A throw-in is a method of restarting play in a game of football (or soccer) when the ball has exited the side of the field of play. It is governed by Law 15of The Laws Of The Game.
The throw-in is taken from the point where the ball crossed the touch-line, either on the ground or in the air, though typically a referee will tolerate small discrepancies between the position where the ball crossed the touch-line and the position of the throw-in. The throw-in is taken by the opponents of the player who last touched the ball before it crossed the touch-line. 2 m (2.2 yd) to the point on the touch-line from which the throw-in is to be taken.Opposing players may not approach closer than
At the moment of delivering the ball, the thrower must face the field of play. The thrower must have part of each foot on the touch-line or on the ground outside the touch-line,and use both hands to deliver the ball from behind and over the head.
The ball becomes in play as soon as it enters the field of play.
A goal cannot be scored directly from a throw-in; if a player throws the ball directly into their own goal without any other player touching it, the result is a corner kick to the opposing side.Likewise an offensive goal cannot be scored directly from a throw in; the result, in this case, is a goal kick for the defending team.
A player may not be penalised for an offside offence when receiving the ball directly from a throw-in.Skillful attackers can sometimes take advantage of this rule by getting behind the last defender(s) to receive the throw-in and having a clear path to goal.
The optimal release angle for attaining maximum distance is about 30 degrees above the horizontal, according to researchers at Brunel University.According to the study, players are able to throw the ball with greater release velocity for lower angles. The optimal angle would be 45 degrees if the release velocity did not depend on the angle of throw, if the ball were thrown from ground level instead of above the head, and if there was not air drag.
If an opposing player fails to respect the required distance (2 m) before the ball is in play or otherwise unfairly distracts or impedes the thrower, he or she may receive a caution (yellow card) for unsporting behaviour. If the throw-in has already been taken when the referee stops play for this offence, an indirect free kick is awarded.
If the thrower fails to deliver the ball per the required procedure, or delivers it from a point other than where the ball left the field of play, the throw-in is awarded to the opposing team. This is commonly known as a "foul throw".
It is an infringement for the thrower to touch the ball a second time before it has been touched by another player; this is punishable by an indirect free kick to the opposing team from where the offence occurred, unless the second touch was also a more serious handling offence, in which case it is punishable by a direct free kick or penalty kick.
If a player appears to take a throw-in but suddenly leaves it to a teammate to take, the player is cautioned for delaying the restart of play.Any player who excessively delays the restart of play is also cautioned.
A goalkeeper cannot handle a ball thrown directly to him or her by a teammate. This cannot be circumvented by the keeper using the feet first before handling the ball. If this infringement occurs within the goalkeeper's penalty area, an indirect free kick is awarded. If the infringement occurs outside the goalkeeper's penalty area, a direct free kick is awarded.
A detailed description of an early predecessor of the throw-in is recorded in the novel Tom Brown's School Days , published in 1857 but based on the author's experiences at Rugby School from 1834 to 1842:
You see this gravel walk running down all along this side of the playing-ground, and the line of elms opposite on the other? Well, they're the bounds. As soon as the ball gets past them, it's in touch, and out of play. And then whoever first touches it, has to knock it straight out amongst the players-up, who make two lines with a space between them, every fellow going on his own side ... He stands with the ball in his hand, while the two sides form in deep lines opposite one another: he must strike it straight out between them.
Several features of this passages are notable:
The 1851 rules of Rugby School describe a similar procedure, except that the ball is thrown in rather than struck or hit; this is the ancestor of the line-out in rugby union:
A ball in touch is dead; consequently, the first player on his side must in any case touch it down, bring it to the edge of touch, and throw it straight out.
Similar "throw-in" laws are found in the Cambridge rules of 1856,the Sheffield rules of 1858, the laws of Melbourne FC (1859), and indeed the original FA laws of 1863 (see below).
Other codes had a kick-in rather than a throw-in. These included the "Foot-Ball Club" of Edinburgh (1833),Harrow football (1858), Barnes FC (1862), Blackheath FC (1862), and the later version of the Cambridge rules from November 1863. Some of these laws permitted the ball to be kicked in any direction, while others required that it be perpendicular to the touch-line. At Harrow, the ball could be kicked in by "any of the bystanders", as well as any player.
The Eton field game's rules, as recorded in 1847, specified that a throw-in and a "bully" (scrummage) should be used alternately,while its 1857 rules used the bully exclusively.
At its second meeting, on 10 November 1863, the Football Association agreed that "when the ball is out of bounds it should be kicked or thrown in straight by the person who should first touch it down".The first draft of the laws of the game reflected this decision, but the option of a kick-in was removed before the final version of the laws was adopted on 8 December 1863.
This left the 1863 throw-in law very similar to those of Rugby School and Sheffield described earlier:
When the ball is in touch the first player who touches it shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground, in a direction at right angles with the boundary line.
The throw-in from the 1863 rules features several differences from the throw-in in modern association football:
In 1867, the laws of the Sheffield Football Association awarded the throw-in against the team kicking the ball out of play.In 1868, these Sheffield rules were revised further to award a kick-in instead of a throw-in. It continued to be awarded against the team who kicked the ball into touch, and could now be played in any direction.
In 1873, Nottingham Forest FC proposed a change in the FA's throw-in law to make it more similar to the Sheffield rule: the throw-in would be awarded against the team who kicked out of play, and it could optionally be replaced by a kick-in. Only part of the suggested change was approved by the FA's meeting: the throw-in would be awarded against the team who kicked the ball out of play, but it could not be replaced by a kick-in. It was still required to be thrown in perpendicular to the touch-line.
At the FA meetings of 1875 and 1876, the Sheffield clubs attempted to introduce their kick-in into the FA's laws.Both times the change was narrowly rejected after heated debate. Matters came to a head in 1877. At the regular meeting of the FA, in February, the Sheffield Association again proposed its kick-in rule, while Clydesdale FC proposed a compromise rule which retained the throw-in but allowed it to go in any direction. The Sheffield Association agreed to withdraw its own proposal in favour of Clydesdale FC's compromise. However, even this compromise proposal was rejected, "to the intense regret of those who desired one common code of rules". This rejection prompted the publication of a pseudonymous letter in The Sportsman decrying the "hasty, ill-judged decision ... bringing the Football Association into disrepute", and denying that it represented "the general body of [Football] Association players -- even of those in London". A subsequent extraordinary general meeting of the FA was held on the 17th of April, at which the Clydesdale amendment was reconsidered and passed. As a result of this change in the FA laws, the Sheffield Association held a meeting one week later at which it agreed to abandon its own rules and accept the FA laws.
As a result of these developments, the throw-in of 1877 looked quite similar to today's: it was awarded against the team who kicked the ball out of play, and it could be thrown in any direction. There was no restriction on the technique by which the ball could be thrown; players would throw the ball great distances using only one arm. It is reported that the England international Norman Bailey was capable of propelling the ball "from the centre of the ground into the goal mouth".
The International Football Conference of December 1882 addressed discrepancies between the laws used by the English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish football associations.One of the topics settled at this conference was the throw-in: the Scottish laws required the ball to be thrown in over the head with two hands, while the English laws, as described above, allowed the ball to be thrown with one hand in any direction. As a result of the conference, the Scottish version of the throw-in law was accepted. This new throw-in law, requiring the ball to be thrown from over the head with two hands, was formally adopted by the FA in 1883.
The laws of the game have never permitted a goal to be scored directly from a throw-in by the attacking team.In 1882, a change in the laws, introduced by Nicholas Lane Jackson of Finchley FC and Morton Betts of Old Harrovians FC, made it possible to score an own goal directly from a throw-in. This possibility was removed in 1898.
In 2002, Aston Villa goalkeeper Peter Enckelman scored an own goal from a team-mate's throw back to him when he miss-controlled the ball but appeared to touch it slightly with his foot before it crossed the line(Enckelman denied any touch but the referee awarded the goal); the incident received widespread media attention due to it occurring in an important Birmingham derby match in the Premier League).
Under the original laws of 1863, it was not possible to be offside from a throw-in;however, since the ball was required to be thrown in at right-angles to the touch-line, it would have been unusual for a player to gain significant advantage from being ahead of the ball. After the ball was permitted to be thrown in any direction in 1877, the very next year (1878) a new law was introduced to allow a player to be offside from a throw-in. This situation lasted until 1920, when the law was altered to prevent a player being offside from a throw-in.
In 1895, the thrower was required to "stand on the touch line".In 1896, it was clarified that the thrower could have "any part of both feet on the [touch] line". In 1925, this was changed to "both feet on the ground outside the touch-line", but in 1932 it reverted to "both feet on or outside the touch-line". In 1937, the requirement was once again changed to "part of each foot shall be either on or outside the touchline". In 1960, the wording was further refined to "part of each foot shall be either on the touch-line or on the ground outside the touch-line".
In 1895, the player taking the throw-in was required to face the field of play.In 1965, the ball was required to be thrown from "behind and over" the head of the thrower.
Since 2005, opponents have been forbidden from approaching closer than 2 metres to the player taking the throw-in. This change was made because FIFA perceived "an increasing trend for an opponent to stand immediately in front of the thrower at a throw-in, with his feet virtually on the touch-line", with the result that "the thrower is being impeded from completing the throw-in". There was also a concern about the possibility of "a confrontational situation developing between both players."
Since 1866, the player taking the throw-in has been forbidden to touch the ball again until it has been touched by another player.
In 1866, players were forbidden from playing the ball before it had touched the ground.This requirement was removed when the Clydesdale throw-in law was adopted in 1877.
In 1871 a law-change introduced by Wanderers FC forbade players from playing the ball until it had travelled at least six yards.This requirement was dropped when the Scottish throw-in law was adopted in 1883.
In 1882, an indirect free-kick was awarded for any violation of the throw-in law.In 1931, on a proposal by the Irish Football Association, this was changed to an award of the throw-in the opposing team (except for a violation of the double-touch rule, which remained punishable by an indirect free-kick).
In 1966, it was specified that opponents who "dance about or gesticulate in a way calculated to distract or impede the thrower" should be cautioned for ungentlemanly conduct.In 1997, this wording was updated to punish with a yellow card an opponent who "unfairly distracts or impedes the thrower" for "unsporting behaviour". In 2016, the same punishment was applied to an opponent who approaches closer than the minimum 2 metre distance; it was further specified than an indirect free-kick must be awarded if the ball has already been thrown in when the referee stops play to deal with the offence.
The name "throw-in" is first found in the laws of 1891.
|Date||Throw-in awarded to||Ball must be thrown in||Opponents may approach within 2 metres of thrower||Thrower may touch ball twice||Ball may be played before it||Goal may be scored from a throw-in||Player may be offside from a throw-in||Remedy for||Date|
|at right angles to the touch-line||with two hands from above the head||from behind the head||with thrower facing the field of play||touches the ground||has travelled 6 yards||Attacking goal||Own goal||foul throw||touching the ball twice|
|1863||First player to touch the ball after it goes out of play||Yes||No||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||No||No||No||None||None||1863|
|1873||Opposite team to that which last touched the ball before it went out of play||1873|
|1882||Yes||Indirect free-kick to opponents||Indirect free-kick to opponents||1882|
|1931||Throw-in to opponents||1931|
Rory Delap was highlighted for his throw-in technique: a former schoolboy javelin champion, 50 yd (46 m).Delap was renowned for having one of the longest and most powerful throw-ins in football, sending the ball into the six-yard box from distances up to
An uncommon but effective technique for delivering a faster than usual throw is the flip throw (notably employed in recent years by, among others, Estonian player Risto Kallaste, and Icelander Steinthor Freyr Thorsteinsson): in it the player, during the run-up, plants the ball on the ground, flips over it, and uses the momentum gained from the flip to increase the velocity of the ball. 59.817 m (65.417 yd) in Frisco, Texas in April 2019. British footballers Dave Challinor and Andy Legg are among the previous record holders. Iranian defender Milad Mohammadi made a failed attempt at a flip throw in the group-stage match against Spain at the 2018 FIFA World Cup; two years later, compatriot Nader Mohammadi scored using the technique in a domestic match (the goalkeeper touched the ball on its way in).American flip thrower Michael Lewis set a new Guinness World Record when he recorded a throw-in of
Invention of the maneuver has been credited to Tony Hyndman, son of coach Schellas Hyndman, who had learned tumbling from his gymnast mother.
Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that a player is in an offside position if any of their body parts, except the hands and arms, are in the opponents' half of the pitch, and closer to the opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent.
A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, in which a player is allowed to take a single shot on the goal while it is defended only by the opposing team's goalkeeper. It is awarded when a foul punishable by a direct free kick is committed by a player in their own penalty area. The shot is taken from the penalty mark, which is 11 m from the goal line and centred between the touch lines.
The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules of association football. The laws mention the number of players a team should have, the game length, the size of the field and ball, the type and nature of fouls that referees may penalise, the frequently misinterpreted offside law, and many other laws that define the sport. During a match, it is the task of the referee to interpret and enforce the Laws of the Game.
A corner kick is the method of restarting play in a game of association football when the ball goes out of play over the goal line, without a goal being scored and having last been touched by a member of the defending team. The kick is taken from the corner of the field of play nearest to where it went out. Corners are considered to be a reasonable goal scoring opportunity for the attacking side, though not as much as a penalty kick or a direct free kick near the edge of the penalty area.
A line-out or lineout is a means by which, in rugby union, play is restarted after the ball has gone into touch. When the ball goes out of the field of play, the opposing team is normally awarded a line-out; the exception is after the ball is kicked into touch from a penalty kick, when the team that was awarded the penalty throws into the line-out.
A goal kick, called a goalie kick in some regions, is a method of restarting play in a game of association football. Its procedure is dictated by Law 16 of the Laws of the Game.
A dropped-ball is a method of restarting play in a game of association football. It is used when play has been stopped due to reasons other than normal gameplay, fouls, or misconduct. The situations requiring a dropped-ball restart are outlined in Law 8 and Law 9 of the Laws of the Game; Law 8 also contains the dropped-ball procedure.
A kick-off is the method of starting and, in some cases, restarting play in a game of association football. The rules concerning the kick-off are part of Law 8 of the Laws of the Game.
The Sheffield Rules was a code of football devised and played in the English city of Sheffield between 1858 and 1877. The rules were initially created and revised by Sheffield Football Club, with responsibility for the laws passing to the Sheffield Football Association upon that body's creation in 1867. The rules spread beyond the city boundaries to other clubs and associations in the north and midlands of England, making them one of the most popular forms of football during the 1860s and 1870s.
The Cambridge Rules were several formulations of the rules of football made at the University of Cambridge during the nineteenth century. One of these codes, dating from 1863, had a significant influence on the creation of the original Laws of the Game of the Football Association.
The rules of Australian rules football were first formed by the Melbourne Football Club in 1859, and been refined over the years as the game evolved into its modern form. The laws significantly predate the advent of a governing body for the sport. The first national and international body, the Australasian Football Council, was formed in 1905 to govern Australian Football. Since 1994, the rules for the game known as Australian football have been governed by the AFL and the organisation's Laws of the Game committee.
Passing the ball is a key part of association football. The purpose of passing is to keep possession of the ball by manoeuvring it on the ground between different players with the objective of advancing it up the playing field.
In sports, out of bounds refers to being outside the playing boundaries of the field. Due to the chaotic nature of play, it is normal in many sports for players and/or the ball to go out of bounds frequently during a game. The legality of going out of bounds, and the ease of prevention, vary by sport. In some cases, players may intentionally go or send the ball out of bounds when it is to their advantage.
John Charles Thring, known during his life as "Charles Thring" or "J. C. Thring", was an English clergyman and teacher, notable for his contributions to the early history of association football.
The laws of Rugby Union are defined by World Rugby and dictate how the game should be played. They are enforced by a referee, generally with the help of two assistant referees.
In games of association football teams compete to score the most goals during the match. A goal is scored when the ball passes completely over a goal line at either end of the field of play between two centrally positioned upright goal posts 24 feet (7.32 m) apart and underneath a horizontal crossbar at a height of 8 feet (2.44 m) — this frame is itself referred to as a goal. Each team aims to score at one end of the pitch, while preventing their opponents from scoring at the other. Nets are usually attached to the goal frame to catch goalscoring balls, but the ball is not required to touch the net.
A free kick is a method of restarting play in association football. It is awarded after an infringement of the laws by the opposing team.
Determining the Outcome of a Match is the 10th of the Laws of the Game of association football.
London v. Sheffield was an association football game played on 31 March 1866. According to Charles Alcock, it was the "first [match] of any importance under the auspices of the Football Association".
The International Football Confererence was a meeting of the four football associations of the Home Nations -- England's Football Association, the Scottish Football Association (SFA), the Football Association of Wales (FAW) and the Irish Football Association (IFA) -- held at the Queen's Hotel, Manchester, on 6 December 1882. A precursor to the International Football Association Board, the meeting's major purpose was to address inconsistencies between the laws of the various associations, particularly between England and Scotland. Among the changes resulting from the conference were:
Law 15, The Throw InCite journal requires
The ball is out when it has passed the line of the flag posts on either side of the ground, in which case it shall be thrown in straight.
A Ball in touch is dead, consequently the side that touches it down must bring it to the edge of the touch, and throw it straight out at least six yards from touch.
When a Ball goes out of bounds (the same being indicated by a row of posts) it shall be brought back to the point where it crossed the boundary-line, and thrown in at right angles with that line
A free-kick if ball out of bounds
If the Ball is kicked beyond the prescribed limits of the Ground, it must be kicked straight in again; and then must not be touched by the Hands, or Arms below the Elbow
If the ball is kicked out of the ground (to be fixed before commencing the game) it is dead, and the first player who can pick it up shall bring it to the point where it left the ground, and be entitled to kick it as he thinks fit
A ball in touch is dead, and the first player who touches it down must kick it out straight from the place where it entered touch.
When the ball goes out of the ground by crossing the side lines, it is out of play, and shall be kicked straight into the ground again from the point where it is first stopped.
When the Ball is dead, it must be thrown in, or a bully formed parallel to the place where it stopped: these are to take place alternately
When the ball is dead, a bully must be formed opposite to the spot where it stopped
When the ball is in touch the first player who touches it shall kick or throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground, in a direction at right angles with the boundary line.
When the ball is in touch, a player of the opposite side to that which has kicked it out shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground
When the ball is in touch, a player of the opposite side to that which kicked it out shall kick it in from where it went out; and no player be allowed within six yards of the ball, until kicked.
A goal shall be won when the ball passes between the goal posts or over the space between the goal posts (at whatever height), not being thrown, knocked on, or carried.
A goal shall be won when the ball has passed between the goal-posts under the tape or bar, not being thrown, knocked on nor carried by anyone of the attacking side
A goal shall not be scored from a throw in
When a player has kicked the ball any one of the same side who is nearer to the opponent's goal line is out of play
When a player kicks the ball, or it is thrown in from touch, any one of the same side who at such moment of kicking or throwing is nearer to the opponents' goal-line, is out of play
The player throwing the ball must stand on the touch line facing the field of play
[T]he player throwing it in shall not play it until it has been played by another player
When the ball is in touch, the first player who touches it shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground, in a direction at right angles with the boundary line, and it shall not be in play until it has touched the ground
When the ball is in touch, the first player who touches it shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground, in a direction at right angles with the boundary line, to a distance of at least six yards
In the event of any infringement of Rules 5, 6, 8, or 9, 12, or 14, a free kick shall be forfeited to the opposite side from the spot where the infringement took place.
Two linesmen shall be appointed, whose duty (SUBJECT TO THE DECISION OF THE REFEREE) shall be to decide when the ball is out of play, and which side is entitled to the corner-flag kick, goal-kick, or throw in.
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