturalisation of foreign players in some countries, FIFA implemented a significant new ruling that requires a player to demonstrate a "clear connection" to any country they wish to represent. FIFA has used its authority to overturn results of competitive international matches that feature ineligible players.
In games of association football teams compete to score the most goals during the match. A goal is scored when the ball passes completely over a goal line at each end of the field of play between two centrally positioned upright goal posts 24 feet (7.32 m) apart and underneath a horizontal crossbar at a height of 8 feet (2.44 m) — this frame is also referred to as a goal. Each team aims to score at one end of the pitch, while preventing their opponents from scoring at the other. Nets are usually attached to the goal frame to catch goalscoring balls, but the ball is not required to touch the net.
Futsal began in the 1930s in South America as a version of association football, taking elements of its parent game into an indoor format so players could still play during inclement weather. Over the years, both sports have developed, creating a situation where the two sports share common traits while also hosting various differences.
Determining the Outcome of a Match is the 10th of the Laws of the Game of association football.