1994 FIFA World Cup

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1994 FIFA World Cup
World Cup USA '94
1994 FIFA World Cup.svg
1994 FIFA World Cup official logo
Tournament details
Host countryUnited States
DatesJune 17 – July 17
Teams24 (from 5 confederations)
Venue(s)9 (in 9 host cities)
Final positions
ChampionsFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil (4th title)
Runners-upFlag of Italy.svg  Italy
Third placeFlag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Fourth placeFlag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
Tournament statistics
Matches played52
Goals scored141 (2.71 per match)
Attendance3,597,042 (69,174 per match)
Top scorer(s) Flag of Bulgaria.svg Hristo Stoichkov
Flag of Russia.svg Oleg Salenko
(6 goals each)
Best player(s) Flag of Brazil.svg Romário
Best young player Flag of the Netherlands.svg Marc Overmars
Best goalkeeper Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Michel Preud'homme
Fair play awardFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
1990
1998

The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national soccer teams. It was hosted by the United States and took place from June 17 to July 17, 1994, at nine venues across the country. The United States was chosen as the host by FIFA on July 4, 1988. Despite soccer's relative lack of popularity in the host nation, the tournament was the most financially successful [1] [2] in World Cup history; it broke tournament records with overall attendance of 3,587,538 and an average of 68,991 per game, [3] marks that stood unbroken as of 2018 [4] despite the expansion of the competition from 24 to 32 teams starting with the 1998 World Cup. [5]

Contents

Brazil won the tournament after beating Italy 3–2 in a penalty shoot-out at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California near Los Angeles, after the game had ended 0–0 after extra time. It was the first World Cup final to be decided on penalties. The victory made Brazil the first nation to win four World Cup titles. There were three new entrants in the tournament: Greece, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia plus Russia, following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and for the first time since 1938, a unified Germany took part in the tournament.

Background and preparations

Bidding process

Three nations bid for host duties: United States, Brazil, and Morocco. [6] The vote was held in Zurich on July 4, 1988, and only took one round with the United States bid receiving a little over half of the votes by the FIFA Executive Committee members. [6] FIFA hoped that by staging the world's most prestigious tournament there, it would lead to a growth of interest in the sport. [7]

An inspection committee also found that the proposed Brazilian stadiums were deficient, while the Moroccan bid relied on the construction of nine new stadiums. Conversely, all the proposed stadiums in the United States were already built and fully functioning; US Soccer spent $500 million preparing and organizing the tournament, far less than the billions other countries previously had spent and subsequently would spend on preparing for this tournament. [8] The U.S. bid was seen[ by whom? ] as the favorite and was prepared in response to losing the right to be the replacement host for the 1986 tournament following Colombia's withdrawal. [9]

One condition FIFA imposed was the creation of a professional soccer league—Major League Soccer was founded in 1993 and began operating in 1996. [10] There was some initial controversy [11] about awarding the World Cup to a country where soccer was not a nationally popular sport, and at the time, in 1988, the U.S. no longer had a professional league; the North American Soccer League, established in the 1960s, had folded in 1984 after attendance faded. [11] The success of the 1984 Summer Olympics, particularly the soccer tournament that drew 1.4 million spectators throughout the event, also contributed to FIFA's decision. [12]

The United States had previously bid to host the 1986 FIFA World Cup, after Colombia withdrew as the host nation in November 1982 because of economic concerns. Despite a presentation led by former North American Soccer League players Pelé and Franz Beckenbauer, as well as former United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, the Executive Committee selected Mexico. [13]

Mascot

Striker, the official mascot of the tournament. Usa94mascot.png
Striker, the official mascot of the tournament.

The official mascot of this World Cup was Striker, the World Cup Pup, a dog wearing a red, white and blue soccer uniform with a ball. [14] Striker was designed by the Warner Bros. animation team. [15] A dog was picked as the mascot because dogs are a common pet in the United States. [15]

Sponsorship

The sponsors of the 1994 FIFA World Cup were divided into two categories: FIFA World Cup Sponsors and USA supporters.

FIFA World Cup sponsors USA supporters

The official game ball was the Adidas Questra.

Venues

The games were played in nine cities across the United States. All stadiums had a capacity of at least 53,000, and their usual tenants were professional or college American football teams. [19] Other considered venues in other major cities across the United States such as Atlanta, Denver, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Miami, Minneapolis, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Seattle and Tampa were not used, as well as venues in smaller towns such as Annapolis, Maryland; Columbus, Ohio; Corvallis, Oregon; and New Haven, Connecticut. [20] Several modern venues, including Joe Robbie Stadium in Miami and Candlestick Park in San Francisco were rejected because of conflicts with Major League Baseball, so Stanford Stadium, 20 miles (32 km) southeast of San Francisco was used, [21] [22] and the Citrus Bowl in Orlando was picked over Miami's two submitted venues (the Orange Bowl, the other Miami venue, required major renovations to meet tournament standards). [23] The venue used most was the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, with eight games, among them one round of 16 game, a semi-final, the third-place game, and the final. Giants Stadium near New York hosted seven games including a semi-final; Boston (Foxborough), San Francisco (Stanford) and Dallas hosted six games each and Chicago, Washington and Orlando each hosted five games. The least used was the Pontiac Silverdome near Detroit, the first indoor stadium used in a World Cup, with four group stage games. The Pontiac Silverdome was also the only venue of the nine used that did not host any knockout round games.

Because of the large area of the continental United States, the game locations were often far apart. Some teams in Groups A and B had to travel from Los Angeles or San Francisco all the way to Detroit and back again, covering 2,300 miles (3,700 km) and four time zones. The teams in Groups C and D only played in Foxborough (Boston), Chicago and Dallas – a trip from Boston to Dallas is 2,000 miles (3,200 km), but only covers two time zones; Chicago is in the same time zone as Dallas but is still 1,000 miles (1,600 km) away from both Dallas and Boston. The teams in Groups E and F had it a bit easier – they played exclusively in New York (East Rutherford), Washington and Orlando, which while far apart are at least all in the same time zone. A few teams, such as Cameroon and Columbia did not have to travel to cities across the country to play games.

The variety of climate in different cities all over the United States also sometimes made playing conditions challenging. Aside from the oceanic coolness of Boston (Foxborough), the Mediterranean climate of San Francisco (Stanford) and occasionally the coolness of Chicago, as they had been in Mexico in 1970 and 1986 most matches were played in hot and/or humid conditions, thanks to nearly all of the games being scheduled to be played during the day instead of at night in order to suit a time difference compromise for television in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East; this had always been done every time a World Cup was held in the Americas. Although playing in the mostly dry heat and smoggy conditions of Los Angeles (Pasadena) and the mixture of heat and humidity of Washington and New York sometimes proved to be difficult, the cities with the most consistently oppressive conditions were Orlando and Dallas in the South, because of the combination of heat and extreme humidity. [24] The Floridian tropical climate of Orlando meant all games there were played in temperatures of 95 °F (35 °C) or above with dew points above 70 or more (the temperature there during the group stage game between Mexico and Ireland was 105 °F (41 °C)) thanks to the mid-day start times. [25] Dallas was not much different: in the humid heat of a Texas summer, temperatures exceeded 100 °F (38 °C) during mid-day, when games there were staged in the open-type Cotton Bowl meant that conditions were just as oppressive there as they were in Orlando. [26] Detroit also proved to be difficult: the Pontiac Silverdome did not have a working cooling system and because it was an interior dome-shaped stadium, the air could not escape through circulation, so temperatures inside the stadium would climb past 90 °F (32 °C) with 40% humidity. United States midfielder Thomas Dooley described the Silverdome as "the worst place I have ever played at". [27]

Pasadena, California
(Los Angeles)
Stanford, California
(San Francisco)
Pontiac, Michigan
(Detroit)
East Rutherford, New Jersey
(New York/New Jersey)
Rose Bowl Stanford Stadium Pontiac Silverdome Giants Stadium
Capacity: 94,194Capacity: 84,147Capacity: 77,557Capacity: 76,322
2018.06.17 Over the Rose Bowl, Pasadena, CA USA 0039 (42855669451) (cropped).jpg Stanford Stadium satellite view.png Silverdome 2.jpg Giants Stadium aerial crop.jpg
Dallas
Cotton Bowl
Capacity: 64,000
2007 Cotton Bowl panoramic 1 crop.jpg
Chicago Orlando Foxborough, Massachusetts
(Boston)
Washington, D.C.
Soldier Field Citrus Bowl Foxboro Stadium Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium
Capacity: 63,160Capacity: 62,387Capacity: 54,456Capacity: 53,121
Soldier Field Chicago aerial view crop.jpg Citrus Bowl aerial view crop.jpg Foxborostade crop 1.png RFK Stadium aerial photo, 1988.JPEG

Participating teams and officials

Qualification

Three teams, one African, one Asian, and one European, made their debuts at the 1994 tournament. Nigeria qualified from the African zone alongside Cameroon and Morocco as CAF was granted three spots as a result of the strong performances by African teams in 1990. In the Asian zone, Saudi Arabia qualified for the first time by topping the final round group ahead of South Korea as both edged out Japan, who were close to making their own World Cup debut, but were denied by Iraq in what became known as the "Agony of Doha". The Japanese would not have to wait long though, debuting in the 1998 tournament. In the European zone, Greece made their first World Cup appearance after topping a group from which Russia also qualified, competing independently for the first time after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

The defending champions West Germany were united with their East German counterparts, representing the unified Germany for the first time since the 1938 World Cup. Norway qualified for the first time since 1938, Bolivia for the first time since 1950, and Switzerland for the first time since 1966. Norway's 56-year gap between appearances in the final tournament equaled Egypt's record in the previous tournament as the longest. Mexico had its first successful qualification campaign since 1978, failing to qualify in 1982, qualifying as hosts in 1986 and being banned for the Cachirules scandal in 1990.

The qualification campaigns of both Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were affected by political events. The nation of Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1993, completing its qualifying group under the name "Representation of Czechs and Slovaks" (RCS), but failed to qualify for the finals, having been edged out by Romania and Belgium in Group 4. Yugoslavia (which was supposed to play in Group 5) was suspended from international competition in 1992 as part of United Nations sanctions against the country as a result of the Yugoslav Wars. The sanctions were not lifted until 1994, by which time it was no longer possible for the team to qualify. Chile's suspension from the 1990 FIFA World Cup, following the forced interruption of their qualification game against Brazil, extended to the 1994 qualifiers as well.

This was the first World Cup since World War II in which none of the Home Nations of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales qualified (they withdrew their FIFA memberships between 1928–1946, during the first three tournaments), with England (finishing third behind Norway and Netherlands in Group 2) missing out after having finished fourth in the 1990 tournament, and Scotland (who finished fourth in Group 1) failing to qualify for the first time since 1970. France, who had been already designated as hosts of the 1998 tournament, also missed out following surprise home losses to Israel and Bulgaria. This was the second World Cup in a row for which France had failed to qualify, and the last one to date to not feature England, France, and Japan. Other notable absentees were 1990 Round of 16 participants Uruguay, UEFA Euro 1992 champions Denmark, Poland, Portugal and Hungary.

List of qualified teams

The following 24 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, [28] qualified for the final tournamentː

Squads

Teams were selected following usual FIFA rules with 22 players. Greece, Italy, Saudi Arabia, and Spain were the only countries that had all their players coming from domestic teams, while the Republic of Ireland and Nigeria had no players from domestic teams. Saudi Arabia was the only team with no players from European teams.

Seeding and drawing

The composition of the four pots was based on the FIFA World Ranking (established in 1993) and on the qualified teams' results in the three previous World Cups. The teams' pre-tournament rankings are shown in parenthesis. [29] The principle of the draw was that each group must have at least two European teams, United States and Mexico could not be drawn in the same group, while Brazil and Argentina could not be drawn with another South American team.

Pot 1 (Top 5 + hosts)Pot 2 (Africa + Americas)Pot 3 (Europe 1–6)Pot 4 (Europe 7–10 + Asia)

The drawing for the tournament took place at the Las Vegas Convention Center on December 19, 1993, officiated by general-secretary Sepp Blatter. Teams were drawn by German legend Franz Beckenbauer, heavyweight boxing champion Evander Holyfield and comedian and actor Robin Williams. Numbers for placement in the group were drawn by actor Beau Bridges, Women's World Cup champion Michelle Akers, model Carol Alt, artist Peter Max, racecar driver Mario Andretti and Olympic gold medalist in gymnastics Mary Lou Retton. [30] [31]

Referees

Summary

Despite the controversy, the U.S. staged a hugely successful tournament, with an average attendance of nearly 70,000 breaking a record that surpassed the 1966 FIFA World Cup average attendance of 51,000, thanks to the large seating capacities of the stadiums in the United States in comparison to the generally smaller venues of Europe and Latin America. To this day, the total attendance for the final tournament of nearly 3.6 million remains the highest in World Cup history, despite the expansion of the competition from 24 to 32 teams at the 1998 World Cup in France. [4] [32] Germany, Brazil, Argentina, Belgium, Italy, and the United States were seeded for the final draw, which took place in Las Vegas on December 19, 1993. [33]

The format of the competition stayed the same as in the 1990 World Cup: 24 teams qualified, divided into six groups of four. Sixteen teams would qualify for the knockout phase: the six group winners, the six group runners-up, and the four third-placed teams with the best records. This was the last time this format was used, due to the expansion of the finals tournament in 1998 to 32 teams. FIFA introduced three rule changes for this tournament to encourage attacking play: three points awarded for a win in a group stage match instead of two, a relaxed offisde rule and a ban on picking up back-passes to goalkeepers. The number of goals increased to 2.73 per game from the record-low of 2.21 in 1990. [34]

The tournament saw the end of Diego Maradona's World Cup career, having played in the 1982, 1986, and 1990 World Cups, and leading Argentina to the 1986 World Cup title and the final of the 1990 World Cup. Maradona was expelled from the tournament after he failed a drug test which uncovered ephedrine, a weight-loss drug, in his blood. Colombia, despite high expectations due to their style and impressive qualifying campaign, failed to advance from the round robin. The team was supposedly[ by whom? ] dogged by influence from betting syndicates and drug cartels, with coach Francisco Maturana receiving death threats over squad selection.[ citation needed ] Defender Andrés Escobar was a tragic figure[ to whom? ] of this tournament, as in the group stage game against the United States, he scored an own goal that eliminated his team. Escobar was shot to death outside a bar in a Medellín suburb only 10 days later, apparently in retaliation for the own goal. [35]

Lothar Matthaus scoring a penalty kick in Germany's quarter-final against Bulgaria at Giants Stadium on July 10. Bulgaria came back to win the game. WorldCup1994BulgariaGermany.jpg
Lothar Matthäus scoring a penalty kick in Germany's quarter-final against Bulgaria at Giants Stadium on July 10. Bulgaria came back to win the game.

On the field, Bulgaria was one of the biggest surprises of the tournament. The Bulgarians had never won a game in five previous World Cup finals but, led by Hristo Stoichkov who eventually shared the tournament lead in scoring, they made a surprising[ to whom? ] run; Bulgaria won two of their three group games to qualify for the second round, where they advanced with a 3–1 penalty shoot-out win over Mexico. Bulgaria then faced the reigning world champions, Germany, in the quarter-finals, where goals from Stoichkov and Yordan Letchkov gave them a 2–1 victory. Bulgaria went on to finish in fourth place after losing to Italy and Sweden, in the semi-finals and third-place game, respectively.

The United States, relatively new to professional football[ disputed ], advanced to the second round as one of the best third-place teams. They played Brazil on Independence Day and, despite a 1–0 defeat, the United States' performance was considered a great success[ by whom? ] in their football history.[ citation needed ]

Brazil's win over the hosts helped take them to the final against Italy. Brazil's path was relatively smooth though not easy[ clarification needed ], as they defeated the Netherlands in the quarter-finals and Sweden in the semis. The Italians meanwhile had made hard work of reaching the final. During the group stage, Italy struggled and narrowly advanced to the next round, despite losing 1–0 to the Republic of Ireland. Italian playmaker Roberto Baggio, who as the reigning FIFA World Player of the Year and Ballon D'Or holder, was expected[ by whom? ] to be one of the stars of the tournament,[ citation needed ] had not yet scored a goal. During the Round of 16 games against Nigeria, Italy was trailing 1–0 in the dying minutes when Baggio scored the tying goal, forcing the game into extra time. He scored again with a penalty kick to send Italy through. Baggio carried the Italians from there, scoring the game-winning goal in the quarter-final against Spain, and both goals in Italy's semi-final victory over Bulgaria. [36]

The third-place playoff was set between Bulgaria and Sweden, the team which scored more goals than any other in this World Cup[ quantify ]. These teams had also previously met in the qualifying group. Sweden won, 4–0. Swedish forward Tomas Brolin was named to the All-star team. [37]

The final game at the Rose Bowl was tense but devoid of scoring chances. It was the second time in 24 years that the two nations had met in a final. After 120 goalless minutes, the World Cup was decided for the first time by a penalty shoot-out. After four rounds, Brazil led 3–2, and Baggio, playing injured, had to score to keep Italy's hopes alive. [36] He missed by shooting it over the crossbar, and the Brazilians were crowned champions for the fourth time. [38] After the game ended, then-Vice-President Al Gore hosted the awarding ceremony by handing Brazilian captain Dunga the prestigious trophy; the Brazilian national team dedicated the title to the deceased Formula One motor racing champion and countryman Ayrton Senna, who had died two and a half months prior.[ citation needed ]

The tournament's Golden Boot went jointly to Bulgaria's Stoichkov and Oleg Salenko of Russia, the latter becoming the first player to score five goals in a game, coming in a 6–1 victory against Cameroon. Both players scored six goals in the tournament. Brazilian striker Romário, with five goals, won the Golden Ball as the tournament's best player. [38]

Opening ceremony

The opening ceremony of the World Cup was held on June 17 at Chicago's Soldier Field. The ceremony was emceed by Oprah Winfrey, who fell off the dais in introducing Diana Ross, who gave a musical performance. Ross was also supposed to kick a football into the goal from the penalty spot at the beginning of her performance, with the goal then splitting in two as part of a pre-orchestrated stunt. She kicked the ball wide to the left, missing the goal, but the goalposts were collapsed anyway in accordance with the stunt plans. In addition, Daryl Hall and Jon Secada also gave musical performances. [39] It was officially opened by then-President Bill Clinton. [40]

Group stage

Times are Eastern Standard Time (UTC−5) (East Rutherford, Foxborough, Orlando, Pontiac and Washington), Central Standard Time (UTC−6) (Chicago and Dallas), and Pacific Standard Time (UTC−8) (Pasadena and Stanford).

Champion
Runner-up
Third place
Fourth place
Quarter-finals
Round of 16
Group stage 1994 world cup.png

In the following tables:

Group A

The Group A game between the United States and Switzerland was the first to take place indoors, played under the roof at the Pontiac Silverdome.

Following the tournament, Colombian defender Andrés Escobar was shot dead on his return to Colombia, after his own goal had contributed to his country's elimination.

Victories against Colombia and the United States (in front of a crowd of 93,869) were enough to see Romania through as group winners, despite a 4–1 hammering by Switzerland in between. The magnitude of that victory allowed Switzerland to move ahead of the United States on goal difference, although the hosts qualified for the second round as one of the best third-placed teams.

Switzerland's 4–1 victory over Romania came nearly 40 years to the date of Switzerland's last World Cup victory, also a 4–1 victory, on that occasion over Italy. The United States' 2–1 victory over Colombia was its first World Cup victory since June 29, 1950 when it upset England 1–0 in the 1950 World Cup.

PosTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPtsQualification
1Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 32015506Advance to knockout stage
2Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 311154+14
3Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg  United States (H)31113304
4Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 31024513
Source: FIFA
(H) Host
United States  Flag of the United States.svg1–1Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Wynalda Soccerball shade.svg 44' Report Bregy Soccerball shade.svg 39'
Colombia  Flag of Colombia.svg1–3Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
Valencia Soccerball shade.svg 43' Report Răducioiu Soccerball shade.svg 15', 89'
Hagi Soccerball shade.svg 34'
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 91,856
Referee: Jamal Al Sharif (Syria)

Romania  Flag of Romania.svg1–4Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Hagi Soccerball shade.svg 35' Report Sutter Soccerball shade.svg 16'
Chapuisat Soccerball shade.svg 52'
Knup Soccerball shade.svg 65', 72'
Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac
Attendance: 61,428
Referee: Neji Jouini (Tunisia)
United States  Flag of the United States.svg2–1Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
Escobar Soccerball shade.svg 35' (o.g.)
Stewart Soccerball shade.svg 52'
Report Valencia Soccerball shade.svg 90'
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 93,869
Referee: Fabio Baldas (Italy)

Switzerland   Flag of Switzerland.svg0–2Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
Report Gaviria Soccerball shade.svg 44'
Lozano Soccerball shade.svg 90'
Stanford Stadium, Stanford
Attendance: 83,401
Referee: Peter Mikkelsen (Denmark)
United States  Flag of the United States.svg0–1Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
Report Petrescu Soccerball shade.svg 18'
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 93,869
Referee: Mario van der Ende (Netherlands)

Group B

Group B produced two of the four semi-finalists of this World Cup — Brazil and Sweden — and was also one of the two groups in which only two, rather than three, sides progressed to the second round. The game between the two eliminated teams, Cameroon and Russia, broke two World Cup records. Oleg Salenko of Russia became the first – and remains the only[ citation needed ] – man to score five goals in a single World Cup game as Russia won 6–1. The goals also ensured that Salenko finished the tournament joint-top scorer with six goals, having previously bagged one against Sweden. Cameroon left a mark too as Roger Milla, at the age of 42, became the oldest World Cup goalscorer of all time, as he grabbed his side's consolation goal in the game. The result was not enough to take Russia through following losses to Brazil and Sweden. Brazil beat Cameroon, and then confirmed the top spot with a draw to Sweden.

The Swedes also progressed, finishing in second place with five points. Sweden's 3–1 victory over Russia was the nation's first World Cup victory since July 3, 1974. Russia failed to progress to the second round for the second time, while Cameroon failed to repeat their surprise performance from the previous tournament.

PosTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPtsQualification
1Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 321061+57Advance to knockout stage
2Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 312064+25
3Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 310276+13
4Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 301231181
Source: FIFA
Cameroon  Flag of Cameroon.svg2–2Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Embé Soccerball shade.svg 31'
Omam-Biyik Soccerball shade.svg 47'
Report Ljung Soccerball shade.svg 8'
Dahlin Soccerball shade.svg 75'
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 93,194
Referee: Alberto Tejada Noriega (Peru)
Brazil  Flag of Brazil.svg2–0Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Romário Soccerball shade.svg 26'
Raí Soccerball shade.svg 52' (pen.)
Report
Stanford Stadium, Stanford
Attendance: 81,061
Referee: Lim Kee Chong (Mauritius)

Brazil  Flag of Brazil.svg3–0Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon
Romário Soccerball shade.svg 39'
Márcio Santos Soccerball shade.svg 66'
Bebeto Soccerball shade.svg 73'
Report
Stanford Stadium, Stanford
Attendance: 83,401
Referee: Arturo Brizio Carter (Mexico)
Sweden  Flag of Sweden.svg3–1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Brolin Soccerball shade.svg 39' (pen.)
Dahlin Soccerball shade.svg 60', 82'
Report Salenko Soccerball shade.svg 4' (pen.)
Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac
Attendance: 71,528
Referee: Joël Quiniou (France)

Russia  Flag of Russia.svg6–1Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon
Salenko Soccerball shade.svg 15', 41', 44' (pen.), 72', 75'
Radchenko Soccerball shade.svg 81'
Report Milla Soccerball shade.svg 46'
Stanford Stadium, Stanford
Attendance: 74,914
Referee: Jamal Al Sharif (Syria)
Brazil  Flag of Brazil.svg1–1Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Romário Soccerball shade.svg 47' Report K. Andersson Soccerball shade.svg 23'
Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac
Attendance: 77,217
Referee: Sándor Puhl (Hungary)

Group C

As was the case with Group B, Group C would only send two teams into the Round of 16 as Spain and defending champions Germany progressed to round two. Coming from two goals down with four minutes left to snatch a 2–2 draw against Spain, the South Koreans very nearly eclipsed that feat against Germany when they came from 3–0 down to lose narrowly 3–2. In spite of these comebacks, South Korea was held to a 0–0 draw against Bolivia in their other group game when a win would have seen them through. Spain's late implosion against the South Koreans effectively decided that it would be Germany who won the group and not them.

Germany, who defeated Bolivia 1–0 in the tournament's opening game, finished with seven points. Spain had to settle for second place despite leading in all three games.

Despite Bolivia finishing last in the group, Erwin Sanchez made team history after scoring the nation's first World Cup goal in a 3–1 loss to Spain. Prior to 1994, Bolivia had never scored in either of their previous appearances at the 1930 and 1950 World Cups.

PosTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPtsQualification
1Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 321053+27Advance to knockout stage
2Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 312064+25
3Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea 30214512
4Flag of Bolivia (state).svg  Bolivia 30121431
Source: FIFA
Germany  Flag of Germany.svg1–0Flag of Bolivia (state).svg  Bolivia
Klinsmann Soccerball shade.svg 61' Report
Soldier Field, Chicago
Attendance: 63,117
Referee: Arturo Brizio Carter (Mexico)
Spain  Flag of Spain.svg2–2Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea
Salinas Soccerball shade.svg 51'
Goikoetxea Soccerball shade.svg 55'
Report Hong Myung-bo Soccerball shade.svg 85'
Seo Jung-won Soccerball shade.svg 90'
Cotton Bowl, Dallas
Attendance: 56,247
Referee: Peter Mikkelsen (Denmark)

Germany  Flag of Germany.svg1–1Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Klinsmann Soccerball shade.svg 48' Report Goikoetxea Soccerball shade.svg 14'
Soldier Field, Chicago
Attendance: 63,113
Referee: Filippi Cavani (Uruguay)
South Korea  Flag of South Korea.svg0–0Flag of Bolivia (state).svg  Bolivia
Report
Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough
Attendance: 54,453
Referee: Leslie Mottram (Scotland)

Bolivia  Flag of Bolivia (state).svg1–3Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
E. Sánchez Soccerball shade.svg 67' Report Guardiola Soccerball shade.svg 19' (pen.)
Caminero Soccerball shade.svg 66', 70'
Soldier Field, Chicago
Attendance: 63,089
Referee: Rodrigo Badilla (Costa Rica)
Germany  Flag of Germany.svg3–2Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea
Klinsmann Soccerball shade.svg 12', 37'
Riedle Soccerball shade.svg 20'
Report Hwang Sun-hong Soccerball shade.svg 52'
Hong Myung-bo Soccerball shade.svg 63'
Cotton Bowl, Dallas
Attendance: 63,998
Referee: Joël Quiniou (France)

Group D

Tournament favorites Argentina led by Diego Maradona collected a maximum of six points from their opening two games after dominating Greece 4–0 in Foxboro with a Gabriel Batistuta hattrick before winning a close game against a formidable Nigeria with a 2–1 victory on the same field four days later; despite this Argentina finished third in the group. Nigeria had been very impressive on their World Cup debut, and despite the narrow loss to Argentina, had emerged as group winners following victories against Bulgaria and Greece, the latter in which Nigeria doubled its lead late on a goal from Daniel Amokachi – a goal that would allow Nigeria to top its group. Maradona only played with Argentina during their first two games, both in Foxborough (playing Greece and Nigeria and scoring his last ever World Cup goal against the former); he was thrown out of the tournament after testing positive for ephedrine.

Having qualified for the tournament through a last-gasp goal against France, Bulgaria surprised many people, as the nation had never even won a game at the World Cup finals prior to this tournament. Despite losing its opening game 3–0 to Nigeria, Bulgaria came back in style with a 4–0 win over Greece (who had suffered exactly the same fate five days earlier against Argentina), and a 2–0 win against Argentina saw them advance. Argentina had actually been winning the group going into injury time, while Bulgaria played the last 25 minutes with 10 men; however, a 91st-minute header from Nasko Sirakov meant that Argentina dropped two places and finished third. Nigeria won the group on goal difference. Bulgaria's victory over Argentina earned them second place.

PosTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPtsQualification
1Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 320162+46Advance to knockout stage
2Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 320163+36
3Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 320163+36
4Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 3003010100
Source: FIFA
Argentina  Flag of Argentina.svg4–0Flag of Greece.svg  Greece
Batistuta Soccerball shade.svg 2', 44', 90' (pen.)
Maradona Soccerball shade.svg 60'
Report
Nigeria  Flag of Nigeria.svg3–0Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
Yekini Soccerball shade.svg 21'
Amokachi Soccerball shade.svg 43'
Amunike Soccerball shade.svg 55'
Report
Cotton Bowl, Dallas
Attendance: 44,132
Referee: Rodrigo Badilla (Costa Rica)

Argentina  Flag of Argentina.svg2–1Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
Caniggia Soccerball shade.svg 21', 28' Report Siasia Soccerball shade.svg 8'
Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough
Attendance: 54,453
Referee: Bo Karlsson (Sweden)
Bulgaria  Flag of Bulgaria.svg4–0Flag of Greece.svg  Greece
Stoichkov Soccerball shade.svg 5' (pen.), 55' (pen.)
Letchkov Soccerball shade.svg 65'
Borimirov Soccerball shade.svg 90'
Report

Argentina  Flag of Argentina.svg0–2Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
Report Stoichkov Soccerball shade.svg 61'
Sirakov Soccerball shade.svg 90+3'
Cotton Bowl, Dallas
Attendance: 63,998
Referee: Neji Jouini (Tunisia)
Greece  Flag of Greece.svg0–2Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
Report George Soccerball shade.svg 45+2'
Amokachi Soccerball shade.svg 90+5'
Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough
Attendance: 53,001
Referee: Leslie Mottram (Scotland)

Group E

Italy and Norway getting ready to play at Giants Stadium ItalyVsNorway1994inUSA.jpg
Italy and Norway getting ready to play at Giants Stadium

Group E remains the only group in World Cup history in which all four teams finished with the same points and same goal difference. It began at Giants Stadium where Ray Houghton's chip ensured a shock Irish victory over the then-three-time champions Italy by 1–0, as well as gaining a measure of revenge for the previous World Cup, in which Italy both hosted and eliminated Ireland at the quarter-final stage. The next day in Washington, Norway played its first World Cup game since 1938 and Kjetil Rekdal's goal five minutes from time proved decisive in an equally tense encounter as Norway beat Mexico.

In the second round of group play, the tropical weather of Orlando played a key factor for Mexico in their next game against Ireland. The game was held in record-breaking heat and humidity, temperatures in which the Mexicans were accustomed to but visibly uncomforted the Irish. Luis García's double had them 2–0 up and in control of the game before a disagreement on the touchline resulted in fines for both Republic of Ireland's manager, Jack Charlton, and their striker John Aldridge. Aldridge was able to regain concentration in time to score six minutes from the end of the game to make it 2–1. Despite their loss, Aldridge's goal proved crucial to Ireland in the final group standings.

During the previous day at Giants Stadium in New Jersey, Italy's World Cup hopes seemed to be diminishing fast as goalkeeper Gianluca Pagliuca was sent off with the game still at 0–0. Yet despite this, Italy was still able to salvage an important 1–0 victory. Norway would ultimately pay a price for their inability to take advantage of Pagliuca's dismissal. With the four teams level on points, the final two group games would each have to finish as draws for things to stay that way. Republic of Ireland made it through after a dreary 0–0 draw with Norway; midfielders Massaro and Bernal traded strikes as Italy and Mexico played to a 1–1 draw.

Those results meant that Mexico won the group on goals scored, with three in the group. With Ireland and Italy also progressing having finished with identical records, the Irish team qualified as second place as a result of their victory against the Italians. Norway's shortcomings in attack ultimately let them down, and they exited the tournament with only one goal.

PosTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPtsQualification
1Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 31113304Advance to knockout stage
2Flag of Ireland.svg  Republic of Ireland 31112204
3Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 31112204
4Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 31111104
Source: FIFA
Italy  Flag of Italy.svg0–1Flag of Ireland.svg  Republic of Ireland
Report Houghton Soccerball shade.svg 11'
Norway  Flag of Norway.svg1–0Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Rekdal Soccerball shade.svg 84' Report
RFK Stadium, Washington
Attendance: 52,395
Referee: Sándor Puhl (Hungary)

Italy  Flag of Italy.svg1–0Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
D. Baggio Soccerball shade.svg 69' Report
Giants Stadium, East Rutherford
Attendance: 74,624
Referee: Hellmut Krug (Germany)
Mexico  Flag of Mexico.svg2–1Flag of Ireland.svg  Republic of Ireland
García Soccerball shade.svg 42', 65' Report Aldridge Soccerball shade.svg 84'
Citrus Bowl, Orlando
Attendance: 60,790
Referee: Kurt Röthlisberger (Switzerland)

Italy  Flag of Italy.svg1–1Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Massaro Soccerball shade.svg 48' Report Bernal Soccerball shade.svg 57'
Republic of Ireland  Flag of Ireland.svg0–0Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Report

Group F

Just as happened to Argentina in Group D, Belgium endured the same fate in Group F. Despite winning both of its first two games 1–0 against Morocco and neighbors Netherlands, Belgium finished third as, in an upset, it lost to tournament newcomers Saudi Arabia 1–0 in the third game. During that game, Saudi player Saaed Al-Owairian ran from his own half through a maze of Belgian players to score the game's only goal.

Saudi Arabia advanced through to the Round of 16 as well, having also defeated Morocco 2–1. The Netherlands endured a somewhat nervier experience. The opening 2–1 victory against Saudi Arabia was followed by the 1–0 loss against Belgium before another 2–1 victory against Morocco, with Bryan Roy scoring the winner a mere 12 minutes from time, saw the Dutch win the group having scored more goals than Belgium and beaten Saudi Arabia. Morocco, despite losing all three of their group games, did not leave without a fight, as each of their losses were by just a single goal, 1–0 to Belgium, 2–1 to Saudi Arabia, and 2–1 to the Netherlands.

PosTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPtsQualification
1Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 320143+16Advance to knockout stage
2Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 320143+16
3Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 320121+16
4Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 30032530
Source: FIFA
Belgium  Flag of Belgium (civil).svg1–0Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco
Degryse Soccerball shade.svg 11' Report
Citrus Bowl, Orlando
Attendance: 61,219
Referee: José Torres Cadena (Colombia)
Netherlands  Flag of the Netherlands.svg2–1Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia
Jonk Soccerball shade.svg 50'
Taument Soccerball shade.svg 86'
Report Anwar Soccerball shade.svg 18'
RFK Stadium, Washington
Attendance: 50,535
Referee: Manuel Díaz Vega (Spain)

Belgium  Flag of Belgium (civil).svg1–0Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Albert Soccerball shade.svg 65' Report
Citrus Bowl, Orlando
Attendance: 62,387
Referee: Renato Marsiglia (Brazil)
Saudi Arabia  Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg2–1Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco
Al-Jaber Soccerball shade.svg 7' (pen.)
Anwar Soccerball shade.svg 45'
Report Chaouch Soccerball shade.svg 26'
Giants Stadium, East Rutherford
Attendance: 76,322
Referee: Philip Don (England)

Belgium  Flag of Belgium (civil).svg0–1Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia
Report Al-Owairan Soccerball shade.svg 5'
RFK Stadium, Washington
Attendance: 52,959
Referee: Hellmut Krug (Germany)
Morocco  Flag of Morocco.svg1–2Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Nader Soccerball shade.svg 47' Report Bergkamp Soccerball shade.svg 43'
Roy Soccerball shade.svg 77'
Citrus Bowl, Orlando
Attendance: 60,578
Referee: Alberto Tejada Noriega (Peru)

Ranking of third-placed teams

PosGrpTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPtsQualification
1 D Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 320163+36Advance to knockout stage
2 F Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 320121+16
3 A Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg  United States 31113304
4 E Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 31112204
5 B Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 310276+13
6 C Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea 30214512
Source: FIFA

Knockout stage

 
Round of 16Quarter-finalsSemi-finalsFinal
 
              
 
3 July – Pasadena
 
 
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 3
 
10 July – Stanford
 
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 2
 
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 2 (4)
 
3 July – Dallas
 
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden (p)2 (5)
 
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 1
 
13 July – Pasadena
 
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 3
 
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0
 
4 July – Orlando
 
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1
 
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 2
 
9 July – Dallas
 
Flag of Ireland.svg  Republic of Ireland 0
 
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 2
 
4 July – Stanford
 
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 3
 
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1
 
17 July – Pasadena
 
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0
 
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil (p)0 (3)
 
5 July – East Rutherford
 
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0 (2)
 
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1 (1)
 
10 July – East Rutherford
 
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria (p)1 (3)
 
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 2
 
2 July – Chicago
 
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1
 
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 3
 
13 July – East Rutherford
 
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 2
 
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 1
 
5 July – Foxborough
 
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 2Third place
 
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 1
 
9 July – Foxborough 16 July – Pasadena
 
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy (aet)2
 
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 2Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 4
 
2 July – Washington
 
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1 Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 0
 
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 3
 
 
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0
 

Round of 16

Germany  Flag of Germany.svg3–2Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Völler Soccerball shade.svg 6', 38'
Klinsmann Soccerball shade.svg 11'
Report Grün Soccerball shade.svg 8'
Albert Soccerball shade.svg 90'
Soldier Field, Chicago
Attendance: 60,246
Referee: Kurt Röthlisberger (Switzerland)

Romania  Flag of Romania.svg3–2Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
Dumitrescu Soccerball shade.svg 11', 18'
Hagi Soccerball shade.svg 58'
Report Batistuta Soccerball shade.svg 16' (pen.)
Balbo Soccerball shade.svg 75'
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 90,469
Referee: Pierluigi Pairetto (Italy)

Spain  Flag of Spain.svg3–0Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Hierro Soccerball shade.svg 15'
Luis Enrique Soccerball shade.svg 74'
Begiristain Soccerball shade.svg 86' (pen.)
Report
RFK Stadium, Washington
Attendance: 53,121
Referee: Mario van der Ende (Netherlands)

Saudi Arabia  Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg1–3Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Al-Ghesheyan Soccerball shade.svg 85' Report Dahlin Soccerball shade.svg 6'
K. Andersson Soccerball shade.svg 51', 88'
Cotton Bowl, Dallas
Attendance: 60,277
Referee: Renato Marsiglia (Brazil)

Netherlands  Flag of the Netherlands.svg2–0Flag of Ireland.svg  Republic of Ireland
Bergkamp Soccerball shade.svg 11'
Jonk Soccerball shade.svg 41'
Report
Citrus Bowl, Orlando
Attendance: 61,355
Referee: Peter Mikkelsen (Denmark)

Brazil  Flag of Brazil.svg1–0Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Bebeto Soccerball shade.svg 72' Report
Stanford Stadium, Stanford
Attendance: 84,147
Referee: Joël Quiniou (France)

Nigeria  Flag of Nigeria.svg1–2 (a.e.t.)Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Amunike Soccerball shade.svg 25' Report R. Baggio Soccerball shade.svg 88', 102' (pen.)
Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough
Attendance: 54,367
Referee: Arturo Brizio Carter (Mexico)


Quarter-finals

Italy  Flag of Italy.svg2–1Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
D. Baggio Soccerball shade.svg 25'
R. Baggio Soccerball shade.svg 88'
Report Caminero Soccerball shade.svg 58'
Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough
Attendance: 53,400
Referee: Sándor Puhl (Hungary)

Netherlands  Flag of the Netherlands.svg2–3Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Bergkamp Soccerball shade.svg 64'
Winter Soccerball shade.svg 76'
Report Romário Soccerball shade.svg 53'
Bebeto Soccerball shade.svg 63'
Branco Soccerball shade.svg 81'
Cotton Bowl, Dallas
Attendance: 63,500
Referee: Rodrigo Badilla (Costa Rica)

Bulgaria  Flag of Bulgaria.svg2–1Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Stoichkov Soccerball shade.svg 75'
Letchkov Soccerball shade.svg 78'
Report Matthäus Soccerball shade.svg 47' (pen.)


Semi-finals

Bulgaria  Flag of Bulgaria.svg1–2Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Stoichkov Soccerball shade.svg 44' (pen.) Report R. Baggio Soccerball shade.svg 21', 25'
Giants Stadium, East Rutherford
Attendance: 74,110
Referee: Joël Quiniou (France)

Sweden  Flag of Sweden.svg0–1Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Report Romário Soccerball shade.svg 80'
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 91,856
Referee: José Torres Cadena (Colombia)


Third place play-off

Sweden  Flag of Sweden.svg4–0Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
Brolin Soccerball shade.svg 8'
Mild Soccerball shade.svg 30'
Larsson Soccerball shade.svg 37'
K. Andersson Soccerball shade.svg 39'
Report
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 91,500
Referee: Ali Bujsaim (United Arab Emirates)


Final

Statistics

Goalscorers

Hristo Stoichkov and Oleg Salenko received the Golden Boot for scoring six goals. [41] In total, 141 goals were scored by 81 players, with only one of them credited as an own goal.

3 goals
2 goals
1 goal
Own goals

Awards

Golden Shoe Golden Ball Yashin Award Best Young Player FIFA Fair Play Trophy Most Entertaining Team
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Hristo Stoichkov
Flag of Russia.svg Oleg Salenko
Flag of Brazil.svg Romário Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Michel Preud'homme Flag of the Netherlands.svg Marc Overmars Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil

All-star team

The All-star team is a squad consisting of the eleven most impressive players at the 1994 World Cup, as selected by FIFA's Technical Study Group.

GoalkeeperDefendersMidfieldersForwards

Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Michel Preud'homme

Flag of Brazil.svg Jorginho
Flag of Brazil.svg Márcio Santos
Flag of Italy.svg Paolo Maldini

Flag of Brazil.svg Dunga
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Krasimir Balakov
Flag of Romania.svg Gheorghe Hagi
Flag of Sweden.svg Tomas Brolin

Flag of Brazil.svg Romário
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Hristo Stoichkov
Flag of Italy.svg Roberto Baggio

Final standings

After the tournament, FIFA published a ranking of all teams that competed in the 1994 World Cup finals based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition. [42]

RTeamGPWDLGFGAGDPts.
1Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil B 7520113+817
2Flag of Italy.svg  Italy E 742185+314
3Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden B 7331158+712
4Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria D 73131011−110
Eliminated in the quarter-finals
5Flag of Germany.svg  Germany C 531197+210
6Flag of Romania.svg  Romania A 5311109+110
7Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands F 530286+29
8Flag of Spain.svg  Spain C 5221106+48
Eliminated in the round of 16
9Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria D 420274+36
10Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina D 420286+26
11Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium F 42024406
12Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia F 420256−16
13Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico E 41214405
14Flag of the United States.svg  United States A 411234−14
15Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland A 411257−24
16Flag of Ireland.svg  Republic of Ireland E 411224−24
Eliminated in the group stage
17Flag of Norway.svg  Norway E 31111104
18Flag of Russia.svg  Russia B 310276+13
19Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia A 310245−13
20Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea C 302145−12
21Flag of Bolivia (state).svg  Bolivia C 301214−31
22Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon B 3012311−81
23Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco F 300325−30
24Flag of Greece.svg  Greece D 3003010−100

Disciplinary statistics

Aftermath and legacy

The large capacity stadiums enabled huge, enthusiastic crowds to attend the games, such as this one at the Giants Stadium quarter-final game. WorldCup1994GiantsStadiumQF.jpg
The large capacity stadiums enabled huge, enthusiastic crowds to attend the games, such as this one at the Giants Stadium quarter-final game.

See also

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