|Copa Mundial de Fútbol México 70|
1970 FIFA World Cup official logo
|Dates||31 May – 21 June 1970 (22 days)|
|Teams||16 (from 5 confederations)|
|Venue(s)||5 (in 5 host cities)|
|Goals scored||95 (2.97 per match)|
|Attendance||1,604,065 (50,127 per match)|
|Best young player|
|Fair play award|
The 1970 FIFA World Cup was the ninth FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for men's national teams. Held from 31 May to 21 June in Mexico, it was the first World Cup tournament staged in North America, and the first held outside Europe and South America. Teams representing 75 nations from all six populated continents entered the competition, and its qualification rounds began in May 1968. Fourteen teams qualified from this process to join host nation Mexico and defending champions England in the 16-team final tournament. El Salvador, Israel and Morocco made their first appearances at the final stage.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War. The current champion is France, which won its second title at the 2018 tournament in Russia.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.
A total of 75 teams entered the 1970 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds, competing for a total of 16 spots in the final tournament. Hosts Mexico and defending champions England qualified automatically, leaving 14 spots open for competition.
The tournament was won by Brazil, which defeated another two-time former champion, Italy, 4–1 in the final in Mexico City. The win gave Brazil its third World Cup title, which allowed them to permanently keep the Jules Rimet Trophy, and a new trophy was introduced in 1974. The victorious team, led by Carlos Alberto and featuring players such as Pelé, Gérson, Jairzinho, Rivellino, and Tostão, is often cited as the greatest-ever World Cup team.They achieved a perfect record of wins in all six games in the finals, as well as winning all their qualifying fixtures.
The Brazil national football team represents Brazil in international men's association football. Brazil is administered by the Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF), the governing body for football in Brazil. They have been a member of FIFA since 1923 and member of CONMEBOL since 1916.
The Italy national football team has officially represented Italy in association football since their first match in 1910. The squad is under the global jurisdiction of FIFA and is governed in Europe by UEFA—the latter of which was co-founded by the Italian team's supervising body, the Italian Football Federation (FIGC). Italy's home matches are played at various stadiums throughout Italy, and their primary training ground is located at the FIGC headquarters in Coverciano, Florence.
The 1970 FIFA World Cup Final was held on Sunday, 21 June, in the Estadio Azteca in Mexico City, to determine the winner of the 1970 FIFA World Cup. This final, between Brazil and Italy, marked the first time that two former world champions met in a final; Italy had previously won the World Cup in 1934 and 1938, while Brazil won in 1958 and 1962.
Despite the issues of altitude and high temperature,the finals largely produced attacking football which created an average goals per game record not since bettered by any subsequent World Cup Finals. With the advancements in satellite communications, the 1970 Finals attracted a new record television audience for the FIFA World Cup as games were broadcast live around the world and, for the first time, in colour.
Argentina, Australia, Colombia, Japan, Mexico and Peru were all considered to host the 1970 FIFA World Cup. Mexico was chosen as the host nation in 1964 through a vote at FIFA's congress in Tokyo on 8 October, ahead of the only other submitted bid from Argentina.The tournament became the first World Cup hosted in North America, and the first to be staged outside South America and Europe; Mexico later became the first country to host the FIFA World Cup twice when it stepped in to stage the 1986 event after the original host selection, Colombia, suffered financial problems.
Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2014, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu, and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was formerly named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. It became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is often referred to as a city but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo.
The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June 1986. The tournament was the second to feature a 24-team format. With European nations not allowed to host after the previous World Cup in Spain, Colombia had been originally chosen to host the competition by FIFA but, largely due to economic reasons, was not able to do so and officially resigned in 1982. Mexico was selected as the new host in May 1983, thus becoming the first country to host the World Cup more than once. This was the third FIFA World Cup tournament in succession that was hosted by a Spanish-speaking country, after Argentina 1978, and Spain 1982.
A total of 75 teams entered the 1970 FIFA World Cup, and 73 were required to qualify. Due to rejected entries and withdrawals, 68 teams eventually participated in the qualifying stages, including eight for the first time.Mexico as the host nation and England as reigning World Cup champions were granted automatic qualification, with the remaining 14 finals places divided among the continental confederations.
The Mexico national football team represents Mexico in international football and is governed by the Mexican Football Federation. It competes as a member of CONCACAF, which encompasses the countries of North and Central America, and the Caribbean. The team plays its home games at the Estadio Azteca.
The England national football team represents England in senior men's international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England.
Eight places were available to teams from UEFA (Europe), three for CONMEBOL (South America), one for CAF (Africa), one for a team from either the AFC or the OFC (Asia/Oceania), and one for CONCACAF (North and Central America and Caribbean).A place in the finals for an African representative was guaranteed for the first time, as a response to the mass boycott of the qualifying process for 1966 by the African entrants after FIFA linked Africa, Asia and Oceania together with only one qualifying place on offer.
The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football, futsal and beach soccer in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world football's governing body FIFA. UEFA consists of 55 national association members.
The South American Football Confederation is the continental governing body of football in South America and it is one of FIFA's six continental confederations. The oldest continental confederation in the world, its headquarters are located in Luque, Paraguay, near Asunción. CONMEBOL is responsible for the organization and governance of South American football's major international tournaments. With 10 member football associations, it has the fewest members of all the confederations in FIFA.
The Confederation of African Football or CAF is the administrative and controlling body for African association football.
The draw for the qualifying stages was conducted on 1 February 1968 in Casablanca, Morocco,with matches beginning in May 1968 and the final fixtures being concluded in December 1969. North Korea, quarter-finalists at the previous tournament, were disqualified during the process after refusing to play in Israel for political reasons. El Salvador qualified for the finals after beating Honduras in a play-off match, which was the catalyst for a four-day conflict in July 1969 known as the Football War.
Half of the eventual qualifying teams had also been present at the previous World Cup, but three teams qualified for the first time: El Salvador, Israel and Morocco, while Peru, Romania, Belgium and Sweden made their first World Cup appearances since 1930, 1938, 1954 and 1958 respectively. Czechoslovakia was also back after missing the 1966 World Cup.Those who failed to qualify included Argentina (in their only qualifying failure as of 2018), France, Hungary, 1966 Semi-Finalists Portugal and Spain.
The following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament.
Five stadiums in five cities were selected to host the World Cup matches. Alternative venues in Hidalgo state and the port city of Veracruz were also considered.Each group was based solely in one city with exception of Group 2, which was staged in both Puebla and Toluca. Aside from the Estadio Luis Dosal, all the stadia had only been constructed during the 1960s, as Mexico prepared to host both the World Cup and the 1968 Summer Olympics.
The altitude of the venues varied and the importance of acclimatisation was strongly considered by all the participating teams. As a result, in contrast to the previous tournament staged in England, most teams arrived in the region well in advance of their opening fixtures to prepare for this factor. 2,660 metres (8,730 ft) above sea level, Toluca was the highest of the venues; Guadalajara was the lowest at 1,500 m (4,920 ft). In addition to the altitude, all five locations had hot and rainy weather where temperatures would regularly go past 32°C (90°F).Some teams had already experienced the local conditions when competing in the football competition at 1968 Summer Olympics. At an elevation in excess of
Of the five stadia used for the 32 matches played, the largest and most used venue was the Azteca Stadium in Mexico City, which hosted 10 total matches including the final and third place matches, and all of Group 1's matches (which included all of host Mexico's matches). The Jalisco Stadium in Guadalajara hosted eight matches including all of Group 3's matches and a semi-final. The Nou Camp Stadium in Leon hosted seven matches, which consisted of all of Group 4's matches and a quarter-final match. The Luis Dosal stadium in Toluca hosted four matches, and Cuauhtémoc stadium in Puebla hosted three matches and was the only stadium of the five used for this tournament not to host any knockout rounds.
|Estadio Jalisco||Estadio Cuauhtémoc|
|Capacity: 71,100||Capacity: 35,563|
|Estadio Luis Dosal||Estadio Nou Camp|
|Capacity: 26,900||Capacity: 23,609|
Although it was reported in the build-up to the final draw that seedings would be used, as had been the case at the previous two World Cup Finals,the FIFA Organising Committee ultimately announced that there would be no seeding of teams. Instead, the 16 teams were divided into four 'geographical groupings', which also took into account the teams' strengths and even political considerations; the system ensured that Israel and Morocco would not be drawn to face each other after Morocco had earlier threatened to withdraw from the tournament, as they had done from the Olympic football tournament two years earlier, if that were the case.
|Pot 1: European I||Pot 2: Americas||Pot 3: European II||Pot 4: Rest of the World|
The draw was staged in Mexico City, Mexico on 10 January 1970 in the Maria Isabel Hotel, which served as FIFA's headquarters during the competition.The teams were drawn into the four groups, which had their locations defined in advance: Group 1 being staged in Mexico City, Group 2 in Puebla and Toluca, Group 3 in Guadalajara and Group 4 in León. It was predetermined that the hosts Mexico would be in Group 1 and so based in the capital city, and that England as holders would be based in Guadalajara, the tournament's second largest stadium. The 10-year-old daughter of Guillermo Cañedo, President of the Mexican Football Federation and the Local Organising Committee, drew out the teams from four silver cups.
For a list of all squads that appeared in the final tournament, see 1970 FIFA World Cup squads .
Following the opening ceremony host nation Mexico faced the Soviet Union; this was the last time until the 2006 World Cup that the host nation's first match rather than the World Cup holders' began the tournament.Both this opening match of Group 1 and many others during the competition kicked off at noon for the benefit of European television schedules, meaning play under the midday sun. The match produced a goalless draw, prompting some media to predict the entire tournament would be played at the slow tempo that featured in this game given the conditions involved. Following the half-time interval Anatoliy Puzach became the first substitute to be used in FIFA World Cup history as the Soviets made use of the new competition rule. Both teams won their remaining two games to progress from the group at the expense of Belgium and World Cup debutants El Salvador.
Group 2 was the lowest-scoring of the groups with only six goals in its six matches as Uruguay, reigning South America champions,and Italy, the reigning European champions, edged past Sweden and Israel. Sweden would have progressed if they had produced a two-goal victory against Uruguay in their final game, but it was not until the final minute that they scored the only goal of the game.Hours before the game FIFA elected to replace the scheduled referee after bribery rumours – later dismissed by FIFA – arose in Mexico. The 1–0 result meant Uruguay advanced, to be joined by Italy after they avoided defeat in the group finale against Israel.
Owing to the lack of a seeding system, Group 3 allowed the reigning World Cup holders England to be paired together with the two-time former champion Brazil, considered by many the pre-tournament favourites for the trophy.England's preparations were hampered by the arrest of their captain Bobby Moore in Colombia for allegedly stealing a bracelet from a jeweller's shop; the charges were later dropped. The attitude of their manager Alf Ramsey and the English media in general was perceived by many locals as unfriendly and xenophobic toward Mexico's hosting of the competition, which meant the English team received a largely hostile response during the competition.
With both having won their opening games – against Czechoslovakia and Romania, respectively– Brazil met England in the group's most famed match. Although Gordon Banks in the English goal denied Pelé from close range with a reflex save that Pelé himself cited as the greatest of his career, a second half goal from Jairzinho won the match for Brazil, after which England squandered several excellent opportunities to equalise. Both teams then won their final group games to progress to the knockout stage.
Play in Group 4 began with Bulgaria taking a two-goal lead against Peru, but a second half comeback gave the South Americans a 3–2 victory.Morocco, the first African World Cup representatives since 1934, also began strongly by taking the lead against the 1966 runners-up West Germany, but the Germans came back to win 2–1. West Germany also went behind against Bulgaria in their second match, but a Gerd Müller hat-trick helped them recover and win 5–2; the eventual Golden Boot winner Müller hit another hat-trick – the only hat-tricks of the entire tournament. – to win the group against Peru.
Mexico and the Soviet Union had finished tied at the top of Group 1 on both points and goal difference, meaning that the drawing of lots was required to rank them. On 12 June, the draw allocated the Soviet Union the group winners' berth, meaning that they would face Uruguay at the Estadio Azteca, while the host nation were paired against Italy in the smaller Toluca venue.Mexican officials unsuccessfully appealed to FIFA to stage their game in the capital to avoid traffic problems. The hosts took the lead against Italy with a José Luis González goal, but his teammate Javier Guzmán equalised with an own goal before half-time. Italy then dominated the second half to progress to the semi-finals with a 4–1 win. The Soviet Union were also eliminated in their quarter-final when a Víctor Espárrago header three minutes from the end of extra-time sent Uruguay through. The Soviets believed that during the Uruguay attack a ball had crossed touchline and stopped playing while their opponents continued playing and scored.
The all-South America tie in Guadalajara was the highest-scoring of the four quarter-finals as Brazil recorded a 4–2 triumph over Peru. A rematch of the previous World Cup final between England and West Germany took place in León, in which the reigning champions entered a two-goal lead. Franz Beckenbauer halved the deficit when his low shot beat England's second choice goalkeeper Peter Bonetti, playing after Gordon Banks suffered food poisoning the day before.Eight minutes from time an Uwe Seeler header levelled the score. At 2–2, however, Hurst had a legitimate goal ruled out for offside. An extra-time goal from Gerd Müller brought (West) Germany's first-ever competitive victory over England. The national embarrassment of losing against Germany is believed to have played a significant role in the surprise defeat of Harold Wilson's government in the United Kingdom general election, 1970 four days later.
All four of the semi-finalists were former world champions, with the line-up guaranteeing a final between Europe and South America. In the all-South American tie, controversially switched from the capital to the lower altitude of Guadalajara,Brazil came from behind to defeat Uruguay 3–1 and earn the right to contest their fourth World Cup Final. Two Brazilian goals in the final 15 minutes decided a match that had been evenly-matched until that point. The all-European meeting between Italy and West Germany produced a match regarded by many as one of the greatest World Cup games of all time. Having led from the eighth minute through Roberto Boninsegna's strike, Italy were pegged back in injury time when sweeper Karl-Heinz Schnellinger scored his only international goal. Extra-time brought five more goals as the lead swung between the two sides until Gianni Rivera gave the Azzurri a decisive 4–3 lead. The match subsequently became known as the "Game of the Century", and today has a monument outside the Estadio Azteca to commemorate it. West Germany went on to defeat Uruguay 1–0 in the third-place match.
In the final, Brazil opened the scoring when Pelé headed in a cross from Rivellino in the 18th minute, but Roberto Boninsegna equalised for Italy after a series of blunders in the Brazilian defence.The match remained level until the 66th minute when a powerful shot from Gérson restored the Brazilians' lead. Further goals from Jairzinho and Carlos Alberto rewarded Brazil's attacking play and secured a 4–1 victory and a record third World Cup triumph, which earned them the right to permanently keep the Jules Rimet Trophy.
Both the Brazilian team that were crowned champions of the 1970 World Cup and the tournament itself have become regarded as among the very finest in the history of the FIFA World Cup.In contrast to the more physical style of play that had dominated the previous two tournaments, the 1970 Finals are noted for the attacking play adopted by most teams.
For the first time at a World Cup Finals, referees could issue yellow and red cards (a system that is now commonplace at every level of football worldwide),yet, in contrast to the previous tournaments (besides the 1950 edition) and all subsequent tournaments to date, no player was expelled from play. The officiating of the opening match, commentated by some media as overly strict, set a standard of discipline that instead helped protect skillful players in accordance with FIFA's stated wish. The tournament's average of 2.97 goals per game set a level not since bettered.
The eventual champions Brazil, led by Carlos Alberto, and featuring Pelé, Clodoaldo, Gérson, Jairzinho, Rivellino, and Tostão, is often cited as the greatest-ever World Cup team.They won all of their six games on the way to the title, and had also won every one of their qualifying fixtures. Jairzinho's feat of scoring in every finals match likewise has yet to be equalled. Coach Mário Zagallo became the first man to win the World Cup as both a player (1958, 1962) and coach.
This was the first World Cup to use the Telstar ball from Adidas (the Adidas firm has supplied every World Cup match ball starting with this one, and has continued to do so since), introduced as the Telstar Erlast for the 1968 European Football Championship. The Telstar was the first World Cup ball to use the now-familiar truncated icosahedron for its design, consisting of 12 black pentagonal and 20 white hexagonal panels.The 32-panel configuration had been introduced in 1962 by Select Sport, and was also used in the official logo for the 1970 World Cup. The black-and-white pattern, to aid visibility on black and white television broadcasts (which was still commonplace then, as colour television was rare in many parts of the world), was also well established before the Telstar. The name came from the Telstar communications satellite, which was roughly spherical and dotted with solar panels, somewhat similar in appearance to the football.
Forming a partnership with FIFA in 1970, Panini published its first FIFA World Cup sticker album for the 1970 World Cup, initiating a global craze for collecting and trading stickers.In 2017, a complete 1970 World Cup Panini sticker album signed by Pelé sold for a record £10,450.
The first round, or group stage, saw the 16 teams divided into four groups of four teams. Each group was a round-robin of six games, where each team played one match against each of the other teams in the same group. Teams were awarded two points for a win, one point for a draw and none for a defeat. The teams finishing first and second in each group qualified for the quarter-finals, while the bottom two teams in each group were eliminated from the tournament.
|1||3||2||1||0||6||1||+5||5||Advance to knockout stage|
|31 May 1970|
| Mexico ||0–0|
|3 June 1970|
| Belgium ||3–0|
|6 June 1970|
| Soviet Union ||4–1|
|7 June 1970|
| Mexico ||4–0|
|10 June 1970|
| Soviet Union ||2–0|
|11 June 1970|
| Mexico ||1–0|
|1||3||1||2||0||1||0||+1||4||Advance to knockout stage|
|2 June 1970|
| Uruguay ||2–0|
|3 June 1970|
| Italy ||1–0|
|6 June 1970|
| Uruguay ||0–0|
|7 June 1970|
| Sweden ||1–1|
|10 June 1970|
| Uruguay ||0–1|
|11 June 1970|
| Israel ||0–0|
|1||3||3||0||0||8||3||+5||6||Advance to knockout stage|
|2 June 1970|
| Romania ||0–1|
|3 June 1970|
| Czechoslovakia ||1–4|
|6 June 1970|
| Romania ||2–1|
|7 June 1970|
| England ||0–1|
|10 June 1970|
| Romania ||2–3|
|11 June 1970|
| England ||1–0|
|1||3||3||0||0||10||4||+6||6||Advance to knockout stage|
|2 June 1970|
| Peru ||3–2|
|3 June 1970|
| West Germany ||2–1|
|6 June 1970|
| Peru ||3–0|
|7 June 1970|
| West Germany ||5–2|
|10 June 1970|
| West Germany ||3–1|
|11 June 1970|
| Bulgaria ||1–1|
The eight teams that had advanced from the group stage entered a single-elimination style tournament, which also featured a third place play-off contested between the two losing semi-finalists. In this knockout stage (including the final), if a match was level at the end of 90 minutes, extra time of two periods (15 minutes each) would be played. In matches prior to the final, if the score was still level after extra time then a coin toss by the referee would determine the winner. If the final was still level after 120 minutes' play then the match would instead be replayed at a later date.
|14 June – Mexico City|
|17 June – Guadalajara|
|14 June – Guadalajara|
|21 June – Mexico City|
|14 June – Toluca|
|17 June – Mexico City|
|14 June – León|
|20 June – Mexico City|
All times listed local (UTC−6)
| Soviet Union ||0–1 (a.e.t.)|
|Report|| Espárrago |
| Italy ||4–1|
| Guzmán |
|Report|| González |
| Brazil ||4–2|
| Rivellino |
|Report|| Gallardo |
| Uruguay ||1–3|
| Cubilla ||Report|| Clodoaldo |
With 10 goals, Gerd Müller was the top scorer in the tournament. In total, 95 goals were scored by 55 players, with only one of them credited as own goal.
In 1986, FIFA published a report that ranked all teams in each World Cup up to and including 1986, based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition.The rankings for the 1970 tournament were as follows:
|Eliminated in the quarter-finals|
|Eliminated in the group stage|
* Listed as #13 in one of the sources
** Listed as #12 in one of the sources
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The knockout stage of the 1970 FIFA World Cup was the second and final stage of the competition, following the group stage. It featured the eight national teams that had finished in the top two in each of the four groups, and so advanced to compete in a single-elimination style tournament. A third place play-off was contested between the two losing semi-finalists.
At the 1970 FIFA World Cup, Brazil participated for the 9th time in the event. The country remained as the only national team to have participated in every installment of the FIFA World Cup.
Belgium have appeared in the finals tournament of the FIFA World Cup on 13 occasions, the first being at the first FIFA World Cup in 1930 where they finished in 11th place. The inaugural FIFA World Cup final was officiated by Belgian referee John Langenus.
Bulgaria have appeared in the finals of the FIFA World Cup on seven occasions, the first being at the 1962 FIFA World Cup. They appeared in the FIFA World Cup subsequently in 1966, 1970, 1974, 1986, 1994 and 1998. Their best performance was in their last appearance in 1994, where they finished in fourth place.
The Brazil–Italy football rivalry, also known as the Clásico Mundial in Spanish or the World Derby in English, is a football rivalry between the national football teams of Brazil and Italy, two of the most successful football nations in the world, having achieved nine World Cups between the two countries. They have played against each other five times in the World Cup. Most notably, the 1970 World Cup Final and the 1994 World Cup final in which Brazil won 4–1, and 3–2 on penalties after a goalless draw, respectively, as well as the semifinals of the 1938 World Cup and the final second group stage match of the 1982 World Cup won 3–2 by Italy. They have also met at two FIFA Confederations Cups as well as the 1976 U.S.A. Bicentennial Cup Tournament and the 1997 Tournoi de France.
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