Scottish Challenge Cup

Last updated

Scottish Challenge Cup
Founded 1990
Region Scotland
Wales
Northern Ireland
Republic of Ireland
England
Number of teams50 (2021–22)
Current champions Inverness Caledonian Thistle (3) & Raith Rovers (2) (Shared)
Most successful club(s) Falkirk (4 titles)
Television broadcasters BBC Alba
Premier Sports
S4C (involving Welsh clubs)
Soccerball current event.svg 2021–22 Scottish Challenge Cup

The Scottish Professional Football League Challenge Cup, [1] [2] [3] commonly known as the Scottish League Challenge Cup [4] [5] or Scottish Challenge Cup, [1] [2] and currently known as the SPFL Trust Trophy for sponsorship reasons, is an association football knock-out cup competition run by the Scottish Professional Football League (SPFL).

Contents

The competition was first held during the 1990–91 season as the B&Q Centenary Cup [1] to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Scottish Football League (SFL). It was intended to be a one-off competition but was continued due to its popularity. It was originally contested by SFL teams below the top level of the Scottish football league system; teams below SPFL level were added in 2011–12, and guest teams from outside Scotland in 2016–17. For the 2019–20 edition there were 58 teams: 30 from the SPFL; the twelve Under-21 teams of the Scottish Premiership clubs; four each from the Highland League and Lowland League; and two guest teams from each of the NIFL Premiership, Cymru Premier League, English National League, and League of Ireland Premier Division up until the 2019–20 season. [6]

The first winner of the tournament was Dundee, who defeated Ayr United. [7] [8] Falkirk are the most successful team in the tournament, with four wins, most recently in 2012. The most recent winners are Inverness Caledonian Thistle and Raith Rovers, who shared the 2019/20 title after the final was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Format

The Challenge Cup is a knock-out tournament. Within a regionalised format, clubs are paired at random and the first club drawn listed as the home team. [9] The winner of each match progresses to the next round and the loser is eliminated from the tournament. Every match, including the final, is a one-legged tie that lasts 90 minutes plus any additional stoppage time. If no clear winner has been determined after 90 minutes of normal time, 30 minutes of extra time is played. If the score is still level after extra time then the winner is decided by a penalty shoot-out. [9]

Beginning with the 2016–17 season, the competition has been expanded to 58 entrants. All Scottish Professional Football League (SPFL) clubs will participate, with the thirty clubs from the Championship, League One and League Two now joined by Under-20 teams from the twelve Premiership clubs. Also participating by invitation will be four teams each from the Highland and Lowland Leagues and eight entrants from outside Scottish football – two each from the NIFL Premiership in Northern Ireland, the National League in England, League of Ireland and the Welsh Premier League in Wales, until 2021 when the decision was made to only have the Scottish clubs participating due to the ongoing Coronavirus Pandemic. Teams are seeded to enter the competition over any of the first four rounds, after which eight teams will remain to contest the quarter-finals. The final is played at a neutral venue. [10]

History

The competition was created in the 1990–91 season to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Scottish Football League in 1890. [3] [11] It was intended to run for only one season but continued due to its popularity. This was reflected in high attendances at matches in the later rounds of the tournament including a full capacity crowd of 11,500 at Fir Park in the first final. [2] [5] [8] The cup was sponsored by DIY retail company B&Q and named the B&Q Centenary Cup [12] for the first year and continued as the B&Q Cup for four seasons afterwards. The competition was run for three seasons without a sponsor due to the league covering the tournament costs and prize money, but was unsustainable and resulted in it being cancelled for one season in 1998–99 before being re-established in 1999 with a new sponsor. [5] Although it is not as popular as competitions like the Scottish Cup, it provides smaller clubs with a realistic opportunity of winning a trophy due to the absence of top-tier clubs from the tournament. [4] [13] When Stenhousemuir won the final in 1995 it was regarded as the club's greatest achievement in its 111-year history. [14] Attendances at matches in the earlier rounds of the tournament are not dissimilar to average home attendances in league competition [15] [16] but as the competition reaches the latter stages they generally increase; Annan Athletic's record attendance of 1,575 was set in a semi-final match against Falkirk in 2011. [17] [18]

The number of competitors has varied in relation to the number of clubs with Scottish Football League membership. The first tournament featured the 28 clubs in the First and Second Divisions which reduced to 26 until 1994 when the league was expanded and restructured into three divisions; increasing the number of eligible clubs to 30. In the 2010–11 competition the two highest ranked clubs from the Highland Football League with a Scottish Football Association licence were invited to compete, in order to bring the number of competitors to 32. [19] [20] Before the change in 2010, several clubs received a random bye in the first round in order to even out the number of fixtures. [9] The Challenge Cup continued under the auspices of the Scottish Professional Football League after the Scottish Football League merged with the Scottish Premier League in 2013. One change at this time was that the two invitational places were split, with only one place filled by a Highland League club (with a valid SFA club licence) and the other place going to the winner of a preliminary round tie between clubs from the East of Scotland League and the South of Scotland League. [21] This was simplified in the 2014–15 season, with the two additional places going to the Highland League champion (Brora Rangers) and the Lowland League champion (Spartans). [22] From 2016–17 the competition has been further expanded with the addition of Scottish Premiership Under-20 teams, additional places for the Highland and Lowland Leagues, which now have four representatives each, as well as the top two teams from Northern Ireland and Wales. [6] The top two teams from the League of Ireland were included in the competition for the 201718 season. [23]

From 2018–19, the competition was further expanded with the two highest ranked teams still remaining in England's National League to take part from the second round. The first English teams to compete were Sutton United and Boreham Wood. [24] The age level was raised for colts teams from under-20 to under-21 in a rule change introduced by the SPFL ahead of 2018–19 competition. [25] The 2018–19 final also saw Connah's Quay Nomads become the first non-Scottish side to play in the final.

The Covid-19 pandemic in Scotland had a significant impact on the competition. [26] The 201920 final, between Inverness Caledonian Thistle and Raith Rovers, was originally scheduled for 28 March 2020 but has been indefinitely postponed. [26] Continuing restrictions on fans entering stadiums meant that the competition was unviable for most SPFL clubs, and the scheduled 202021 edition was cancelled in October 2020. It was announced in May 2021, that only the Scottish clubs will be participating in 202122 due to the coronavirus pandemic. [26]

Venues

McDiarmid Park in Perth has hosted the final 10 times, more times than any other venue. McDiarmid Park.jpg
McDiarmid Park in Perth has hosted the final 10 times, more times than any other venue.

In the rounds before the final, the venue of each match is determined when the fixtures are drawn; the first club drawn in a fixture is named the home team and chooses the venue for the match, usually its own home ground. [9] The venue may be switched to that of the away team or changed to a neutral venue for security reasons such as being unable to host a club with a large travelling fan base or the venue being unavailable. [27] [28]

Final venue

The final match of the tournament is played at a neutral venue, usually one that is geographically close or equidistant to where the clubs contesting the match are based. As of 2019, ten different venues have hosted the final. Fir Park in Motherwell was the first, in 1990, and has since hosted four more finals, the last in 2017. [3] McDiarmid Park in Perth has been the most frequent venue, staging it ten times between 1994 and 2018. Other venues to host the final more than once are Broadwood Stadium (Cumbernauld), Excelsior Stadium (Airdrie) and Almondvale Stadium (Livingston). [29] The 2016 final was held at Hampden Park, the national stadium in Glasgow, due to the large support of eventual winners Rangers; [30] that final drew the competition's record attendance of over 48,000. [31]

Winners and finalists

A total of 26 clubs have reached the final, of whom 16 have won the competition. The first winners were Dundee in 1990. [1] The most successful club is Falkirk with four wins from four final appearances. [32] The two major Highland clubs Ross County and Inverness Caledonian Thistle are the only two clubs to have reached the final five times, Ross County winning on three occasions with Inverness winning two and sharing one, while Hamilton Academical, and Queen of the South have all reached the final four times, each club winning twice and losing twice. Three clubs have reached the final in successive seasons; Ayr United did so in the first two years of the tournament but lost both. The only teams to have successfully defended their title are Hamilton Academical and the original Airdrieonians. [33] It is possible for the winner of the tournament to be unable to defend their title; if a club is promoted from the Scottish Championship (second tier) in the same season to the Scottish Premiership (first tier), the club becomes ineligible to compete in the tournament. This has happened to Falkirk twice, Inverness Caledonian Thistle, St Mirren, Rangers and Ross County.

Most winners and finalists have been from the second tier, while only four teams have won the competition from below this division. Stenhousemuir became the first team to do so in 1995, followed by Stranraer a year later in 1996 and Alloa Athletic in 1999. The most recent club to win from below the second tier was Queen of the South, in 2013. [34] All winners and runners-up from below the second tier have been from the third tier.

In 2019, Connah's Quay Nomads of Wales were the first non-Scottish side to get to the final of the Scottish Challenge Cup; despite taking the lead in the 21st minute, they eventually lost 3–1.

Finals

The winner of the tournament is decided by a final elimination match which lasts 90 minutes plus any additional stoppage time. [9] If the score is level and a winner has not been determined after 90 minutes of normal time, 30 minutes of extra time is played, followed by a penalty shoot-out if the score is still level. [9] Eight finals have gone to extra time, with two being decided in this period of play. The further six have been decided by penalty shoot-out. [35]

Key to list of finals
*Match went to extra time
Dagger-14-plain.pngMatch decided by a penalty shoot-out after extra time
Double-dagger-14-plain.pngWinning team won the second tier of Scottish football league system
ItalicsTeam from below the second tier of the Scottish football league system
Flag of England.svg , Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg , Ulster Banner.svg , or Flag of Ireland.svg Team from outside the Scottish football league system

Results

Scottish Challenge Cup finals
SeasonWinner [35] [36] Score [35] [37] Runner-up [35] [37] Venue [37] Attendance [37]
1990–91 Dundee 3–2 * Ayr United Fir Park 11,506
1991–92 Hamilton Academical 1–0 Ayr United Fir Park 9,663
1992–93 Hamilton Academical 3–2 Morton Love Street 7,391
1993–94 Falkirk Double-dagger-14-plain.png 3–0 St Mirren Fir Park 13,763
1994–95 Airdrieonians 3–2 * Dundee McDiarmid Park 8,844
1995–96 Stenhousemuir 0–0 Dundee United McDiarmid Park 7,856
1996–97 Stranraer 1–0 St Johnstone Broadwood Stadium 5,222
1997–98 Falkirk 1–0 Queen of the South Fir Park 9,735
1998–99Competition suspended due to lack of sponsorship
1999–2000 Alloa Athletic 4–4 Inverness Caledonian Thistle Excelsior Stadium 4,043
2000–01 Airdrieonians 2–2 Livingston Broadwood Stadium 5,623
2001–02 Airdrieonians 2–1 Alloa Athletic Broadwood Stadium 4,548
2002–03 Queen of the South 2–0 Brechin City Broadwood Stadium 6,428
2003–04 Inverness Caledonian Thistle Double-dagger-14-plain.png 2–0 Airdrie United McDiarmid Park 5,428
2004–05 Falkirk Double-dagger-14-plain.png 2–1 Ross County McDiarmid Park 7,471
2005–06 St Mirren Double-dagger-14-plain.png 2–1 Hamilton Academical Excelsior Stadium 9,613
2006–07 Ross County 1–1 Clyde McDiarmid Park 4,062
2007–08 St Johnstone 3–2 Dunfermline Athletic Dens Park 6,446
2008–09 Airdrie United 2–2 Ross County McDiarmid Park 4,091
2009–10 Dundee 3–2 Inverness Caledonian Thistle McDiarmid Park 8,031
2010–11 Ross County 2–0 Queen of the South McDiarmid Park 5,124
2011–12 Falkirk 1–0 Hamilton Academical Almondvale Stadium 5,210
2012–13 Queen of the South 1–1 Partick Thistle Almondvale Stadium 9,452
2013–14 Raith Rovers 1–0 * Rangers Easter Road 19,983
2014–15 Livingston 4–0 Alloa Athletic McDiarmid Park 2,869
2015–16 Rangers Double-dagger-14-plain.png 4–0 Peterhead Hampden Park 48,133 [31]
2016–17 Dundee United 2–1 St Mirren Fir Park 8,089
2017–18 Inverness Caledonian Thistle 1–0 Dumbarton McDiarmid Park 4,602
2018–19 Ross County Double-dagger-14-plain.png 3–1 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Connah's Quay Nomads Caledonian Stadium 3,057
2019–20 Shared by Inverness Caledonian Thistle and Raith Rovers [38]
2020–21Tournament cancelled [26]
2021–22

Performance by club

Clubs shown in italics are no longer in existence.

Performance by club
ClubWinsLast final wonRunners-upLast final lostTotal final appearances
Falkirk 4 2012 04
Inverness Caledonian Thistle 3 2020*2 2009 5
Ross County 3 2019 2 2008 5
Airdrieonians (1878) 3 2001 03
Queen of the South 2 2013 2 2010 4
Hamilton Academical 2 1992 2 2012 4
Dundee 2 2009 1 1994 3
Raith Rovers 2 2020*02
St Mirren 1 2005 2 2017 3
Alloa Athletic 1 1999 2 2015 3
Dundee United 1 2017 1 1995 2
Rangers 1 2016 1 2014 2
Livingston 1 2015 1 2000 2
Airdrieonians 1 2008 1 2003 2
St Johnstone 1 2007 1 1996 2
Stranraer 1 1996 01
Stenhousemuir 1 1995 01
Ayr United 02 1991 2
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Connah's Quay Nomads 01 2019 1
Dumbarton 01 2018 1
Peterhead 01 2016 1
Partick Thistle 01 2013 1
Dunfermline Athletic 01 2007 1
Clyde 01 2006 1
Brechin City 01 2002 1
Morton 01 1992 1

List of winning managers

List of winning managers
SeasonManager [39] NationalityClubNotes
1990–91 Gordon Wallace Scotland Dundee
1991–92 Billy McLaren Scotland Hamilton Academical
1992–93 Iain Munro Scotland Hamilton Academical
1993–94 Jim Jefferies Scotland Falkirk
1994–95 Alex MacDonald Scotland Airdrieonians
1995–96 Terry Christie Scotland Stenhousemuir First manager to win the competition with a club outside of the second tier.
1996–97 Campbell Money Scotland Stranraer
1997–98 Alex Totten Scotland Falkirk
1999–2000 Terry Christie (2)Scotland Alloa Athletic First manager to win the competition more than once, with two different clubs.
2000–01 Steve Archibald Scotland Airdrieonians
2001–02 Ian McCall Scotland Airdrieonians
2002–03 John Connolly Scotland Queen of the South
2003–04 John Robertson Scotland Inverness Caledonian Thistle
2004–05 John Hughes Scotland Falkirk
2005–06 Gus MacPherson Scotland St Mirren
2006–07 Scott Leitch Scotland Ross County
2007–08 Sandy Stewart Scotland St Johnstone
2008–09 Kenny Black Scotland Airdrie United
2009–10 Jocky Scott Scotland Dundee
2010–11 Jimmy Calderwood Scotland Ross County
2011–12 Steven Pressley Scotland Falkirk
2012–13 Allan Johnston Scotland Queen of the South
2013–14 Grant Murray Scotland Raith Rovers
2014–15 Mark Burchill Scotland Livingston
2015–16 Mark Warburton England Rangers First non-Scottish manager to win the competition.
2016–17 Ray McKinnon Scotland Dundee United
2017–18 John Robertson (2)Scotland Inverness Caledonian Thistle First manager to win the cup more than once with the same club.
2018–19 Steven Ferguson and Stuart Kettlewell Scotland Ross County First co-managers to win the cup
2019–20 John Robertson (3)ScotlandInverness Caledonian ThistleFirst manager to win the cup three times
John McGlynn Scotland Raith Rovers

Sponsorship and media coverage

Home improvement retailer B&Q were the first sponsors of the tournament, from 1990 until 1995. B&Q company logo.svg
Home improvement retailer B&Q were the first sponsors of the tournament, from 1990 until 1995.
Petrofac sponsored the Scottish Challenge Cup from 2014 to 2016. Petrofac.svg
Petrofac sponsored the Scottish Challenge Cup from 2014 to 2016.

The Scottish Challenge Cup has been sponsored several times since it was introduced in 1990. The sponsor has been able to determine the name of the competition. There have been four sponsors since the competition's formation as well as several name changes within the duration of each sponsorship. [1] The competition relies on revenue earned from sponsorship although it has been able to run without a sponsor over two periods but had to be suspended for one season in 1998–99 as a consequence. [2]

Selected games have been broadcast live on the Scottish Gaelic language television channel BBC Alba since 2008, [47] which is run jointly by former sponsor MG Alba and the BBC. [48] Every final since the 2008 final has been broadcast live on the channel [49] and the arrangement was extended for three more years in 2012 despite the end of MG Alba's sponsorship of the competition in 2011. [50] With the expansion of the competition to include teams from Northern Ireland and Wales from 2016 to 2017, additional contracts for live match coverage have been agreed with Premier Sports and S4C. [6]

See also

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