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In sports, particularly association football, a reserve team is a team composed of players under contract to a club but who do not normally play in matches for the first team. Reserve teams often include back-up players from the first team, young players who need playing time to improve their skills, as well as members of the first team recovering from injury. In some countries, reserve or development teams compete in entirely separate competitions from first teams, while some countries allow reserve teams or farm teams to compete in the same league system as their club's first team, although usually in separate divisions.
Reserve teams usually consist of a combination of emerging youth players and first-team squad players. These teams are distinct from a club's youth team, which usually consists of players under a certain age and plays in an age-specific league. In England, Argentina and the United States the term reserve is commonly used to describe these teams.[ citation needed ] In Germany and Austria the terms Amateure or II is used, while B team is used in the Spanish football league system, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Portugal. In the Netherlands and Norway these teams are distinguished by a 2.
In England reserve teams of professional clubs play in completely separate leagues and competitions such as the Professional Development League or the Central League, although further down the pyramid, reserve clubs feature in the same system as their parent clubs and can be promoted through the system. They cannot usually play in the same division as their parent team.
However, in other countries, reserve teams play in the same football league as their senior team and have competed in the domestic cup competitions. In Spain this has seen the reserve team of CD Málaga change identity and play in La Liga while Castilla CF, the reserve team of Real Madrid, reached the Copa del Rey final, qualified for the European Cup Winners' Cup and won the Segunda División.
In Germany, Hertha BSC II, the reserve team of Hertha Berlin, reached the 1992–93 DFB-Pokal final after their first team were eliminated in the Round of 16. They lost the final 1–0 to Bayer Leverkusen. In the German football league system, however, reserve teams are not allowed to be promoted above the 3. Liga and since 2008–09 have not been allowed to play in the cup competition to serve the non-reserve team's interests. In the 2003–04 season, Bayern Munich's reserve team won the Regionalliga Süd, a semi-professional league then in the third tier of German football (now the fourth), finishing nine points clear of the second-placed FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt.Due to the rule which prohibits one club from having two teams in fully professional leagues, the third-placed 1. FC Saarbrücken was promoted to the Second Bundesliga instead.
There was a Reserve League in the Indonesia Super League from 2008 onwards.
From the days of the old Japan Soccer League, Japan allowed reserve teams to play in the main league system. Even today reserve teams of J. League clubs are allowed to compete in the Emperor's Cup.
These teams were never promoted to the top flight due to their senior squad's presence there.
Reserve clubs were usually localized in the same city as their senior team and should not be confused with clubs from sister companies within a keiretsu or otherwise, which were separate clubs competing for the same championships. An example is Toyota Automated Loom Works, founding member of the JSL in 1965, later relegated and now competing in the Aichi Prefecture league, and Toyota Motors, now known as Nagoya Grampus, founding member and mainstay of the J. League.
Most J. League reserve teams these days are in the corresponding regional league. The most successful is JEF United Ichihara Chiba Reserves, who compete in the national third division, the Japan Football League. (Furukawa Electric Chiba still exists but is no longer affiliated with the JEF club.)
In Norway, reserve football teams are permitted to participate at all levels of league football except for the two highest divisions, making the 2. divisjon the highest league they can enter. However, if the first team plays in the second-tiered 1. divisjon, the reserve team is restricted to a fourth-tier league, maintaining a league difference of two. Reserve teams bear the same name as their respective first teams with a "2" attached as a suffix. If a reserve team ends the season in a promotion spot to a league it cannot enter, that promotion is instead awarded to the best following team.
Scotland has two reserve leagues under the umbrella of the SPFL Reserve League, where 27 of the senior clubs competed in its first year,only for several (including Celtic and Rangers) withdrew to pursue their own programme of fixtures. The predecessor was the SPFL Development League until 2018. It was described as a development league for under-20s, but teams could field up to five over-age players in each game.
Reserve teams (limited to under-21 players) of the clubs in the Scottish Premiership enter the Scottish Challenge Cup for lower division clubs (and some entrants from other parts of the British Isles). Proposals have been made by the bigger clubs to have 'B teams' placed into the Scottish football league system, but as of 2020 these have been rejected.
The South-Korean R League serves as a dedicated competition for reserve teams and has been intermittently active since 1990, with several interruptions and format changes throughout its history. In its current form, the league has been played since 2016.
Reserve teams in Spain play in the same league pyramid as their parent club but may not play in the same division.
In 1951–52 CD Mestalla, the reserve team of Valencia CF, won the Segunda División promotion play-off but were denied promotion because their senior team was already in the Primera División. The following season CD España Industrial, the reserve team of FC Barcelona, also finished as runners-up in the same play-off but were similarly denied. However, after winning another promotion play-off in 1956, España Industrial separated from FC Barcelona and were renamed CD Condal. The club were now able to be promoted to the Primera División. However, they survived only one season and were relegated in 1957. In 1968 the club rejoined the FC Barcelona family as the reserve team and eventually evolved into FC Barcelona B.
In 1983–84 Castilla CF and Bilbao Athletic, the reserve teams of Real Madrid and Athletic Bilbao respectively, finished as winners and runners-up of the Segunda División. Castilla, Bilbao Athletic and Atlético Madrid B finished third in 1987–88, 1989–90 and 1998–99 respectively. In normal circumstances, these teams would have all been promoted except for the fact that their senior team was already in the Primera División.
In 1980 Castilla CF also reached the Copa del Rey final and qualified for the European Cup Winners' Cup. During their cup run, they beat four Primera División teams including Hércules CF, Athletic Bilbao, Real Sociedad and Sporting de Gijón. The latter two eventually finished second and third in the Primera División. In the final they played Real Madrid but lost 6–1. However, because Real also won La Liga, Castilla CF qualified for European Cup Winners' Cup.Despite beating West Ham United 3–1 in the opening game at the Bernabéu, they lost the return 5–1 and went out in the first round.
Málaga CF was originally formed in 1948 as Atlético Malagueño, the reserve team of CD Málaga. In 1992 CD Málaga was disbanded and two years later Atlético Malagueño were relaunched as Málaga CF. They were eventually promoted to the Primera División in 1999.
There was a Reserve League in the Thai Premier League from 2016 onwards.
In Ukraine, there are two types of reserve teams, one doubles and the other dvushky (dviyky, triyky) or second teams. The second teams compete in regular league competitions usually in the Ukrainian Second League or lower, some better have competed in the Ukrainian First League (such as FC Dynamo-2 Kyiv). Also some smaller clubs voluntarily would join bigger club as its farm (Ternopil-Nyva-2, Poltava-2 Karlivka, others), while other would be forced to be revived anew as the original club would be changed into a new better club. On rare occasions in the professional league competitions were allowed to compete some clubs' academies (Sports school of Olympic Reserve (SSOR) Metalurh, FC Dnipro-75 Dnipropetrovsk, others). Until 1999 second teams and third teams were allowed to compete in the Ukrainian Cup.
Since 1999–2000 in Ukraine started to talk about reviving some kind of separate competition for such teams or youth competitions. In 2004 there was organized competition for the Vyshcha Liha teams doubles. Some doubles were formed out of already existing second teams, other clubs kept their second teams as well as created additional doubles. It certainly reduced the number of second teams in regular league competitions as well eliminated some farm clubs. In 2008, championship among doubles was transitioned to youth competition (under-21) as Vyshcha Liha was also transformed into Premier Liha. In 2012, there was introduced additional competition in Premier Liha, the under-19 championship (see Ukrainian Premier League Reserves and Under 19). All these youth competitions "cleaned" the lower league structure of the second teams, but some clubs continue field them at national or regional levels.
In Ukraine, second teams act same as farm teams and they do not have an age restriction as youth teams. Second teams are not allowed to compete in the same division with their primary team (senior team). On several occasions, the second team of Dynamo Kyiv (Dynamo-2 Kyiv) won the Ukrainian First League, but was not allowed to be promoted to premiers where the primary team of Dynamo Kyiv competes due to the rule. As any rules there are some exceptions, the second team of FC Nyva Ternopil (FC Ternopil) were allowed promotion to the same division after it lost its affiliation with the main club and promoted to professional ranks starting again from regional competitions.
As it was mentioned above, farm teams in Ukraine are not necessary denoted with 2 (or 3), but could be a separate club that have an agreement with another club. Among examples there are FC Karlivka that used to be called FC Poltava-2 (the second team of FC Poltava), FC Kalush was known as LUKOR Kalush and Prykarpattia Kalush (the second team of FC Spartak Ivano-Frankivsk), FC Krasyliv was known as FC Krasyliv-Obolon as the second team of FC Obolon Kyiv, and there are other examples.
List of all second teams (competed at national competitions): FC Dynamo-2 Kyiv (FC Dynamo-3 Kyiv), FC Shakhtar-2 Donetsk (FC Shakhtar-3 Donetsk), FC Dnipro-2 Dnipropetrovsk (FC Dnipro-3 Dnipropetrovsk), FC Karpaty-2 Lviv (FC Karpaty-3 Lviv), FC Chornomorets-2 Odesa, FC Metalist-2 Kharkiv (FC Metalist-3 Kharkiv), FC Vorskla-2 Poltava, FC Metalurh-2 Zaporizhia (SSOR Metalurh Zaporizhia), FC Kryvbas-2 Kryvyi Rih (FC Kryvbas-Ruda Kryivyi Rih), FC Metalurh-2 Donetsk, FC Arsenal-2 Kyiv, FC Illichivets-2 Mariupol, FC Zirka-2 Kirovohrad, FC Polihraftekhnika-2 Oleksandriya, FC Prykarpattia-2 Ivano-Frankivsk, FC Zakarpattia-2 Uzhhorod, FC Obolon-2 Kyiv, FC Nyva-2 Vinnytsia, FC Kharkiv-2, MFC Mykolaiv-2, FC Stal-2 Alchevsk, FC Bukovyna-2 Chernivtsi, FC Sevastopol-2, FC Borysfen-2 Boryspil, FC Lviv, FC Naftovyk-2 Okhtyrka, FC Desna-2 Chernihiv, FC Spartak Molodizhne, FC Avanhard-2 Kramatorsk.
Major League Soccer, the highest level of competition in the United States, ran its own reserve league from 2005 to 2014. Beginning in 2014, the second-tier United Soccer League began accepting affiliated MLS club teams, such as LA Galaxy II and Seattle Sounders FC 2, into their league with special rules as a result of a partnership signed with MLS.
The term is analogous to junior varsity, a concept in high school and college sports which serves the same purpose in American football, basketball, and other sports to give players not usually featured in the first team, or varsity, playing time and experience.
In the Russian Government Cup, the Russian national bandy reserve team Russia-2 has appeared a couple of times. Some of the professional Russian bandy clubs in the top-tier Russian Bandy Super League have reserve teams playing in the second-tier Russian Bandy Supreme League.
Football Club Metalurh Donetsk was a Ukrainian professional football club based in Donetsk that went bankrupt in July 2015.
The Ukrainian Premier League or UPL is the highest division of Ukrainian annual football championship. As the Vyshcha Liha it was formed in 1991 as part of the 1992 Ukrainian football championship upon discontinuation of the 1991 Soviet football championship and included the Ukraine-based clubs that competed previously in the Soviet top three tiers competitions as well as better clubs of the Ukrainian republican competitions. The initial season of the league featured six former Soviet Top League clubs among which were Dynamo, Shakhtar, Chornomorets, Dnipro, Metalist, Metalurh as well as four more clubs that previously also competed at the top league.
FC Chornomorets Odessa is an Ukrainian professional football club based in Odessa.
The Persha Liha or Ukrainian First League is a professional football league in Ukraine and the second tier of national football competitions pyramid. Members of the league also participate in the Ukrainian Cup. It is the highest division of Professional Football League.
The 2001–02 Vyshcha Liha season was the 11th since its establishment. FC Dynamo Kyiv were the defending champions.
The 1996–97 Vyshcha Liha season was the 6th since its establishment. FC Dynamo Kyiv were the defending champions.
1992 Vyshcha Liha was the first football championship organized in Ukraine after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and officially recognized by the UEFA. The last Soviet season finished in fall of 1991.
The 2005–06 Ukrainian Second League is the 15th season of 3rd level professional football in Ukraine. The competitions are divided into three regional groups – A, B, C. This season was known for a high volume of withdrawals from the competition.
Football is the most popular sport in Ukraine. The Ukrainian Association of Football is the national governing body and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the game of football in the country. It was organized in 1991 to replace the Soviet Football Federation of Ukrainian SSR, created earlier in the 1920s as part of the Soviet system of physical culture councils. The Ukrainian Association of Football is a non-governmental organization and is a member of the National Olympic Committee of Ukraine.
The 1996–97 Ukrainian Cup is the sixth annual edition of Ukraine's football knockout competition, known as the Ukrainian Cup.
The 2004–05 Ukrainian Second League was the 14th season of 3rd level professional football in Ukraine.
The 2009–10 Ukrainian Cup was the 19th annual season of Ukraine's football knockout competition, currently known as DATAGROUP – Football Ukraine Cup or Kubok of Ukraine.
The 2011–12 Ukrainian Cup is the 21st annual season of Ukraine's football knockout competition, and fourth under the name of DATAGROUP – Football Ukraine Cup.
The 2013–14 Ukrainian Cup is the 23rd annual season of Ukraine's football knockout competition.
The 2014–15 Ukrainian Cup is the 24th annual season of Ukraine's football knockout competition. The decision on a schedule of competitions for clubs of the First and Second League and amateur leagues composition was confirmed on 23 July 2014 at a session of Central Council of the Professional Football League of Ukraine.
The 2015–16 Ukrainian Premier League season is the 25th top level football competitions since the fall of the Soviet Union and the eighth since the establishment of the Ukrainian Premier League. Because of sponsorship the league changed its title for 2015–16 season to League Parimatch. The competition commenced on 17 July when Metalurh Zaporizhya hosted Zorya Luhansk in Zaporizhzhia. The first sixteen rounds were played before the winter break which began 6 December 2015; the competition resumed on 5 March 2016. The season concluded on 15 May 2016. Dynamo Kyiv are the defending champions. With the continuation of the Ukrainian crisis in the oblasts of Donetsk and Luhansk, the league remained at 14 teams after being cut from 16 in the 2013–14 season.
Ukrainian Amateur Football Championship is an annual association football competition in Ukraine among amateur teams. The competition is administered by the Ukrainian Association of Amateur Football (AAFU).
The 2019–20 Ukrainian Cup was the 29th annual season of Ukraine's football knockout competition. The competition started on 20 August 2019 and concluded on 8 July 2020 with the final at the OSC Metalist in Kharkiv.
Ivan Shariy is a former Soviet and Ukrainian footballer and Ukrainian football manager.