In ice hockey, the goaltender (colloquially known as the goalie) is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team's net, thus preventing the opposing team from scoring. The goaltender usually plays in or near the area in front of the net called the goal crease (often referred to simply as the crease or the net). Goaltenders tend to stay at or beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots. In today's age of goaltending there are two common styles, butterfly and hybrid (hybrid is a mix of the traditional stand-up style and butterfly technique). Because of the power of shots, the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact. The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice, as their performance can greatly change the outcome or score of the game. One-on-one situations, such as breakaways and shootouts, have the tendency to highlight a goaltender's pure skill, or lack thereof. No more than one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time. Teams are not required to use a goaltender and may instead opt to play with an additional skater, but the defensive disadvantage this poses generally means that the strategy is only used as a desperation maneuver when trailing late in a game or can be used if the opposing team has a delayed penalty (if the team receiving the penalty touches the puck the play will stop).
The goaltender is also known as the goalie,goaler, goalkeeper, net minder, and tender by those involved in the hockey community. In the early days of the sport, the term was spelled with a hyphen as goal-tender. The art of playing the position is called goaltending and there are coaches, usually called the goalie coach who specialize exclusively in working with goaltenders. The variation goalie is typically used for items associated with the position, such as goalie stick and goalie pads.
Goaltending is a specialized position in ice hockey; at higher levels in the game, no goaltenders play other positions and no other players play goaltender. At minor levels and recreational games, goaltenders do occasionally switch with others players who have been taught goaltending; however, most recreational hockey rules are now forbidding position swapping due to an increase in injuries.
A typical ice hockey team may have two or three goaltenders on its roster. Most teams typically have a starting goaltender who plays the majority of the regular season games and all of the playoffs, with the backup goaltender only stepping in if the starter is pulled or injured, or in cases where the schedule is too heavy for one goaltender to play every game.
The NHL requires each team have a list of "emergency" goaltenders. The list provides goaltender options for both the home and visiting teams. These goaltenders are to be called to a game if a team does not have two goaltenders to start the game. An "emergency" goaltender may also be called if both roster goaltenders are injured in the same game.
Some teams have used a goaltender tandem where two goaltenders split the regular season playing duties, though often one of them is considered the number one goaltender who gets the start in the playoffs. An example is the 1982–83 New York Islanders with Billy Smith and Roland Melanson; Melanson was named to the NHL Second All-Star Team for his regular season play while Smith won the Conn Smythe Trophy as the playoff MVP and both players shared the William M. Jennings Trophy for fewest goals allowed. Another instance is the Edmonton Oilers' Andy Moog and Grant Fuhr; both of them earned All-Star Game appearances for the regular season play, with Moog being the starter in the 1983 playoffs and Fuhr for the 1984 playoffs (although Moog started Game 4 and 5 of the 1984 Stanley Cup Finals due to Fuhr's injury) and subsequent postseasons.
The Toronto Maple Leafs had Terry Sawchuk and Johnny Bower share goaltending duties in the regular season and playoffs, winning the 1964–65 Vezina Trophy (shared) and the 1967 Stanley Cup. The 1996–97 Philadelphia Flyers' Ron Hextall and Garth Snow alternated in the playoffs;Snow started nine of the ten games during the first two rounds, but Hextall took over in game two of Conference Finals and remained the starting goaltender for the remainder of the playoffs, though Snow started for game two of the Stanley Cup Finals.
The goaltender has special privileges and training that other players do not. He wears special goaltending equipment that is different from that worn by other players and is subject to specific regulations. Goaltenders may use any part of their bodies to block shots. The goaltender may legally hold (or freeze) the puck with his hands to cause a stoppage of play. If a player from the other team hits the goaltender without making an attempt to get out of his way, the offending player may be penalized. In some leagues (including the NHL), if a goaltender's stick breaks, he can continue playing with a broken stick until the play is stopped, unlike other players who must drop any broken sticks immediately.
Additionally, if a goaltender acts in such a way that would cause a normal player to be given a penalty, such as slashing or tripping another player, the goaltender cannot be sent to the penalty box. Instead, one of the goaltender's teammates who was on the ice at the time of the infraction is sent to the penalty box in his place. However, the goaltender does receive the penalty minutes on the scoresheet. If the goaltender receives a Game Misconduct or Match penalty, he is removed from the ice and a replacement goaltender is played.
Normally, the goaltender plays in or near the goal crease the entire game, unlike the other positions where players are on ice for shifts and make line changes. However, goaltenders are often pulled if they have allowed several goals in a short period of time, whether they were at fault for the surrendered goals or not, and usually a substituted goaltender does not return for the rest of the game. In 1995, Patrick Roy was famously kept in net by the head coach as "humiliation" despite allowing nine goals on 26 shots.
Twelve goaltenders have scored a total of fifteen goals in National Hockey League (NHL) games. A goalkeeper can score by either shooting the puck into the net, or being awarded the goal as the last player on his team to touch the puck when an opponent scored an own goal. A goal scored by shooting the puck is particularly challenging as the goaltender has to aim for a six-foot-wide net that is close to 180 feet away, while avoiding opposing defencemen; in the case of own goals, the combined circumstance of the own goal itself in addition to the goaltender being the last player to touch the puck makes it a very rare occurrence. Of the fifteen goals, eight were scored by shooting the puck and seven were the result of own goals.
A team is not required to use a goaltender. At any time in a game, a team may remove its goaltender from the ice in favor of an extra attacker. Using an extra attacker is usually intended to overwhelm the opposing team's defense, and unlike during a power play, the defense cannot legally ice the puck, (if they are not already shorthanded due to a penalty. If the team on defense is serving a penalty, then the usual icing rules prevail.) putting the team without a goaltender at a significant advantage on offense. The vulnerability that comes with leaving the net untended means that, if the opposing team does manage to advance the puck out of their own defensive zone, a far easier empty net goal can be scored. NHL rules strongly encourage that teams use goaltenders in overtime; if a team opts for the extra attacker in overtime and an empty-net goal is scored, the game is credited as a regulation loss instead of an overtime loss. (An overtime loss earns one standings point, as opposed to two for a win of any sort and none for a regulation loss or overtime loss incurred under an empty net.) Teams thus typically forgo using a goaltender only in situations where they are trailing by one or two goals with only a short time (typically less than four minutes) left in the game and have possession of the puck in their opponent's defensive zone.
The rules of the IIHF, NHL and Hockey Canada do not permit goaltenders to be designated as on-ice captains,because of the logistical challenge of having the goaltender relay rules discussions between referees and coaches and then return to the crease. (The Vancouver Canucks named goaltender Roberto Luongo as their captain during the 2008–09 and 2009–10 seasons, but due to NHL rules, he did not serve as the official on-ice captain.) In the NCAA, there is no position-based restriction on the team captain.
Out of the five positions on the rink, goaltenders are frequently candidates for the Conn Smythe Trophy as playoff MVP, as they have won this honor in four of the last ten playoffs. Patrick Roy has won a record three times, and four goaltenders have won the Conn Smythe as part of the losing team in the Finals.
When a goaltender blocks or stops a shot from going into his goal net, that action is called a save. Goaltenders often use a particular style, but in general they make saves any way they can: catching the puck with their glove hand, deflecting the shot with their stick, blocking it with their leg pads or blocker or another part of their body, or collapsing to butterfly position to block any low shot coming, especially in close proximity. After making a save, the goaltender attempts to control the rebound to avoid a goal scored by an opposing player when the goaltender is out of position ('scoring on a rebound'), or to allow the goaltender's own team to get control of the puck. Goaltenders may catch or hold a puck shot at the net to better control how it re-enters play. If there is immediate pressure from the opposing team, a goaltender may choose to hold on to the puck (for a second or more, with judgment from the referee) to stop play for a face-off. If a goaltender holds on to the puck for too long without any pressure they may be subject to a 2-minute delay of game penalty. Recently, in the NHL and AHL, goaltenders have been restricted as to where they can play the puck behind the net.
Goaltender equipment, techniques and skills have evolved over the years, dramatically improving their effectiveness altering the dynamics of the game. Goaltenders have added masks, longer pads and are physically bigger. Ken Dryden has called for bigger nets to counter their effectiveness.
Goaltenders are called by several different names such as: tender, tendy, goalie, sieve, netminder, keeps, keeper.
The oldest playing style is the stand-up style. In this style, goaltenders are to stop the puck from a standing position, not going down. The goaltenders may bend over to stop the puck with their upper body or may kick the puck. Such saves made by kicking are known as kick saves or skate saves. They may also simply use their stick to stop it, known as a stick save. This was the style seen in the early NHL and was most commonly used up until the early 60s. One of the more notable goaltenders who was last seen using stand up was Bill Ranford, but most of the goaltenders from earlier decades such as Jacques Plante were considered pure stand up goaltenders.
As the name suggests, the stand-up style refers to a style of goaltending in which the goaltender makes the majority of the saves standing up. This style is not as popular in the modern era, with the majority of contemporary goaltenders switching to the butterfly style and the hybrid style. The stand-up style is in contrast to the butterfly style, where goaltenders protect the net against incoming shots by dropping to their knees and shifting their legs out.
The advantage of the stand-up style is in the continued mobility of the goaltender mid save. While standing, a stand-up goaltender can remain square to the puck and adjust his positioning to ensure that he is covering as much of the net as possible at all times. The goaltender is also in a better position to stop pucks that are headed towards the upper part of the net.
The main disadvantage of the stand-up style, however, is a susceptibility to shots travelling along the bottom half of the net. A larger percentage of shots occur in the bottom portion of the net, and a goaltender utilizing the butterfly will cover a larger portion of that area. If there is a screen, however, a stand-up goaltender is generally in a better position to see the slapshot.
Another style is the "Butterfly", where goaltenders go down on both pads with their toes pointing outwards and the tops of their pads meeting in the middle, thus closing up the five hole. This results in a "wall" of padding without any holes, lowering the chances of low angle shots getting in. These goaltenders rely on timing and position. Early innovators of this style were goaltending greats Glenn Hall and Tony Esposito who played during the 50s-60s and 70s-80s, respectively. Hall is credited to be among the first to use this style, and both he and Esposito had tremendous success with it. The most successful goaltender to adopt this style was Patrick Roy, who has 550 career wins in the NHL. This is the most widely used style in the NHL today. "Butterfly" goaltenders have developed methods of sliding in the "Butterfly" position in order to move around fast in one-timer situations. As pad size increased, it became a more notable style of goaltending and is still evolving.
This style of goaltending is a combination of both stand-up and butterfly style, where the goaltender primarily relies on reaction, save selection, and positioning to make saves. Hybrid goaltenders will usually control rebounds well, deflect low shots with their sticks, will utilize the butterfly, and are generally not as predictable as goaltenders who rely heavily on the butterfly as a save selection. Most players are not pure stand-up or butterfly, but simply tend to prefer stand-up or butterfly over the other. If a player does not have any preferences, he is considered a hybrid goaltender. All modern NHL goaltenders generally use some form of this style. Some goaltenders who do this effectively are Ryan Miller, Jaroslav Halák, Jimmy Howard, Tuukka Rask, Carey Price and formerly Evgeni Nabokov and Martin Brodeur.
Normally, the goaltender plays in or near the goal crease the entire game. However, teams may legally pull the goalie by substituting in a normal skater and taking the goaltender off the ice. A team temporarily playing with no goaltender is said to be playing with an empty net. This gives the team an extra attacker, but at significant risk—if the opposing team gains control of the puck, they may easily score a goal. However, shooters that attempt to score on an empty net from the opposite side of the red line face getting called for icing the puck if they miss the net. There are two common situations where a goaltender is generally pulled, as well as two less common situations:
A goal scored in an empty net situation is not recorded as a shot faced or goal against on the personal stats of the goaltender who has left the ice.
In professional ice hockey, the back-up goaltender fills an important team role. Although the back-up will spend most games sitting on the bench, the back-up must be prepared to play every game. A back-up may be forced into duty at any time to relieve the starting goaltender in the event of an injury or poor game performance. The back-up will also be called upon to start some games to give the starter the opportunity to rest from game-play during the season.
Most professional leagues require each home team to maintain a list of local non-professional goaltenders, available to either team, who can be used in the exceptional case that one or both of a team's normal goaltenders are injured or unavailable (such as a player acquired in a trade or minor league call-up arriving late on short notice); such a goaltender who fulfills that role is known as an emergency back–up goaltender (or EBUG).Similar rules are in place for the NHL's minor leagues, where emergency goaltenders are used much more frequently. Those on a team's emergency list are given free attendance to home games they are assigned and may also help out as a practice goalie. Emergency goalies are often called from nearby college teams, adult semi-pro/amateur leagues, or the home team's own coaching/facilities staff. If activated for a game, most emergency goaltenders only dress to sit on the bench, as a team's normal back-up takes over; only three emergency goalies (David Ayres, Scott Foster, and Jorge Alves) have ever seen recorded playing time in an NHL game. Emergency goalies who are activated sign either an amateur or professional tryout contract.
A goaltender scoring a goal in an NHL game is a very rare feat, having occurred only fifteen times in the history of the NHL, the first time occurring in 1979 after the league had been in existence for six decades. NHL rules forbid goaltenders from participating in play past the center line, so a goal by a goaltender is possible only under unusual circumstances.
Eight of those fifteen goals resulted from the goaltender shooting into an empty net. The remaining seven goals were not actually shot into the net by the goaltender; rather the goaltender was awarded the goal because he was the last player on his team to touch the puck before the opposition scored on themselves. Martin Brodeur is the only NHL goaltender to be credited with three career goals (two in the regular season and one in the playoffs), Ron Hextall is the only goaltender who has scored two goals by shooting the puck into an empty net (once in the regular season and once in the playoffs). Damian Rhodes and José Théodore are the only goaltenders in NHL history to score a goal in which they also had a shutout game. Evgeni Nabokov of the San Jose Sharks was the first goaltender to score a power play goal. If a goaltender crosses the center line and shoots the puck from that location or any other location past the center line, the goal does not count.
A chronological list of goals scored in the AHL by goaltenders:
A chronological list of goals scored in the ECHL by goaltenders:
The first recorded instance of a professional goaltender scoring a goal occurred on February 21, 1971, in the CHL. In a game between the Oklahoma City Blazers and the Kansas City Blues, the Oklahoma City Blazers were trailing 2-1 and decided to pull their goaltender. Michel Plasse, the goaltender for the Kansas City Blues then scored on an open net.
Subsequently, four goaltenders have scored empty-net goals in the CHL: Phil Groeneveld of the Fort Worth Fire scored against the Thunder in Wichita, Kansas, on November 20, 1995; Bryan McMullen scored for the Austin Ice Bats on February 17, 2002; and Mike Wall of the Arizona Sundogs scored a goal against Corpus Christi on March 16, 2007.Danny Battochio is the most recent vs the Tulsa Oilers on December 31, 2011.
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In many team sports which involve scoring goals, the goalkeeper is a designated player charged with directly preventing the opposing team from scoring by blocking or intercepting opposing shots on goal. Such positions exist in bandy, rink bandy, camogie, association football, Gaelic football, international rules football, floorball, handball, hurling, field hockey, ice hockey, roller hockey, lacrosse, ringette, rinkball, water polo, and shinty as well as in other sports.
Martin Pierre Brodeur is a Canadian-American former professional ice hockey goaltender and current team executive. He played 22 seasons in the National Hockey League (NHL), 21 of them for the New Jersey Devils, with whom he won three Stanley Cup championships and five Eastern Conference championships in 17 postseason campaigns. He also won two Olympic gold medals with Team Canada in the 2002 and 2010 Winter Olympic Games, as well as several other medals with Team Canada in other international competitions. Brodeur is widely regarded as one of the greatest goaltenders of all time. In 2017, he was named by the league as one of the "100 Greatest NHL Players", and the following year, he was elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame.
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An extra attacker in ice hockey is a forward or, less commonly, a defenceman who has been substituted in place of the goaltender. The purpose of this substitution is to gain an offensive advantage to score a goal. The removal of the goaltender for an extra attacker is colloquially called pulling the goalie, resulting in an empty net.
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In ice hockey, the goaltender wears specialized goaltending equipment to protect himself from the impact of the puck and to assist himself in making saves.
In ice hockey, butterfly style is a technique of goaltending distinguished by the goaltender guarding the lower part of the net by dropping to the knees to block attempts to score. The butterfly style derives its name from the resemblance of the spread goal pads and hands to a butterfly's wings. The butterfly style is contrasted with stand-up style, where most shots on a goal are stopped with the goaltender on his feet.
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The "five-hole" is a nickname for the space between a goaltender's legs in ice hockey attributed to David Neal in 1980. If a player scores by shooting the puck into the goal between the goaltender's legs, he is said to have scored "through the five-hole," or to have "gone five-hole." The nickname can also be used in basketball, when a player throws a bounce pass that goes through a defender's legs. The term has been applied similarly in Association football referring to the "nutmeg."
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In ice hockey, a goaltender is credited with a save when they prevent a shot by the opponent from entering the net. A goaltender's efficiency in stopping shots, the save percentage, is calculated as a percentage of shots stopped divided by the total number of shots on goal. If a goaltender makes all the saves within a game it is called a shutout. In association football this is called a clean sheet.
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