Throw-in

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A player taking a correct throw-in during a game. Soccer throw in nch.jpg
A player taking a correct throw-in during a game.

A throw-in is a method of restarting play in a game of football (or soccer) when the ball has exited the side of the field of play.

Association football team field sport

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

Contents

Procedure

The throw-in is taken from the point where the ball crossed the touch-line, either on the ground or in the air, though typically a referee will tolerate small discrepancies between the position where the ball crossed the touch-line and the position of the throw-in. The throw-in is taken by the opponents of the player who last touched the ball when it crossed the touch-line. [1] [2] Opposing players may stand at any distance from the thrower but no closer than 2 m (2.2 yd), so long as they are still on the pitch. A player may take a throw-in at a distance further back from the touch-line.

The touch-line is the line on either side of the playing area of a games of rugby league, rugby union and association football. In many other sports it is called a side-line.

At the moment of delivering the ball, the thrower must face the field of play. The thrower must have part of each foot on the touchline or on the ground outside the touchline, [3] and use both hands to deliver the ball from behind and over the head.

The ball becomes in play as soon as it enters the field of play.

A goal cannot be scored directly from a throw-in; if a player throws the ball directly into their own goal without any other player touching it, the result is a corner kick to the opposing side. [4] Likewise an offensive goal cannot be scored directly from a throw in; the result, in this case, is a goal kick for the defending team.

Scoring in association football

In games of association football teams compete to score the most goals during the match. A goal is scored when the ball passes completely over a goal line at each end of the field of play between two centrally positioned upright goal posts 24 feet (7.32 m) apart and underneath a horizontal crossbar at a height of 8 feet (2.44 m) — this frame is also referred to as a goal. Each team aims to score at one end of the pitch, while also preventing their opponents scoring at the other. Nets are usually attached to the goal frame to catch goalscoring balls, but the ball is not required to touch the net.

Corner kick method of restarting play in association football

A corner kick is the method of restarting play in a game of association football when the ball goes out of play over the goal line, without a goal being scored, and having last been touched by a member of the defending team. The kick is taken from the corner of the field of play nearest to where it went out. Corners are considered to be a reasonable goal scoring opportunity for the attacking side, though not as much as a penalty kick or a direct free kick near the edge of the penalty area.

A player may not be penalised for an offside offence when receiving the ball directly from a throw-in. [5] Skillful attackers can sometimes take advantage of this rule by getting behind the last defender(s) to receive the throw-in and having a clear path to goal.

The optimal release angle for attaining maximum distance is about 30 degrees above the horizontal, according to researchers at Brunel University. [6] According to the study, players are able to throw the ball with greater release velocity for lower angles. The optimal angle would be 45 degrees if the release velocity did not depend on the angle of throw, if the ball were thrown from ground level instead of above the head, and if there was not air drag.

Degree (angle) angle unit; π/180 radians

A degree, usually denoted by °, is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.

Infringements

Danielle Carter takes a throw-in for Arsenal Ladies Danielle Carter (16239146132).jpg
Danielle Carter takes a throw-in for Arsenal Ladies

If an opposing player fails to respect the required distance (2 m) before the ball is in play or otherwise unfairly distracts or impedes the thrower, he or she may receive a caution (yellow card) for unsporting behaviour.

If the thrower fails to deliver the ball per the required procedure, or delivers it from a point other than where the ball left the field of play, the throw-in is awarded to the opposing team. This is commonly known as a "foul throw", [7] though such throws are not considered fouls.

It is an infringement for the thrower to touch the ball a second time until it has been touched by another player; this is punishable by an indirect free kick to the opposing team from where the offence occurred, unless the second touch was also a more serious handling offence, in which case it is punishable by a direct free kick or penalty kick.

It is legal to throw the ball into the goal with no contact; however, a goal will not be scored directly from a throw in, nor can an own-goal, without being touched by a player. The restarts are a goal kick for the defending team and a corner kick for the attacking team, respectively. If any player (legally) touches the ball before it goes into the goal, then a goal is scored.

A goalkeeper cannot handle a ball thrown directly to him or her by a teammate. This cannot be circumvented by the keeper using the feet first before handling the ball. If this infringement occurs within the goalkeeper's penalty area, an indirect free kick is awarded. If the infringement occurs outside the goalkeeper's penalty area, a direct free kick is awarded.

History

Before 1863

Illustration of the line-out used at Rugby School (1845) Touch Standing Up (Harcourt Chambers, 1845).jpg
Illustration of the line-out used at Rugby School (1845)

A detailed description of an early predecessor of the throw-in is recorded in the novel Tom Brown's School Days , published in 1857 but based on the author's experiences at Rugby School from 1834 to 1842: [8]

You see this gravel walk running down all along this side of the playing-ground, and the line of elms opposite on the other? Well, they're the bounds. As soon as the ball gets past them, it's in touch, and out of play. And then whoever first touches it, has to knock it straight out amongst the players-up, who make two lines with a space between them, every fellow going on his own side ... He stands with the ball in his hand, while the two sides form in deep lines opposite one another: he must strike it straight out between them.

Several features of this passages are notable:

The 1851 rules of Rugby School describe a similar procedure, except that the ball is thrown in rather than struck or hit; this is the ancestor of the line-out in rugby union: [9]

A ball in touch is dead; consequently, the first player on his side must in any case touch it down, bring it to the edge of touch, and throw it straight out.

Similar "throw-in" laws are found in the Cambridge rules of 1856, [10] the Sheffield rules of 1858, [11] the laws of Melbourne FC (1859), [12] and indeed the original FA laws of 1863 (see below).

Other codes had a kick-in rather than a throw-in. These included the "Foot-Ball Club" of Edinburgh (1833), [13] Harrow football (1858), [14] Barnes FC (1862), [15] Blackheath FC (1862), [16] and the later version of the Cambridge rules from November 1863. [17] Some of these laws permitted the ball to be kicked in any direction, while others required that it be perpendicular to the touch-line.

The Eton field game's rules, as recorded in 1847, specified that a throw-in and a "bully" (scrummage) should be used alternately, [18] while its 1857 rules used the bully exclusively. [19]

The FA laws of 1863

The throw-in law initially adopted by the Football Association in 1863 is very similar to those of Rugby School and Sheffield described earlier: [20]

When the ball is in touch the first player who touches it shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground, in a direction at right angles with the boundary line.

The original draft permitted the ball to the kicked or thrown, but the option of kicking was removed during the revision process. [21]

The throw-in from the 1863 rules features several differences from the throw-in in modern association football:

Subsequent developments

Unity with Sheffield rules

In 1867, the laws of the Sheffield Football Association awarded the throw-in against the team kicking the ball out of play. [22] In 1868, these Sheffield rules were revised further to award a kick-in instead of a throw-in. It continued to be awarded against the team who kicked the ball into touch, and could now be played in any direction. [23]

In 1873, Nottingham Forest FC proposed a change in the FA's throw-in law to make it more similar to the Sheffield rule: the throw-in would be awarded against the team who kicked out of play, and it could optionally be replaced by a kick-in. Only part of the suggested change was approved by the FA's meeting: the throw-in would be awarded against the team who kicked the ball out of play, but it could not be replaced by a kick-in. It was still required to be thrown in perpendicular to the touch-line. [24]

At the FA meetings of 1875 and 1876, the Sheffield clubs attempted to introduce their kick-in into the FA's laws. [25] [26] Both times the change was narrowly rejected after heated debate. Matters came to a head in 1877. At the regular meeting of the FA, in February, the Sheffield Association again proposed its kick-in rule, while Clydesdale FC proposed a compromise rule which retained the throw-in but allowed it to go in any direction. The Sheffield Association agreed to withdraw its own proposal in favour of Clydesdale FC's compromise. However, even this compromise proposal was rejected, "to the intense regret of those who desired one common code of rules". [27] This rejection prompted the publication of a pseudonymous letter in The Sportsman decrying the "hasty, ill-judged decision ... bringing the Football Association into disrepute", and denying that it represented "the general body of [Football] Association players -- even of those in London". [28] A subsequent extraordinary general meeting of the FA was held on the 17th of April, at which the Clydesdale amendment was reconsidered and passed. [26] As a result of this change in the FA laws, the Sheffield Association held a meeting one week later at which it agreed to abandon its own rules and accept the FA laws. [29]

As a result of these developments, the throw-in of 1877 looked quite similar to today's: it was awarded against the team who kicked the ball out of play, and it could be thrown in any direction. There was no restriction on the technique by which the ball could be thrown; players would throw the ball great distances using only one arm. It is reported that the England international Norman Bailey was capable of propelling the ball "from the centre of the ground into the goal mouth". [30]

Unity with Scotland

In December 1882, an "international conference" was held to address discrepancies between the laws used by the English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish football associations. [31] One of the topics settled at this conference was the throw-in: the Scottish laws required the ball to be thrown in over the head with two hands, while the English laws, as described above, allowed the ball to be thrown with one hand in any direction. As a result of the conference, the Scottish version of the throw-in law was accepted. This new throw-in law, requiring the ball to be thrown from over the head with two hands, was formally adopted by the FA in 1883. [32]

Scoring a goal from a throw-in

The laws of the game have never permitted a goal to be scored directly from a throw-in by the attacking team. [33] In 1882, a change in the laws, introduced by N. Lane Jackson of Finchley FC and Morton Betts of Old Harrovians FC, made it possible to score an own goal directly from a throw-in. [34] This possibility was removed in 1898. [35]

Offside from a throw-in

Under the original laws of 1863, it was not possible to be offside from a throw-in; [36] however, since the ball was required to be thrown in at right-angles to the touch-line, it would have been unusual for a player to gain significant advantage from being ahead of the ball. After the ball was permitted to be thrown in any direction in 1877, the very next year (1878) a new law was introduced to allow a player to be offside from a throw-in. [37] This situation lasted until 1920, when the law was altered to prevent a player being offside from a throw-in. [38] [39]

Other requirements

Since 1866, the player taking the throw-in has been forbidden to touch the ball again until it has been touched by another player. [40]

In 1895, the player taking the throw-in was required to face the field of play. [41] In 1896, the player was required to have "any part of both feet on the [touch]-line when he throws the ball". [42] In 1925, this was changed to "both feet on the ground outside the line", and in 1932 to "both feet on or outside the touch-line".

Since 2005, opponents have been forbidden from approaching closer than 2 metres to the player taking the throw-in. This change was made because FIFA perceived "an increasing trend for an opponent to stand immediately in front of the thrower at a throw-in, with his feet virtually on the touch-line", with the result that "the thrower is being impeded from completing the throw-in". There was also a concern about the possibility of "a confrontational situation developing between both players." [43] [44]

Defunct requirements

In 1866, players were forbidden from playing the ball before it had touched the ground. [45] This requirement was removed when the Clydesdale throw-in law was adopted in 1877. [26]

In 1871 a law-change introduced by Wanderers FC forbade players from playing the ball until it had travelled at least six yards. [46] This requirement was dropped when the Scottish throw-in law was adopted in 1883. [32]

Punishment for violations of the throw-in law

In 1882, an indirect free-kick was awarded for any violation of the throw-in law. [47] In 1931, on a proposal by the Irish Football Association, this was changed to an award of the throw-in the opposing team (except for a violation of the double-touch rule, which remained punishable by an indirect free-kick). [48]

Name

The name "throw-in" is first found in the laws of 1891. [49]

Summary

DateThrow-in awarded toBall must be thrown in perpendicular to the touch-lineBall must be thrown with two hands from above the headThrower must face field of playOpponents may approach within 2 metres of throwerThrower may play ball again before it is touched by another playerBall may be played before it touches the groundBall may be played before it has travelled 6 yardsAttacking goal may be scored from a throw-inOwn goal may be scored from a throw-inPlayer may be offside from a throw-inPunishment for foul throw
1863First player to touch the ball after it goes out of playYesNoNoYesYesYesYesNoNoNoNone
1866NoNo
1871No
1873Opposite team to that which last touched the ball before it went out of play
1877NoYes
1878Yes
1882YesIndirect free-kick to opponents
1883YesYes
1895Yes
1898No
1920No
1931Throw-in to opponents
2005No

Unusual throw-ins

Rory Delap was highlighted for his throw-in technique: a former schoolboy javelin champion, [50] Delap was renowned for having one of the longest and most powerful throw-ins in football. [51]

A Notre Dame Fighting Irish women's soccer player attempting a flip throw Michele Weissenhofer flip throw at 2006 NCAAW Tournament final.jpg
A Notre Dame Fighting Irish women's soccer player attempting a flip throw

An uncommon but effective technique for delivering a faster than usual throw is the flip throw (notably employed in recent years by, among others, Estonian player Risto Kallaste, and Icelander Steinthor Freyr Thorsteinsson): in it the player, during the run-up, plants the ball on the ground, flips over it, and uses the momentum gained from the flip to increase the velocity of the ball. [52] In the Guinness Book of World Records the Danish player Thomas Grønemark is recorded to have made a throw-in of 51.33 metres. [53] Iranian defender Milad Mohammadi made a failed attempt at a flip throw in the group-stage match against Spain at the 2018 FIFA World Cup. [54]

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  11. Sheffield rules (1858)  via Wikisource. A Ball in touch is dead, consequently the side that touches it down must bring it to the edge of the touch, and throw it straight out at least six yards from touch.
  12. Rules of Melbourne Football Club (1859)  via Wikisource. When a Ball goes out of bounds (the same being indicated by a row of posts) it shall be brought back to the point where it crossed the boundary-line, and thrown in at right angles with that line
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