Goalkeeper (association football)

Last updated

The goalkeeper, often shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport. The goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring (moving the ball over the defended goal-line within the frame of the goal). This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them (outside throw-ins) the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball. The special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates.

Association football positions

In the sport of association football, each of the 11 players on a team is assigned to a particular position on the field of play. A team is made up of one goalkeeper and ten outfield players who fill various defensive, midfield, and attacking positions depending on the formation deployed. These positions describe both the player's main role and their area of operation on the pitch.

Football team Group of football players

A football team is a group of players selected to play together in the various team sports known as football. Such teams could be selected to play in a match against an opposing team, to represent a football club, group, state or nation, an all-star team or even selected as a hypothetical team and never play an actual match.

Scoring in association football

In games of association football teams compete to score the most goals during the match. A goal is scored when the ball passes completely over a goal line at each end of the field of play between two centrally positioned upright goal posts 24 feet (7.32 m) apart and underneath a horizontal crossbar at a height of 8 feet (2.44 m) — this frame is also referred to as a goal. Each team aims to score at one end of the pitch, while also preventing their opponents scoring at the other. Nets are usually attached to the goal frame to catch goalscoring balls, but the ball is not required to touch the net.

Contents

The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers usually perform goal kicks, and also give commands to their defense during corner kicks, direct and indirect free kicks, and marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.

In association football, the back-pass rule prohibits the goalkeeper from handling the ball in most cases when it is passed to them by a team-mate. It is described in Law 12, Section 2 of the Laws of the Game.

Goal kick method of restarting play in association football

A goal kick, called a goalie kick in some regions, is a method of restarting play in a game of association football. Its procedure is dictated by Law 16 of the Laws of the Game.

Corner kick method of restarting play in association football

A corner kick is the method of restarting play in a game of association football when the ball goes out of play over the goal line, without a goal being scored, and having last been touched by a member of the defending team. The kick is taken from the corner of the field of play nearest to where it went out. Corners are considered to be a reasonable goal scoring opportunity for the attacking side, though not as much as a penalty kick or a direct free kick near the edge of the penalty area.

The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper who is sent off, a team usually substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper (thus effectively the red card and substitution takes out two of the starting eleven players). They then play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have already used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt.

Sports injury

Sports injuries are injuries that occur during sport, athletic activities, or exercising. In the United States, there are approximately 30 million teenagers and children combined who participate in some form of organized sport. Of those, about three million athletes age 14 years and under experience a sports injury annually. According to a study performed at Stanford University, 21 percent of the injuries observed in elite college athletes caused the athlete to miss at least one day of sport, and approximately 77 percent of these injuries involved the lower leg, ankle, or foot. In addition to those sport injuries, the leading cause of death related to sports injuries is traumatic head or neck occurrences. When an athlete complains of pain or an injury, the key to a diagnosis is to obtain a detailed history and examination. An example of a format used to guide an examination and treatment plan is a S.O.A.P note or, subjective, objective, assessment, plan. Another important aspect of sport injury is prevention, which helps to reduce potential sport injuries. It is important to establish sport-specific dynamic warm-ups, stretching, and exercises that can help prevent injuries common to each individual sport. Creating an injury prevention program also includes education on hydration, nutrition, monitoring team members “at risk”, monitoring at-risk behaviors, and improving technique. Season analysis reviews, preseason screenings, and pre-participation examinations are also essential in recognizing pre-existing conditions or previous injuries that could cause further illness or injury. One technique that can be used in the process of preseason screening is the functional movement screen. The functional movement screen can assess movement patterns in athletes in order to find players who are at risk of certain injuries. In addition, prevention for adolescent athletes should be considered and may need to be applied differently than adult athletes. Lastly, following various research about sport injury, it is shown that levels of anxiety, stress, and depression are elevated when an athlete experiences an injury depending on the type and severity of the injury.

The squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is generally number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99. [1]

Squad number (association football)

Squad numbers are used in association football to identify and distinguish players that are on the field. Numbers were originally used to also indicate position, with starting players being assigned numbers 1–11, although these numbers often bear little or no significance in the modern game other than the players' favourite numbers and the numbers available. However, numbers 1–11 are often still worn by players of the previously associated position.

History

A goalkeeper being charged by a rival player (1905) Footb incident painting.jpg
A goalkeeper being charged by a rival player (1905)

Association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the only position that is certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. Even in the early days of organised football, when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper.

The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder; and directly against them, ten or twelve score off, other twayne in like distance, which they term their Goals. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, and the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers". [2] Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century; for example, in John Day's play The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green (performed circa 1600; published 1659): "I'll play a gole at camp-ball" (an extremely violent variety of football, popular in East Anglia). Similarly, in a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe". It seems inevitable that wherever a game has evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must also be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated from Latin as to "keep goal" in 1633, though this does not necessarily imply a fixed goalkeeper position.

Richard Mulcaster is known best for his headmasterships of Merchant Taylors' School and St Paul's School, and for his pedagogic writings. He is often regarded as the founder of English language lexicography.

John Day (1574–1638?) was an English dramatist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods.

Bethnal Green district in East London, England

Bethnal Green is a district in the East End of London and is 3.3 miles (5.3 km) northeast of Charing Cross.

The word "goal-keeper" is used in the novel Tom Brown's School Days (published in 1857, but set in the 1830s). The author is here referring to an early form of rugby football:

<i>Tom Browns School Days</i> novel by Thomas Hughes

Tom Brown's School Days is an 1857 novel by Thomas Hughes. The story is set in the 1830s at Rugby School, a public school for boys. Hughes attended Rugby School from 1834 to 1842.

Rugby refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union. Legend claims that Rugby football was started around the time of 1845 in Rugby School, Rugby, Warwickshire, England, although forms of football in which the ball was carried and tossed date to medieval times. Rugby eventually split into two sports in 1895 when twenty one clubs split from the original Rugby Football Union, to form the Northern Union in the George Hotel, Huddersfield, Northern England over the issue of payment to players, thus making rugby league the first code to turn professional and pay its players, rugby union turned fully professional in 1995. Both sports are run by their respective world governing bodies World Rugby and the Rugby League International Federation. Rugby football was one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. Although rugby league initially used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. In addition to these two codes, both American and Canadian football evolved from rugby football.

You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the charge of goal, has spread his force (the goal-keepers) so as to occupy the whole space behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart; a safe and well-kept goal is the foundation of all good play. [3]

The word "goal-keeper" appeared in the Sheffield Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to "that player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal". The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy any special handling privileges. [4]

The FA's first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on the ball. [5] Handling the ball was completely forbidden (for all players) in 1870. [6] The next year, 1871, the laws were amended to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball "for the protection of his goal". [7] The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws:

Initially, goalkeepers typically played between the goalposts and had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active. The goalkeeper is the only player in association football allowed to use their hands to control the ball (other than during throw-ins).

Due to several time-wasting techniques which were used by goalkeepers, such as bouncing the ball on the ground or throwing it in the air and then catching it again, in the 1960s, the Laws of the game were revised further, and the goalkeeper was given a maximum of four steps to travel while holding, bouncing or throwing the ball in the air and catching it again, without having to release it into play. The FIFA Board later also devised an anti-parrying rule, saying that such deliberate parrying for the purpose of evading the Law was to be regarded also as holding the ball. [13]

In 1992, the International Football Association Board made changes in the laws of the game that affected goalkeepers – notably the back-pass rule, [14] which prohibits goalkeepers from handling the ball when receiving a deliberate pass from a teammate that is made with their feet. This rule change was made to discourage time-wasting and overly defensive play after the 1990 FIFA World Cup which was described as exceedingly dull, rife with back-passing and goalkeepers holding the ball. Also, goalkeepers would frequently drop the ball and dribble it around, only to pick it up again once opponents came closer to put them under pressure, a typical time-wasting technique. Therefore, another rule was introduced at the same time as the back-pass rule. This rule prohibits the goalkeeper from handling the ball again once he or she has released it for play; an offence results in an indirect free kick to the opposition. Furthermore any player negating the spirit of the new rule would be likely to be cautioned for unsporting behaviour and punished by an indirect free-kick. [13]

On 1 July 1997, FIFA decided to extend the back-pass rule by applying it also to throw-ins from defenders to their own goalkeeper; in order to prevent further time-wasting, FIFA also established that if a goalkeeper holds the ball for more than five or six seconds the referee must adjudge this as time-wasting and award an indirect free-kick to the opposing team. [13]

Laws of the Game and general play

Maksym Koval closes down Luis Suarez Suarez Ajax captain.jpg
Maksym Koval closes down Luis Suárez

The position of goalkeeper is the only position in the game which is technically distinct from the others in the course of normal play. The Laws of the Game distinguish the goalkeeper from the other players in several ways, most significantly exempting them from the prohibition on handling the ball, though only within their own penalty area. [15] Once a goalkeeper has control of the ball in their hands, opponents are not permitted to challenge them. [15] Goalkeepers have a specialised role as the sole defender in penalty kicks and penalty shoot-outs. [15] Goalkeepers are required to wear distinct colours from other players, and are permitted to wear caps and tracksuit bottoms. [15]

The Laws mandate that one player on the team must be designated as the goalkeeper at all times, meaning that if a goalkeeper is sent off or injured and unable to continue another player must assume the goalkeeper position. [15] The Laws allow for teams to change the player designated as goalkeeper at stoppages in play, [15] but in practice this is rarely exercised.

The Laws place no restrictions on a goalkeeper leaving their penalty area and acting as an ordinary player, though generally goalkeepers stay close to their goal throughout the match.

Goalkeepers routinely perform extension dives. To execute this, they push off the ground with the foot nearest to the ball, launching themselves into a horizontal position. At this point, the ball may be caught or parried away from the goal. In the latter case, a good goalkeeper will attempt to ensure that the rebound cannot be taken by a player of the opposing team, although this is not always possible.

Responsibilities

A goalkeeper making a save U20-WorldCup2007-Okotie-Onka edit2.jpg
A goalkeeper making a save

The tactical responsibilities of goalkeepers include:

Although goalkeepers have special privileges, including the ability to handle the ball in the penalty area, they are otherwise subject to the same rules as any other player.

Goalkeepers in playmaking and attack

Australian goalkeeper Mathew Ryan playing with his feet. Mathew Ryan Club Brugge.jpg
Australian goalkeeper Mathew Ryan playing with his feet.

Goalkeepers are not required to stay in the penalty area; they may get involved in play anywhere on the pitch, and it is common for them to act as an additional defender (or 'sweeper') during certain passages of the game. Goalkeepers with a long throwing range or accurate long-distance kicks may be able to quickly create attacking positions for a team and generate goal-scoring chances from defensive situations, a tactic known as the long ball.

Sweeper-keeper

Gyula Grosics from the Hungary "Golden Team" of the 1950s was thought to be the first goalkeeper to play as the 'sweeper-keeper'. [17] Tommy Lawrence has also been credited with revolutionising the role of the goalkeeper by effectively acting as an 11th outfield player. [18] The rushing playing style used by Liverpool legend Bruce Grobbelaar seen during the 1980s–90s makes him one of the original sweeper-keepers of the modern era. [19] René Higuita was another who became known for his unorthodox, skilful but sometimes reckless techniques. [20] As of 2011, Manuel Neuer has been described as a sweeper-keeper due to his speed and unique style of play which occasionally includes him acting as a sweeper for his team by rushing off his line to anticipate opposing forwards who have beaten the offside trap. [21] [22] With his excellent ball control and distribution, which enables him to start plays from the back, [21] [22] he has said he could play in the German third division as a centre-back if he wanted to. [23] [24] Hugo Lloris of Tottenham Hotspur and France, and former goalkeepers Fabien Barthez and Edwin van der Sar, have also been described as sweeper-keepers, [25] [26] while Claudio Bravo and Ederson Moraes of Manchester City have even been described as a playmakers in the media. [27] [28] [29]

Goalscorers

Rogerio Ceni is the highest-scoring goalkeeper of all time, with over 100 career goals. Rogerio Ceni.jpg
Rogério Ceni is the highest-scoring goalkeeper of all time, with over 100 career goals.

Some goalkeepers have scored goals. Other than by accident when a long kicked clearance reaches the other end of the field and evades the opposing goalkeeper with the aid of strong winds and/or unexpected bounces, this most commonly occurs where a goalkeeper has rushed up to the opposite end of the pitch to give his team a numerical advantage in attack, leaving his own goal undefended. As such, it is normally only done late in a game at set-pieces where the consequences of scoring far outweigh those of conceding a further goal, such as for a team trailing in a knock-out tournament.

Some goalkeepers, such as Higuita, Rogério Ceni, Hans-Jörg Butt and José Luis Chilavert, are also expert set-piece takers. These players may take their team's attacking free kicks or penalties. Ceni, São Paulo's long-time custodian, has scored 100 goals in his career, more than many outfield players. [30] [31]

Equipment and attire

Liverpool F.C. team photo prior to their UEFA Europa League clash against FC Gomel. Note the differing attire of goalkeeper Brad Jones with that of the rest of his teammates. Liverpool FC team v FC Gomel.jpg
Liverpool F.C. team photo prior to their UEFA Europa League clash against FC Gomel. Note the differing attire of goalkeeper Brad Jones with that of the rest of his teammates.

Goalkeepers must wear kit that distinguishes them clearly from other players and match officials, as this is all that the FIFA Laws of the Game require. Some goalkeepers have received recognition for their match attire, like Lev Yashin of the Soviet Union, who was nicknamed the "Black Spider" for his distinctive all-black outfit; [32] [33] Klaus Lindenberger of Austria, who designed his own variation of a clown's costume; Jorge Campos of Mexico, who was popular for his colourful attire; [34] Raul Plassmann of Cruzeiro Esporte Clube and his all-yellow outfit; and Gábor Király for wearing a pair of grey tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. [35]

Gianluigi Buffon, pictured with the ball for Italy at UEFA Euro 2012, is the only goalkeeper to have won the UEFA Club Footballer of the Year Award. Gianluigi Buffon Euro 2012 vs England 02.JPG
Gianluigi Buffon, pictured with the ball for Italy at UEFA Euro 2012, is the only goalkeeper to have won the UEFA Club Footballer of the Year Award.

Although it was initially more common for goalkeepers to wear long-sleeved jerseys, recently several goalkeepers, such as Gianluigi Buffon, have also been known to wear short-sleeves. [36] [37] [38] [39]

Most goalkeepers also wear gloves to improve their grip on the ball, and to protect themselves from injury. Some gloves now include rigid plastic spines down each finger to help prevent injuries such as jammed, fractured, and sprained fingers. Though gloves are not mandatory attire, it is uncommon for goalkeepers to opt against them due to the advantages they offer. At UEFA Euro 2004, Portuguese goalkeeper Ricardo famously took off his gloves during the quarter-final penalty shoot-out against England, knowing he was the next taker for his side. He then went on to save Darius Vassell's penalty using his bare hands before scoring his own kick to win it for Portugal. [40]

After recovering from a serious head injury that he had sustained in 2006, Petr Čech has subsequently worn a rugby style headguard during his matches. [41] [42]

Careers and injuries

Because they play a less physically demanding position that requires significantly less running, goalkeepers often have longer playing careers than outfield players, many not retiring until their late thirties or early forties. Notably, Peter Shilton played for thirty-one years between 1966 and 1997 before retiring at the age of forty-seven.[ citation needed ]

In general, goalkeepers can sustain any injury to which their outfield counterparts are vulnerable. Common lower and upper extremity injuries include cartilage tears, anterior cruciate ligament tears, and knee sprains.[ citation needed ] On the other hand, goalkeepers rarely fall victim to fatigue-related injuries, such as leg cramps, pulled hamstrings, and dehydration. [43]

Records

Oliver Kahn, the only goalkeeper to win the FIFA World Cup Golden Ball award. Oliver Kahn 06-2004.jpg
Oliver Kahn, the only goalkeeper to win the FIFA World Cup Golden Ball award.
Lev Yashin, the only goalkeeper to win the Ballon d'Or. LevYashin.JPG
Lev Yashin, the only goalkeeper to win the Ballon d'Or.
Kepa, the world's most expensive goalkeeper, having moved from Athletic to Chelsea for EUR80 million. Kepa Arrizabalaga (6).jpg
Kepa, the world's most expensive goalkeeper, having moved from Athletic to Chelsea for €80 million.
Iker Casillas, the first goalkeeper, male or female, ever to keep one hundred international clean sheets. DK-Porto15 (9).jpg
Iker Casillas, the first goalkeeper, male or female, ever to keep one hundred international clean sheets.
Hope Solo, who shares with Iker Casillas the record for most international clean sheets by any goalkeeper. Hope in San Jose.jpg
Hope Solo, who shares with Iker Casillas the record for most international clean sheets by any goalkeeper.

Goalkeepers are crucial in penalty shootouts. The record for most penalties saved in a shootout is held by Helmuth Duckadam of Steaua București. Duckadam defended four consecutive penalties in the 1986 European Cup Final against Barcelona. [44] Stefano Tacconi is the only goalkeeper to have won all official club competitions for which he was eligible. [45]

José Luis Chilavert is the only goalkeeper to score a hat-trick (three goals in a game), doing so through penalty kicks.[ citation needed ] Rogério Ceni has scored the most goals for a goalkeeper, having scored his hundredth goal in official games on 27 March 2011. Ceni scored his goals through free kicks and penalty kicks. [46]

Gianluigi Buffon is the only goalkeeper to have won the UEFA Club Footballer of the Year Award. [47] Oliver Kahn holds the record for most UEFA Best Club Goalkeeper and Best European Goalkeeper Awards with four. [48] Iker Casillas holds the record for most appearances by a goalkeeper in the FIFPro World XI and in the UEFA Team of the Year and most IFFHS World's Best Goalkeeper Awards, alongside Buffon, [49] winning the award for five consecutive years between 2008 and 2012. [50] Casillas holds the record for the most clean sheets in UEFA Champions League history. [51]

At the international level, Dino Zoff has remained unbeaten for the longest period of time, [52] whilst Walter Zenga holds the record for longest unbeaten run in a FIFA World Cup tournament at five hundred seventeen minutes. [53] Gianluigi Buffon, Fabien Barthez and Iker Casillas hold the record for fewest goals conceded by a winning goalkeeper in a World Cup tournament at two each.[ citation needed ] Buffon is the only World Cup–winning goalkeeper not to have conceded a goal in open play throughout the entire tournament, one goal having resulted from an own goal after a free kick, the other from a penalty.[ citation needed ] Fabien Barthez and Peter Shilton hold the record for most clean sheets in World Cup matches with ten each[ citation needed ] Mohamed Al-Deayea holds the record for most international caps by a goalkeeper with one hundred seventy-eight official appearances for Saudi Arabia. [54]

Pascal Zuberbühler holds the record for fewest goals conceded by a goalkeeper in a World Cup tournament and holds the record for most successive matches at an international tournament without conceding a goal with five. He did not concede a goal in four hundred sixty-three minutes of World Cup play against France, Korea, and Togo—making Switzerland the only team in the history of the tournament not to concede a goal in normal time.[ citation needed ] Tim Howard holds the record for most saves made in a FIFA World Cup match, with sixteen against Belgium in the 2014 Round of 16.[ citation needed ] Oliver Kahn is the only goalkeeper to have won the Adidas Golden Ball for the best player of the tournament in a World Cup (in the 2002 competition); Lev Yashin is the only goalkeeper to have won the Ballon d'Or.[ citation needed ] Gianluca Pagliuca of Italy became the first goalkeeper to be sent off in a World Cup Finals match, dismissed for handling outside his area against Norway in 1994.[ citation needed ] His team went on to win 1–0 and reached the final before losing to Brazil in a penalty shootout, in which he became the first goalkeeper ever to stop a penalty in a final shootout.[ citation needed ]

Iker Casillas holds both the record for fewest goals conceded in a European Championship with one in 2012) and the record for longest unbeaten run at a European Championship, beating the previous record held by Dino Zoff. [55] He also holds the records for most international clean sheets (one hundred two) by a male goalkeeper, beating the previous record held by Edwin van der Sar (seventy-two), and became the first goalkeeper in history, male or female, to keep one hundred clean sheets at international level in 2015; he also shares the overall record for the most international clean sheets along with Hope Solo. [56] [57] Buffon holds the record for most minutes without conceding a goal in European Championship Qualifying matches at six hundred forty-four. [58]

Highest fees

As of August 2018, the most expensive goalkeeper of all time was Kepa Arrizabalaga following his 2018 80 million (£71 million) transfer to Chelsea from Athletic Bilbao.

PlayerFromToFee (£)Fee ()Year
Flag of Spain.svg Kepa Arrizabalaga [59] Flag of Spain.svg Athletic Bilbao Flag of England.svg Chelsea £71m 80m2018
Flag of Brazil.svg Alisson [60] Flag of Italy.svg Roma Flag of England.svg Liverpool £66.8m 75m2018
Flag of Italy.svg Gianluigi Buffon [61] [62] [63] Flag of Italy.svg Parma Flag of Italy.svg Juventus £33m 51.646m [lower-alpha 1] 2001
Flag of Brazil.svg Ederson [66] Flag of Portugal.svg Benfica Flag of England.svg Manchester City £35m€40m2017
Flag of England.svg Jordan Pickford [67] [68] Flag of England.svg Sunderland Flag of England.svg Everton £25m [lower-alpha 2] 2017
Flag of Italy.svg Francesco Toldo [69] [70] Flag of Italy.svg Fiorentina Flag of Italy.svg Internazionale €28.405m [lower-alpha 3] 2001
Flag of Germany.svg Manuel Neuer [72] Flag of Germany.svg Schalke 04 Flag of Germany.svg Bayern Munich £19m€24m [lower-alpha 4] 2011
Flag of Germany.svg Bernd Leno [73] Flag of Germany.svg Bayer Leverkusen Flag of England.svg Arsenal £19.2m€22m2018
Flag of Spain.svg David de Gea [74] Flag of Spain.svg Atlético Madrid Flag of England.svg Manchester United £18m€22m [lower-alpha 4] 2011
Flag of Italy.svg Angelo Peruzzi [75] Flag of Italy.svg Internazionale Flag of Italy.svg Lazio €20.658m [lower-alpha 5] 2000
Flag of France.svg Sébastien Frey [69] [77] Flag of Italy.svg Internazionale Flag of Italy.svg Parma €20.658m [lower-alpha 6] 2001
Flag of Slovenia.svg Samir Handanović [78] [79] Flag of Italy.svg Udinese Flag of Italy.svg Internazionale €19m [lower-alpha 7] 2012
Flag of Chile.svg Claudio Bravo [81] Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Flag of England.svg Manchester City €18m [lower-alpha 8] 2016
Flag of Italy.svg Ivan Pelizzoli [82] [83] Flag of Italy.svg Atalanta Flag of Italy.svg Roma €17.043m [lower-alpha 9] 2001
Flag of Slovenia.svg Jan Oblak [86] [87] Flag of Portugal.svg Benfica Flag of Spain.svg Atlético Madrid £12.6m€16m2014
Flag of Italy.svg Angelo Peruzzi [75] [88] Flag of Italy.svg Juventus Flag of Italy.svg Internazionale €14.461m [lower-alpha 10] 1999
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Petr Čech [89] Flag of England.svg Chelsea Flag of England.svg Arsenal £10m€13.9m [lower-alpha 4] 2015
Flag of England.svg Fraser Forster [90] Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic Flag of England.svg Southampton £10m€12.5m [lower-alpha 4] 2014
Flag of Poland.svg Wojciech Szczęsny [91] Flag of England.svg Arsenal Flag of Italy.svg Juventus €12.2m [lower-alpha 11] 2017
Flag of Germany.svg Marc-André ter Stegen [92] [93] Flag of Germany.svg Borussia Mönchengladbach Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona £9.7m€12m2014
Flag of Chile.svg Claudio Bravo [94] [95] Flag of Spain.svg Real Sociedad Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona £9.7m€12m [lower-alpha 4] 2014
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Asmir Begović [96] Flag of England.svg Chelsea Flag of England.svg AFC Bournemouth £10m [lower-alpha 4] 2017
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Simon Mignolet [97] Flag of England.svg Sunderland Flag of England.svg Liverpool £9m [lower-alpha 4] €10.5m[ not in citation given ]2013

See also

Notes

  1. Part of the fees was paid via the transfer of Jonathan Bachini to Parma [64] for a total of 100 billion lire; the fixed exchange rate of lira to euro was 1936.27 lire to 1 euro. [65]
  2. £25m plus £5m bonuses [68]
  3. 55 billion lire; Toldo and Rui Costa were originally signed by Parma for a total of 140 billion lire; [70] [71] they were re-sold from Parma to Inter and Milan respectively after the two players refused to join Parma
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Reported figure
  5. 40 billion lire. Part of the transfer fee paid via the transfer of Marco Ballotta to Inter for 7 billion lire. [76] [77]
  6. Much part of the fees was paid via the transfer of Sérgio Conceição to Inter (32 billion lire [61] ) for a total of 40 billion lire
  7. Reported figure, if including other fee was €19.4m. [80] Part of the transfer fee was paid via the transfer of Davide Faraoni to Udinese for €8 million. [80] At the same time, both Udinese and Inter bought back 50% registration rights for half of the nominal fee (reported €9.5m and €4m respectively), as co-ownership. On 19 June 2013, Handanović and Faraoni were acquired by their new clubs for undisclosed fees.
  8. €18m plus €2m in bonuses
  9. 33 billion lire. Part of the transfer fee paid via the transfer of Alessandro Rinaldi to Atalanta (for 6 billion lire) [84] [85]
  10. 28 billion lire
  11. €12.2m plus €3.1m in bonuses

Related Research Articles

Dino Zoff Italian footballer

Dino Zoff is an Italian former professional football goalkeeper and is the oldest ever winner of the World Cup, which he earned as captain of the Italian national team in the 1982 tournament in Spain, at the age of 40 years, 4 months and 13 days, also winning the award for best goalkeeper of the tournament, and being elected to the team of the tournament for his performances, keeping two clean-sheets, an honour he also received after winning the 1968 European Championship on home soil; he is the only Italian player to have won both the World Cup and the European Championship. Zoff also achieved great club success with Juventus, winning 6 Serie A titles, 2 Coppa Italia titles, and an UEFA Cup, also reaching two European Champions' Cup finals in the 1972–73 and 1982–83 seasons, as well as finishing second in the 1973 Intercontinental Cup final.

Futsal Ballgame-team sport, variant of association football

Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors. It can be considered a version of five-a-side football.

Penalty kick (association football) type of direct free kick in association football

A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, in which a player is allowed to take a single shot on the goal while it is defended only by the opposing team's goalkeeper. It is awarded when a foul punishable by a direct free kick is committed by a player in his or her own penalty area. The shot is taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards (11 m) from the goal line and centred between the touch lines.

Iker Casillas Spanish association football player

Iker Casillas Fernández is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Portuguese club Porto and the Spain national team. Popularly dubbed "San Iker" for his ability to produce spectacular saves, Casillas is widely considered to be one of the greatest goalkeepers of all time, known for his athleticism, quick reactions and outstanding shot-stopping ability.

A penalty shoot-out is a method of determining which team is awarded victory in an association football match that cannot end in a draw, when the score is tied after the regulation playing time as well as extra time have expired. In a penalty shoot-out, each team takes turns shooting at goal from the penalty mark, with the goal only defended by the opposing team's goalkeeper. Each team has five shots which must be taken by different kickers; the team that makes more successful kicks is declared the victor. Shoot-outs finish as soon as one team has an insurmountable lead. If scores are level after five pairs of shots, the shootout progresses into additional "sudden-death" rounds. Balls successfully kicked into the goal during a shoot-out do not count as goals for the individual kickers or the team, and are tallied separately from the goals scored during normal play. Although the procedure for each individual kick in the shoot-out resembles that of a penalty kick, there are some differences. Most notably, neither the kicker nor any player other than the goalkeeper may play the ball again once it has been kicked.

Gianluigi Buffon Italian association football player

Gianluigi Buffon, commonly shortened to Gigi Buffon, is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for French club Paris Saint-Germain. He is widely regarded by players, pundits and managers as one of the greatest goalkeepers of all time, and, by some, as the greatest ever.

The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules that help define association football. They are the only rules of association football subscribed to by FIFA. The laws mention the number of players a team should have, the game length, the size of the field and ball, the type and nature of fouls that referees may penalise, the frequently misinterpreted offside law, and many other laws that define the sport. During a match, it is the task of the referee to interpret and enforce the Laws of the Game.

Gianluca Pagliuca Italian footballer

Gianluca Pagliuca is an Italian football coach and former professional goalkeeper.

Francesco Toldo Italian footballer

Francesco Toldo is an Italian retired footballer who played as a goalkeeper. He is regarded by pundits as one of the greatest goalkeepers of his generation.

René Higuita Colombian footballer

José René Higuita Zapata is a retired Colombian football goalkeeper. He was nicknamed El Loco for his high-risk 'sweeper-keeper' playing style and his flair for the dramatic.

Pepe Reina Spanish association football player

José Manuel "Pepe" Reina Páez is a Spanish footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Italian club A.C. Milan.

Luca Marchegiani Italian footballer

Luca Marchegiani is an Italian former footballer who played as a goalkeeper. He represented several Italian clubs throughout his career, in particular Torino F.C. and S.S. Lazio, where he won several titles. At international level, he represented the Italian national team in the 1994 FIFA World Cup, where they reached the final. He currently holds the joint seventh-highest unbeaten streak in Serie A, alongside Morgan De Sanctis and Gianluigi Buffon, having gone 745 consecutive minutes with out conceding a goal in the Italian top division.

Salvatore Sirigu Italian footballer

Salvatore Sirigu born 12 January 1987) is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Torino and the Italy national team.

Manuel Neuer German association football player

Manuel Peter Neuer is a German professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper and captain for both German club Bayern Munich and the Germany national team. Neuer has been described as a "sweeper-keeper" because of his unique playing style and speed when rushing off his line to anticipate opponents; he is also known for his quick reflexes, excellent shot-stopping abilities, strength, long throwing range, command of his area, and accurate control and distribution of the ball.

UEFA Euro 2012 Final UEFA Euro 2012 Final

The UEFA Euro 2012 Final was a football match that took place on 1 July 2012 at the Olympic Stadium in Kiev, Ukraine, to determine the winner of UEFA Euro 2012. Spain, who had won Euro 2008, successfully defended their title with a 4–0 win over Italy, becoming the first team to win two consecutive European Championships, and the first team to win three consecutive major tournaments – Euro 2008, the 2010 World Cup and Euro 2012. It was the greatest margin of victory in the history of the European Championship finals, and the fourth time that teams who played each other in the group stage played each other again in the final.

Michael Oliver (referee) English football referee

Michael Oliver is an English professional football referee from Ashington, Northumberland. His county FA is the Northumberland Football Association. He belongs to the Select Group of Referees in England and officiates primarily in the Premier League. He received his FIFA badge in 2012, allowing him to officiate in major international matches. Oliver was appointed to take charge of the final of the 2015 FIFA U-17 World Cup. Oliver was promoted to the UEFA Elite Group of Referees in 2018.

IFFHS Worlds Best Goalkeeper

The IFFHS World's Best Goalkeeper is a football award given annually since 1987 to the most outstanding goalkeeper of the year as voted by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS). The votes are cast by IFFHS's editorial staff as well as experts from different continents.

Gianluigi Donnarumma Italian association football player

Gianluigi Donnarumma is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Serie A club Milan and the Italy national team.

This article lists various football records and statistics of the Italy national football team.

References

  1. Khalil Garriot (21 June 2014). "Mystery solved: Why do the best soccer players wear No. 10?". Yahoo!. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  2. "The Survey of Cornwall by Richard Carew" . Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  3. An Old Boy [Thomas Hughes] (1857). School Days at Rugby. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. p. 112.
  4. Sheffield Football Association (1867). Sheffield Rules (March 1867)  via Wikisource.
  5. Football Association (1863). Laws of the Game (1863)  via Wikisource.
  6. Football Association (1870). Laws of the Game (1870)  via Wikisource.
  7. Football Association (1871). Laws of the Game (1871)  via Wikisource.
  8. Football Association (1873). Laws of the Game (1873)  via Wikisource.
  9. Football Association (1883). Laws of the Game (1883)  via Wikisource.
  10. International Football Association Board (1887). Laws of the Game (1887)  via Wikisource.
  11. International Football Association Board (1901). Laws of the Game (1901)  via Wikisource.
  12. "Football". Carluke & Lanark Gazette: 3. 19 July 1931.
  13. 1 2 3 "Goalkeepers are not above the Law". FIFA. 31 October 1997. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  14. "From 1863 to the Present Day". FIFA. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Laws". International Football Association Board | IFAB. International Football Association Board . Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  16. Ryan, Mathew (12 June 2013). "Mathew Ryan is a young, Australian keeper with good reflexes and a very good set of feet". clubbrugge.be. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  17. "The 50 Greatest Goalkeepers in History". Bleacher Report . 27 September 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  18. James Lawton (27 November 2001). "Fabien Barthez: The goalkeeper's fear of losing it". The Independent. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. Tim Vickery (10 February 2010). "The Legacy of Rene Higuita". BBC. Retrieved 11 June 2014
  21. 1 2 "Manuel Neuer and the evolution of the goalkeeper". FourFourTwo. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  22. 1 2 "Why Manuel Neuer should not win the Ballon d'Or". The Score. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  23. "Why Manuel Neuer was the best player at the 2014 World Cup". The42. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  24. Vipond, Paddy (16 July 2014). "How Manuel Neuer, Germany's 11th man, is revolutionising goalkeeping". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  25. Wilson, Jonathan (13 February 2014). "Tottenham's Hugo Lloris is Premier League's supreme sweeper-keeper". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  26. Samuel Luckhurst (30 March 2015). "Manchester United: David de Gea has made goalkeeping cool". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  27. "'Man City's Claudio Bravo is a playmaker not sweeper-keeper'". BBC. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  28. Jonathan Wilson (7 December 2018). "Ederson leads way as a ball-playing Premier League midfielder in gloves". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  29. Steve Douglas; Mauricio Savarese (18 October 2017). "'The Brick Wall': Ederson solving keeper issues at Man City". USA Today. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  30. "Rogerio Ceni: Sao Paulo keeper into club record books". BBC. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  31. "They said it: Jose Luis Chilavert". FIFA. 24 September 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  32. ""Yashin, the impregnable Spider"". FIFA. Retrieved 23 November 2013
  33. Lomas, Mark (29 April 2010) ""Lev Yashin: Russian Revolutionary"". Archived from the original on 22 May 2014.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ESPN. Retrieved 21 May 2014
  34. "Mexico's Jorge Campos: 'I'm not crazy!'". BBC World Service. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  35. "Sportsworld – Euro 2016: Gabor Kiraly – Hungary's record breaker & his tracksuit bottoms?". BBC World Service.
  36. "Gianluigi Buffon". BBC Sport. 10 April 2002. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  37. Matt Barker (24 March 2017). "Gianluigi Buffon, One-on-One: You have to be a real masochist to play in goal – and a bit perverse". FourFourTwo. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  38. Gaetano Imparato (5 May 2012). "Zoff: "Sereno Buffon Resti un grande"". La Gazzetta dello Sport (in Italian). Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  39. Paolo Bandini (24 February 2015). "Still among football's elite, Juventus icon Buffon will be vital vs. Dortmund". The Score. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  40. Portugal break England hearts; BBC Sport, 24 June 2004
  41. McNulty, Phil (20 January 2007). "Liverpool 2–0 Chelsea". BBC Sport. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  42. Benammar, Emily (21 July 2008). "Petr Cech follows Zinedine Zidane in sponsorship deal". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  43. Burger, Rob; Fine, Kenneth. "Soccer Injuries". Stop Sports Injuries. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  44. "First goalkeeper who saved four consecutive penalties: Helmuth Duckadam set world record (Video)". worldrecordacedemy.com. 7 May 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  45. "Journey through the Stars: Stefano Tacconi". Juventus. 24 June 2011. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  46. The World's most successful goalscoring Goalkeepers of all time, IFFHS , 23 October 2006.
  47. "Buffon hailed after 500th Juventus appearance". Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
  48. "UEFA Club Goalkeeper of the Year". uefa.com. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  49. "THE WORLD'S BEST GOALKEEPER 2017: GIANLUIGI BUFFON MAKES IT FIVE!". IFFHS.de. 3 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  50. "Iker Casillas named World's Best Goalkeeper by IFFHS" . Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  51. Edward Bennett (23 April 2015). "Most clean sheets in Champions League history: Iker Casillas moves ahead of Chelsea & Man United legends" . Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  52. "Dino Zoff" . Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  53. "Zenga: I've Dedicated My Life to Football" . Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  54. "Egypt's Ahmed Hassan equals international apperance [sic] record". BBC Sport. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  55. Javier Estepa (2 July 2012). "Casillas, world record-breaking goalkeeper". Marca. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  56. "International feats and a fitting farewell". FIFA. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  57. "Casillas into three figures – 100 clean sheets for Spain". as.com. 13 November 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  58. "Buffon, felice per il record di imbattibilità" . Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  59. "Kepa Arrizabalaga: Chelsea sign Athletic Bilbao goalkeeper in world record deal". BBC. 8 August 2018.
  60. "Alisson: Liverpool make Brazilian world's most expensive keeper". BBC. 19 July 2018.
  61. 1 2 Parma A.C. S.p.A. bilancio (financial report and accounts) on 30 June 2002, PDF purchased from Italian C.C.I.A.A.(in Italian)
  62. "Rui Costa al Parma, Buffon alla Juve". La Repubblica (in Italian). 30 June 2001. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  63. "Gianluigi Buffon". Football Database. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  64. "Acquistato Buffon". Juventus F.C. (in Italian). 3 July 2001. Archived from the original on 7 September 2001. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
  65. ECB: Determination of the euro conversion rates
  66. "Ederson transferido para o Manchester City" [Ederson transferred to Manchester City] (Press release) (in Portuguese). S.L. Benfica. 1 June 2017. Archived from the original on 1 June 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  67. "Jordan Pickford: Everton confirm £25m, rising to £30m, deal with Sunderland". BBC Sport. 15 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  68. 1 2 "Pickford Joins Everton In Club-Record Deal" (Press release). Everton F.C. 15 June 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  69. 1 2 "Top 10: Das sind die teuersten Torhüter-Transfers der Fußballgeschichte" (in German). ran.de. July 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  70. 1 2 A.C. Fiorentina S.p.A. bilancio (financial report and accounts) on 30 June 2001, PDF purchased from Italian C.C.I.A.A.(in Italian)
  71. "Toldo e Rui Costa al Parma Buffon a un passo dalla Juve". la Repubblica (in Italian). 29 June 2001. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  72. "Bayern agree on Neuer transfer fee". FIFA. 14 May 2011. Archived from the original on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  73. "Bernd Leno Transfer to Arsenal Completed, Bayer Leverkusen Announce". Bleacher Report. 20 June 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  74. "Manchester United confirm signing of David de Gea". BBC Sport. 29 June 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
  75. 1 2 F.C. Internazionale Milano S.p.A. bilancio (financial report and accounts) on 30 June 2000, PDF purchased from Italian C.C.I.A.A.(in Italian)
  76. "Peruzzi alla Lazio, adesso è fatta". La Gazzetta dello Sport (in Italian). 9 June 2000. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  77. 1 2 F.C. Internazionale Milano S.p.A. bilancio (financial report and accounts) on 30 June 2002, PDF purchased from Italian C.C.I.A.A.(in Italian)
  78. "Inter agree €11m fee for Handanovic, Udinese confirm". Goal.com. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  79. "Inter, dopo Handanovic arriva anche Silvestre". Tuttosport (in Italian). 5 July 2012. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  80. 1 2 F.C. Internazionale Milano S.p.A. bilancio (financial report and accounts) on 30 June 2013, PDF purchased from Italian C.C.I.A.A.(in Italian)
  81. "Claudio Bravo transferred to Manchester City" (Press release). F.C. Barcelona. 25 August 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  82. A.S. Roma S.p.A. bilancio (financial report and accounts) on 30 June 2001, PDF purchased from Italian C.C.I.A.A.(in Italian)
  83. "Pelizzoli, l'ex fenomeno diventato precario". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). 26 October 2002. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  84. "Comandini, Sala, Dabo: l' Atalanta si fa grande". La Gazzetta dello Sport (in Italian). 30 June 2001. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  85. "Lupatelli va al Chievo, Di Francesco a Piacenza" (in Italian). AS Roma. 29 June 2001. Archived from the original on 2 June 2002. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  86. S.L. Benfica (16 July 2014). "Comunicado" [Communication](PDF) (Press release) (in Portuguese). CMVM . Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  87. "Atletico Madrid agree deal for Benfica goalkeeper Jan Oblak". BBC Sport. 16 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  88. "Inter, scommessa da 200 miliardi". La Gazzetta dello Sport (in Italian). 28 June 1999. Retrieved 2 July 2017. ...Inseguendo Peruzzi, la societa' deve adesso affrontare un sacrificio di trentasei miliardi: ventotto del cartellino e otto di ingaggio lordo...
  89. Fifield, Dominic (29 June 2015). "Petr Cech seals £10m Arsenal move and tweets goodbye to Chelsea fans". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  90. "Fraser Forster: Southampton sign Celtic goalkeeper for £10m". BBC. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  91. "AGREEMENT WITH ARSENAL FOR THE DEFINITIVE ACQUISITION OF THE PLAYER WOJCIECH SZCZĘSNY" (PDF) (Press release). Juventus F.C. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  92. "Fraser Forster: Barcelona sign Borussia Mönchengladbach goalkeeper for £9.7m". BBC. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  93. "Marc-André ter Stegen signs 5-year contract" (Press release). F.C. Barcelona. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  94. "Fraser Forster: Barcelona sign Real Sociedad goalkeeper for £9.7m". BBC. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  95. "Bravo ya es el tercer fichaje del Barcelona" [Bravo is already Barcelona's third signing]. Marca (in Spanish). 18 June 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  96. "Bournemouth have £10m bid for Asmir Begovic accepted by Chelsea". Skysports. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  97. "Simon Mignolet: Liverpool sign Sunderland keeper for £9m". BBC. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.