Glossary of association football terms

Last updated
A player doing a keepie-uppie Martijn Bosman.jpg
A player doing a keepie-uppie

Association football (more commonly known as football or soccer) was first codified in 1863 in England, although games that involved the kicking of a ball were evident considerably earlier. [1] A large number of football-related terms have since emerged to describe various aspects of the sport and its culture.

Association football Team field sport

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

Contents

The evolution of the sport has been mirrored by changes in this terminology over time. For instance, the role of an inside forward in variants of a 2–3–5 formation has many parallels to that of an attacking midfielder, although the positions are nonetheless distinct. [2] Similarly, a 2–3–5 centre half can in many ways be compared to a holding midfielder in a 4–1–3–2. [3]

In many cases, multiple terms exist for the same concept. One reason for this is the progression of language over time. The sport itself, originally known as association football, is now more widely known by the shortened term football, or soccer, derived from the word association. [4] Other duplicate terms can be attributed to differences between varieties of English. In Europe, where British English is prevalent, the achievement of not conceding a goal for an entire match is known as a clean sheet. [5] In North America, where American and Canadian English dominate, the same achievement is referred to as a shutout. [6]

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. It is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.

Canadian English is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada. According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of approximately 19 million Canadians, or 57% of the population; the remainder of the population were native speakers of Canadian French (22%) or other languages. A larger number, 28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language. 82% of Canadians outside the province of Quebec reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec the figure was just 7.7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec French.

Occasionally the actions of an individual have made their way into common football parlance. Two notable examples are Diego Maradona's goals in Argentina's 1986 World Cup quarter-final win against England. After the match, Maradona described his first goal—a handball that the referee missed—as having been scored "a little bit by the hand of God, another bit by the head of Maradona". [7] His second goal was subsequently voted in a 2002 FIFA poll as the Goal of the century. Both phrases are now widely understood to refer to the goals in that match. [8]

Diego Maradona Argentine association football player

Diego Armando Maradona is an Argentine retired professional footballer and current manager of Mexican second division club Dorados. Many in the sport, including football writers, players, and fans, regard him as the greatest football player of all time. He was joint FIFA Player of the 20th Century with Pelé. Maradona's vision, passing, ball control and dribbling skills was combined with his small stature, giving him a low center of gravity which allowed him to maneuver better than most other football players; he would often dribble past multiple opposing players on a run. His presence and leadership on the field had a great effect on his team's general performance, while he would often be singled out by the opposition. A precocious talent, Maradona was given the nickname "El Pibe de Oro", a name that stuck with him throughout his career.

Inclusion criteria

This glossary serves as a point of reference for terms which are commonly used within association football, and which have a sport-specific meaning. It seeks to avoid defining common English words and phrases that have no special meaning within football. Exceptions include cases where a word or phrase's use in the context of football might cause confusion to someone not familiar with the sport (such as clean sheet), or where it is fundamental to understanding the sport (such as goal). Entries on nicknames relating to specific players or teams are actively avoided. Other phrases without entries are specific clubs, rivalries, media organisations or works, unless the name also has a more general meaning within football, as is the case with El Clásico and Roy of the Rovers stuff.

0–9

The 4-3-2-1 (Christmas Tree) formation, a variant of the 4-5-1. 4-3-2-1.png
The 4–3–2–1 (Christmas Tree) formation, a variant of the 4–5–1.

A

Liverpool captain Steven Gerrard wearing an armband. Liverpool footballer Steven Gerrard.jpg
Liverpool captain Steven Gerrard wearing an armband.

B

A player attempting a bicycle kick Busquets chilena.jpg
A player attempting a bicycle kick

C

Chelsea player Didier Drogba standing by the corner flag, about to take a corner kick Rodallega-corner wigan man-city 2010-09-19.JPG
Chelsea player Didier Drogba standing by the corner flag, about to take a corner kick

D

The player in the centre is dribbling. Israel v New Zealand - Ramat Gan, 1989 - Ronny Rosenthal.jpg
The player in the centre is dribbling.

E

F

Fans of Racing Club de Avellaneda, supporting their team before a match
A player (red/black) commits a foul by tripping her opponent (green/white) Football trip.jpg
A player (red/black) commits a foul by tripping her opponent (green/white)
A player (blue) about to take a free kick Florent Malouda free kick - Chelsea vs Bolton Wanderers.jpg
A player (blue) about to take a free kick

G

A goalmouth scramble Footballet - geograph.org.uk - 1024351.jpg
A goalmouth scramble

H

A player (black/white) being challenged by two defenders (yellow/blue), attempting to make a header Kopfballe.jpg
A player (black/white) being challenged by two defenders (yellow/blue), attempting to make a header

I

An indoor football facility ComplexeSoccerHoncoLevis.JPG
An indoor football facility

J

K

The famous Kop at Anfield, home of Liverpool F.C. Liverpool v Chelsea, 2005.jpg
The famous Kop at Anfield, home of Liverpool F.C.

L

A linesman holds up his flag Clemens Schuttengruber, Fussballschiedsrichter (03).jpg
A linesman holds up his flag

M

N

O

One-club man Paolo Maldini appeared in more than 600 matches for AC Milan over 25 seasons. PaoloMaldini.jpg
One-club man Paolo Maldini appeared in more than 600 matches for AC Milan over 25 seasons.

P

A goalkeeper (black) defending a penalty kick
A pitch invasion Crystal Palace fans pitch invasion to celebrate with players.jpg
A pitch invasion

R

A referee (yellow/black) issuing a red card to a player (white/red) Rote Karte-RB Salzburg crop.png
A referee (yellow/black) issuing a red card to a player (white/red)

S

Football boots with moulded studs at the bottom Cleats.jpg
Football boots with moulded studs at the bottom
The fourth official indicates that a minimum of two minutes of stoppage time should be played Rezervnyi referi.jpg
The fourth official indicates that a minimum of two minutes of stoppage time should be played

T

A truncated icosahedron (left) compared to a telstar football. Comparison of truncated icosahedron and soccer ball.png
A truncated icosahedron (left) compared to a telstar football.
Seattle Sounders FC supporters displaying a tifo Seattle sounders tifo 2.jpg
Seattle Sounders FC supporters displaying a tifo

U

Ultras in Poland Lechia Gdansk & Wisla Krakow.jpg
Ultras in Poland

V

Vanishing spray in use Tottenham Vanishing Spray.jpg
Vanishing spray in use

W

A referee (red) ensuring a wall is correctly lined up Referee Michael Lerjeus.jpg
A referee (red) ensuring a wall is correctly lined up

X

Y

Z

See also

Related Research Articles

Gaelic football Irish team sport, form of football derived from traditional Irish ball games

Gaelic football, commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport. It is played between two teams of 15 players on a rectangular grass pitch. The objective of the sport is to score by kicking or punching the ball into the other team's goals or between two upright posts above the goals and over a crossbar 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) above the ground.

1930 FIFA World Cup 1930 edition of the FIFA World Cup

The 1930 FIFA World Cup was the inaugural FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Uruguay from 13 to 30 July 1930. FIFA, football's international governing body, selected Uruguay as host nation, as the country would be celebrating the centenary of its first constitution, and the Uruguay national football team had successfully retained their football title at the 1928 Summer Olympics. All matches were played in the Uruguayan capital, Montevideo, the majority at the Estadio Centenario, which was built for the tournament.

Offside (association football) law in association football

Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that a player is in an offside position if any of their body parts, except the hands and arms, are in the opponents' half of the pitch, and closer to the opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent.

Futsal Ballgame-team sport, variant of association football

Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors. It can be considered a version of five-a-side football.

Rivaldo Brazilian association football player

Rivaldo Vítor Borba Ferreira, known as Rivaldo, is a Brazilian former professional footballer and the current president of Mogi Mirim Esporte Clube in Brazil. He played mainly as an attacking midfielder but also as a second striker. Although predominantly left footed, he was capable of playing on either flank, and was on occasion deployed as a wide midfielder or as a winger.

An own goal is an event in competitive goal-scoring sports where a player scores on their own side of the playing area rather than the one defended by the opponent. Own goals sometimes result from the opponent's defensive strength, as when the player is stopped in the scoring area, but can also happen by accident. Since own goals are often added to the opponent's score, they are often an embarrassing blunder for the scoring player, but in certain sports are occasionally done for strategic reasons.

Ronaldinho Brazilian association football player

Ronaldo de Assis Moreira, commonly known as Ronaldinho Gaúcho or simply Ronaldinho, is a Brazilian former professional footballer and ambassador for Barcelona. He played mostly as an attacking midfielder, but was also deployed as a forward or a winger. He played the bulk of his career at European clubs Paris Saint-Germain, Barcelona and A.C. Milan as well as playing for the Brazilian national team. Often considered one of the best players of his generation and regarded by many as one of the greatest of all time, Ronaldinho won two FIFA World Player of the Year awards and a Ballon d'Or. He was renowned for his technical skills and creativity; due to his agility, pace and dribbling ability, as well as his use of tricks, feints, overhead kicks, no-look passes and accuracy from free-kicks.

The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules that help define association football. They are the only rules of association football subscribed to by FIFA. The laws mention the number of players a team should have, the game length, the size of the field and ball, the type and nature of fouls that referees may penalise, the frequently misinterpreted offside law, and many other laws that define the sport. During a match, it is the task of the referee to interpret and enforce the Laws of the Game.

Corner kick method of restarting play in association football

A corner kick is the method of restarting play in a game of association football when the ball goes out of play over the goal line, without a goal being scored, and having last been touched by a member of the defending team. The kick is taken from the corner of the field of play nearest to where it went out. Corners are considered to be a reasonable goal scoring opportunity for the attacking side, though not as much as a penalty kick or a direct free kick near the edge of the penalty area.

In various sports, a professional foul is a deliberate act of foul play intended to bring about an advantage for the perpetrator's team. Professional fouls are usually committed to prevent an opponent from scoring.

Beach soccer football played in beach

Beach Soccer, also known as beach football, sand football or beasal, is a variant of association football played on a beach or some form of sand.

Football pitch playing surface for the game of association football

A football pitch is the playing surface for the game of association football. Its dimensions and markings are defined by Law 1 of the Laws of the Game, "The Field of Play". The surface can either be natural or artificial. Artificial surfaces must be green in colour. The pitch is typically made of turf (grass) or artificial turf, although amateur and recreational teams often play on dirt fields.

Fouls and misconduct (association football) unfair act by a player in association football

In the sport of association football, fouls and misconduct are acts committed by players which are deemed by the referee to be unfair and are subsequently penalized. An offense may be a foul, misconduct or both depending on the nature of the offence and the circumstances in which it occurs. Fouls and misconduct are addressed in Law 12 of the Laws of the Game.

The goalkeeper, often shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport. The goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball. The special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates.

This list of rugby league terms is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of rugby league football. The sport has accrued a considerable amount of jargon to describe aspects of the game. Many terms originate from the Laws of the Game. A number of aspects of the game have more than one term that refers to them. Different terms have become popularly used to describe an aspect of the game in different places with notable differences between the northern and southern hemispheres.

2005 FA Community Shield tournament

The 2005 FA Community Shield was the 83rd staging of the FA Community Shield, an annual football match contested by the reigning champions of the Premier League and the holders of the FA Cup. It was held at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff on 7 August 2005. The game was played between Chelsea, champions of the 2004–05 Premier League and Arsenal, who beat Manchester United on penalties to win the 2005 FA Cup Final. Chelsea won the match 2–1 in front of a crowd of 58,014.

In rugby league football, the Laws of the Game are the rules governing how the sport is played. The Laws are the responsibility of the Rugby League International Federation, and cover the play, officiating, equipment and procedures of the game.

Watford Football Club are an association football team from the county of Hertfordshire, England. Waford has played in the Championship since being relegated from the Premier League in 2006–07. The club finished the season in 13th position out of 24 Championship teams. The club went through four managers during the season.

Comparison of association football and futsal

Futsal began in the 1930s in South America as a version of association football, taking elements of its parent game into an indoor format so players could still play during inclement weather. Over the years, both sports have developed, creating a situation where the two sports share common traits while also hosting various differences.

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