Scotland national football team

Last updated

Scotland
Scotland national football team logo 2014.svg
Association Scottish Football Association
Confederation UEFA (Europe)
Head coach Alex McLeish [1]
Captain Andrew Robertson
Most caps Kenny Dalglish (102)
Top scorer Kenny Dalglish (30)
Denis Law (30)
Home stadium Hampden Park
FIFA code SCO
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First colours
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Second colours
FIFA ranking
Current 40 Decrease2.svg 2 (7 February 2019) [2]
Highest13 [3] (October 2007)
Lowest88 [4] (March 2005)
Elo ranking
Current 40 Decrease2.svg 4 (3 March 2019) [5]
Highest1 [5] (1876–92, 1904)
Lowest64 [5] (May 2005)
First international
Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland 0–0 England  Flag of England.svg
(Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872)
Biggest win
Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland 11–0 Ireland  Saint Patrick's Saltire.svg
(Glasgow, Scotland; 23 February 1901)
Biggest defeat
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 7–0 Scotland Flag of Scotland.svg
(Basel, Switzerland; 19 June 1954)
World Cup
Appearances8 (first in 1954 )
Best result 9th, 1974
European Championship
Appearances2 (first in 1992 )
Best resultLast 8, 1992

The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. It competes in the three major professional tournaments, the FIFA World Cup, UEFA Nations League and the UEFA European Championship. Scotland, as a constituent country of the United Kingdom, is not a member of the International Olympic Committee and therefore the national team does not compete in the Olympic Games. The majority of Scotland's home matches are played at the national stadium, Hampden Park.

Scotland Country in Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

Association football Team field sport

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

Scottish Football Association governing body of association football in Scotland

The Scottish Football Association, is the governing body of football in Scotland and has the ultimate responsibility for the control and development of football in Scotland. Members of the SFA include clubs in Scotland, affiliated national associations as well as local associations. It was formed in 1873, making it the second oldest national football association in the world. It is not to be confused with the "Scottish Football Union", which is the name that the SRU was known by until the 1920s.

Contents

Scotland is the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside England, whom they played in the world's first international football match in 1872. Scotland has a long-standing rivalry with England, [6] whom they played annually from 1872 until 1989. The teams have met only seven times since then, most recently in June 2017.

England national football team Mens association football team representing England

The England national football team represents England in senior men's international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England.

1872 Scotland vs England football match

The 1872 match between Scotland and England was the first ever association football official international match to be played. It was contested by the national teams of Scotland and England. The match took place on 30 November 1872 at West of Scotland Cricket Club's ground at Hamilton Crescent in Partick, Scotland. The match finished in a 0–0 draw and was watched by 4,000 spectators.

1872 in sports describes the year's events in world sport.

Scotland have qualified for the FIFA World Cup on eight occasions and the UEFA European Championship twice, but have never progressed beyond the first group stage of a finals tournament. The last major tournament they qualified for was the 1998 World Cup. The team have achieved some noteworthy results, such as beating the 1966 FIFA World Cup winners England 3–2 at Wembley Stadium in 1967. Archie Gemmill scored what has been described as one of the greatest World Cup goals ever in a 3–2 win during the 1978 World Cup against the Netherlands, who reached the final of the tournament. [7] In their qualifying group for UEFA Euro 2008, Scotland defeated 2006 World Cup runners-up France 1–0 in both fixtures.

1998 FIFA World Cup 16th FIFA World Cup, held in France in 1998

The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It was held in France from 10 June to 12 July 1998. The country was chosen as the host nation by FIFA for the second time in the history of the tournament, defeating Morocco in the bidding process. It was the second time that France staged the competition and the ninth time that it was held in Europe.

1966 FIFA World Cup 1966 edition of the FIFA World Cup

The 1966 FIFA World Cup was the eighth FIFA World Cup and was held in England from 11 to 30 July 1966. England beat West Germany 4–2 in the final, winning the Jules Rimet Trophy. It is England's only FIFA World Cup title. They were the fifth nation to win and the third host nation to win after Uruguay in 1930 and Italy in 1934.

Wembley Stadium (1923) former stadium in London, England which opened in 1923

The original Wembley Stadium was a football stadium in Wembley Park, London, which stood on the same site now occupied by its successor, the new Wembley Stadium. The demolition in 2003 of its famous Twin Towers upset many people worldwide. Debris from the stadium was used to make the Northala Fields in Northolt, London.

Scotland supporters are collectively known as the Tartan Army. The Scottish Football Association operates a roll of honour for every player who has made more than 50 appearances for Scotland. [8] Kenny Dalglish holds the record for Scotland appearances, having played 102 times between 1971 and 1986. [8] Dalglish scored 30 goals for Scotland and shares the record for most goals scored with Denis Law.

Tartan Army

The Tartan Army is a name given to fans of the Scotland national football team. They have won awards from several organisations for their friendly behaviour and charitable work. They have also been criticised at times for aspects of their behaviour, however, such as jeering at God Save the Queen.

Cap (sport) sports game

In sport, a cap is a metaphorical term for a player's appearance in a game at international level. The term dates from the practice in the United Kingdom of awarding a cap to every player in an international match of association football. In the early days of football, the concept of each team wearing a set of matching shirts had not been universally adopted, so each side would distinguish itself from the other by wearing a specific sort of cap.

Kenny Dalglish Scottish association football player and manager

Sir Kenneth Mathieson Dalglish is a Scottish former football player and manager. He made over three hundred appearances for both Celtic and Liverpool and earned over one hundred caps for the Scotland national team. Dalglish won the Ballon d'Or Silver Award in 1983, the PFA Players' Player of the Year in 1983, and the FWA Footballer of the Year in 1979 and 1983. In 2009, FourFourTwo named Dalglish the greatest striker in post-war British football, and in 2006, he topped a Liverpool fans' poll of "100 Players Who Shook the Kop". He has been inducted into both the Scottish and English Football Halls of Fame.

History

Early history

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Illustrations of the first international football match, hosted by Scotland against England in 1872

Scotland and England are the oldest national football teams in the world. [9] Teams representing the two sides first competed at the Oval in five matches between 1870 and 1872. The two countries contested the first official international football match, at Hamilton Crescent in Partick, Scotland, on 30 November 1872. The match ended in a goalless draw. [9] All eleven players who represented Scotland that day played for Glasgow amateur club Queen's Park. [9] Over the next forty years, Scotland played matches exclusively against the other three Home Nations—England, Wales and Ireland. The British Home Championship began in 1883, making these games competitive. The encounters against England were particularly fierce and a rivalry quickly developed. [6]

The Oval cricket ground in Kennington, South London

The Oval, currently referred to for sponsorship purposes as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880. The final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there.

Between 1870 and 1872, the Football Association (FA) organised five representative association football matches between teams representing England and Scotland, all held in London. The first of these matches was held at The Oval on 5 March 1870, and the fifth was on 21 February 1872. The matches, which were organised by Charles W. Alcock, are the precursors to modern international football and were referred to as internationals at the time. They are not recognised, however, as full internationals by FIFA as the players competing in the Scotland team were drawn only from London-based Scottish players. They were followed by the 1872 match in Glasgow between Scotland and England which is recognised as the first international match.

Hamilton Crescent cricket ground

Hamilton Crescent is a cricket ground located in the Partick area of Glasgow, Scotland. It is the home of the West of Scotland Cricket Club.

Scotland lost just two of their first 43 international matches. It was not until a 2–0 home defeat by Ireland in 1903 that Scotland lost a match to a team other than England. This run of success meant that Scotland would have regularly topped the Elo ratings, which were calculated in 1998, between 1876 and 1904. Scotland won the British Home Championship outright on 24 occasions, and shared the title 17 times with at least one other team. [note 1] [10] A noteworthy victory for Scotland before the Second World War was the 5–1 victory over England in 1928, which led to that Scotland side being known as the "Wembley Wizards". Scotland played their first match outside the British Isles in 1929, beating Norway 7–3 in Bergen. [11] Scotland continued to contest regular friendly matches against European opposition and enjoyed wins against Germany and France before losing to the Austrian "Wunderteam" and Italy in 1931. [11]

The World Football Elo Ratings is a ranking system for men's national association football teams that is published by the website eloratings.net. It is based on the Elo rating system but includes modifications to take various football-specific variables into account, like the margin of victory, importance of a match, and home field advantage. Other implementations of the Elo rating system are possible and there is no single nor any official Elo ranking for football teams.

The Wembley Wizards is a nickname for the Scotland national football team who defeated England 5–1 at Wembley in the 1928 British Home Championship.

Norway national football team national association football team

The Norway men's national football team represents Norway in international association football and is controlled by the Football Association of Norway, the governing body for football in Norway. Norway's home ground is Ullevaal Stadion in Oslo and their head coach is Lars Lagerbäck. It is, as of February 2019, ranked by FIFA as the 48th best football team in the world.

Scotland, like the other Home Nations, did not enter the three FIFA World Cups held during the 1930s. This was because the four associations had been excluded from FIFA due to a disagreement regarding the status of amateur players. [12] The four associations, including Scotland, returned to the FIFA fold after the Second World War. [12] A match between a United Kingdom team and a "Rest of the World" team was played at Hampden Park in 1947 to celebrate this reconciliation. [12]

1950s

Matt Busby was due to manage Scotland at the 1958 FIFA World Cup, but was unable due to his injuries from the Munich air disaster. Matt Busby cropped.jpg
Matt Busby was due to manage Scotland at the 1958 FIFA World Cup, but was unable due to his injuries from the Munich air disaster.

The readmission of the Scottish Football Association to FIFA meant that Scotland were now eligible to enter the 1950 FIFA World Cup. FIFA advised that places would be awarded to the top two teams in the 1950 British Home Championship, but the SFA announced that Scotland would only attend the finals if Scotland won the competition. Scotland won their first two matches, but a 1–0 home defeat by England meant that the Scots finished as runners-up. This meant that the Scots had qualified by right for the World Cup, but had not met the demand of the SFA to win the Championship. The SFA stood by this proclamation, despite pleas to the contrary by the Scotland players, supported by England captain Billy Wright and the other England players. [13] The SFA instead sent the Scots on a tour of North America. [14]

The same qualification rules were in place for the 1954 FIFA World Cup, with the 1954 British Home Championship acting as a qualifying group. Scotland again finished second, but this time the SFA allowed a team to participate in the Finals, held in Switzerland. To quote the SFA website, "The preparation was atrocious". [15] The SFA only sent 13 players to the finals, even though FIFA allowed 22-man squads. [16] Despite this self-imposed hardship in terms of players, the SFA dignitaries travelled in numbers, accompanied by their wives. [16] Scotland lost 1–0 against Austria in their first game in the finals, which prompted the team manager Andy Beattie to resign hours before the game against Uruguay. [17] Uruguay were reigning champions and had never before lost a game at the World Cup finals, and they defeated Scotland 7–0. [15] [18]

The 1958 FIFA World Cup finals saw Scotland draw their first game against Yugoslavia 1–1, but they then lost to Paraguay and France and went out at the first stage. [19] Matt Busby had been due to manage the team at the World Cup, but the severe injuries he suffered in the Munich air disaster meant that trainer Dawson Walker took charge of the team instead. [19]

1960s

Under the management of Ian McColl, Scotland enjoyed consecutive British Home Championship successes in 1962 and 1963. [10] Jock Stein, John Prentice and Malky MacDonald all had brief spells as manager before Bobby Brown was appointed in 1967. [20] Brown's first match as manager was against the newly crowned world champions England at Wembley Stadium. Despite being underdogs, Scotland won 3–2 thanks to goals from Denis Law, Bobby Lennox and Jim McCalliog. [21] Having defeated the world champions on their own turf, the Scotland fans hailed their team as the "unofficial world champions". [22] Despite this famous win, the Scots failed to qualify for any major competitions during the 1960s. [19]

1970s

Billy Bremner (right) playing for Scotland against Zaire at the Westfalenstadion in the 1974 FIFA World Cup Bundesarchiv Bild 183-N0614-0028, Fussball-WM, Zaire - Schottland 0-2.jpg
Billy Bremner (right) playing for Scotland against Zaire at the Westfalenstadion in the 1974 FIFA World Cup

After Tommy Docherty's brief spell as manager, Willie Ormond was hired in 1973. [20] Ormond lost his first match in charge 5–0 to England, but recovered to steer Scotland to their first World Cup finals in 16 years in 1974. At the 1974 World Cup finals in West Germany, Scotland achieved their most impressive performance at a World Cup tournament. [23] The team was unbeaten but failed to progress beyond the group stages on goal difference. [23] After beating Zaïre, they drew with both Brazil and Yugoslavia, and went out because they had beaten Zaïre by the smallest margin. [24]

Scotland appointed Ally MacLeod as manager in 1977, with qualification for the 1978 World Cup in Argentina far from assured. [20] The team made a strong start under MacLeod by winning the 1977 British Home Championship, largely thanks to a 2–1 victory over England at Wembley. [10] The Scotland fans invaded the pitch after the match, ripping up the turf and breaking a crossbar. [25] [26] Scotland's good form continued as they secured qualification for the World Cup with victories over Czechoslovakia and Wales. [27]

During the build-up to the 1978 FIFA World Cup, MacLeod fuelled the hopes of the nation by stating that Scotland would come home with a medal. [7] As the squad left for the finals in Argentina, they were given an enthusiastic send-off as they were paraded around a packed Hampden Park. [28] Thousands more fans lined the route to Prestwick Airport as the team set off for South America. [7] Scotland's first game was against Peru in Córdoba. Two spectacular goals by Teófilo Cubillas meant that the result was a 3–1 loss. The second game was a very disappointing 1–1 draw against newcomers Iran. [7] The disconsolate mood of the nation was reflected by footage of Ally MacLeod in the dugout with his head in his hands. [29]

After taking a single point from their opening two games, Scotland had to defeat the Netherlands by three clear goals to progress. [30] Despite the Dutch taking the lead, Scotland fought back to win 3–2 with a goal from Kenny Dalglish and two from Archie Gemmill, the second of which is considered one of the greatest World Cup goals ever; [7] Gemmill beat three Dutch defenders before lifting the ball over goalkeeper Jan Jongbloed into the net. [7] [31] The victory was not sufficient to secure a place in the second round, and Scotland were eliminated on goal difference for the second successive World Cup. [30]

1980s

Alex Ferguson (pictured) briefly served as Scotland's manager after the sudden death of Jock Stein in 1985. Alex Ferguson.jpg
Alex Ferguson (pictured) briefly served as Scotland's manager after the sudden death of Jock Stein in 1985.

MacLeod resigned as manager shortly after the 1978 World Cup, and Jock Stein, who had won nine consecutive Scottish league titles and the European Cup as manager of Celtic, was appointed as his successor. [20] After failing to qualify for the 1980 European Championship, [27] Scotland qualified for the 1982 FIFA World Cup from a tough group including Sweden, Portugal, Israel and Northern Ireland, losing just one match in the process. [32] They beat New Zealand 5–2 in their first game at the World Cup, but lost 4–1 to a Brazil team containing Sócrates, Zico, Eder and Falcão. [33] Scotland were again eliminated on goal difference, after a 2–2 draw with the Soviet Union. [33]

Scotland qualified for the 1986 FIFA World Cup, their fourth in succession, in traumatic circumstances. The squad went into their last qualification match against Wales needing a point to progress to a qualifying playoff against Australia. With only nine minutes remaining and Wales leading 1–0, Scotland were awarded a penalty kick, which was calmly scored by Davie Cooper. [34] The 1–1 draw meant that Scotland progressed, but as the players and fans celebrated, Stein suffered a heart attack and died shortly afterwards. [34] His assistant Alex Ferguson took over. [20] Scotland qualified by winning 2–0 against Australia in a two-leg playoff, but were eliminated from the tournament with just one point from their three matches, a goalless draw with Uruguay following defeats by Denmark and West Germany. [35]

In July 1986, Andy Roxburgh was the surprise appointment as the new manager of Scotland. [36] Scotland did not succeed in qualifying for Euro 1988, but their 1–0 away win over Bulgaria in the final fixture in November 1987 helped Ireland to a surprise first-place finish and qualification for the finals in West Germany. [37]

1990s

Scotland qualified for their fifth consecutive World Cup in 1990 by finishing second in their qualifying group, ahead of France. [38] Scotland were drawn in a group with Costa Rica, Sweden, and Brazil, but the Scots lost 1–0 to Costa Rica. [39] While they recovered to beat Sweden 2–1 in their second game, they lost to Brazil in their third match 1–0 and were again eliminated after the first round. [39]

By a narrow margin, Scotland qualified for the UEFA European Championship for the first time in 1992. [40] A 1–0 defeat by Romania away from home left qualification dependent upon other results, but a 1–1 draw between Bulgaria and Romania in the final group match saw Scotland squeeze through. [41] Despite playing well in matches against the Netherlands and Germany and a fine win against the CIS, the team was knocked out at the group stage. [41] Scotland failed to qualify for the 1994 FIFA World Cup. The team finished fourth in their qualifying group behind Italy, Switzerland and Portugal. When it became clear that Scotland could not qualify, Andy Roxburgh resigned from his position as team manager. [42]

Scotland against the Netherlands at Villa Park during Euro 1996 Scotland-holland euro 96.jpg
Scotland against the Netherlands at Villa Park during Euro 1996

New manager Craig Brown successfully guided Scotland to the 1996 European Championship tournament. [42] The first game against the Netherlands ended 0–0, raising morale ahead of a much anticipated game against England at Wembley. [42] Gary McAllister missed a penalty kick, and a goal by Paul Gascoigne led to a 2–0 defeat. Scotland recovered to beat Switzerland 1–0 with a goal by Ally McCoist. England taking a 4–0 lead in the other match briefly put both teams in a position to qualify, but a late goal for the Netherlands meant that Scotland were knocked out on goals scored. [42] [43]

Brown again guided Scotland to qualification for a major tournament in 1998, and Scotland were drawn against Brazil in the opening game of the 1998 World Cup. [44] John Collins equalised from the penalty spot to level the score at 1–1, but a Tom Boyd own goal led to a 2–1 defeat. Scotland drew their next game 1–1 with Norway in Bordeaux, [45] but the final match against Morocco ended in an embarrassing 3–0 defeat. [42]

During the qualification for the 2000 European Championship, Scotland faced England in a two-legged playoff nicknamed the "Battle of Britain" by the media. [46] Scotland won the second match 1–0 with a goal by Don Hutchison, but lost the tie 2–1 on aggregate. [46]

2000s

Berti Vogts, the only foreigner to coach Scotland to date Berti Vogts cropped.jpg
Berti Vogts, the only foreigner to coach Scotland to date

Scotland failed to qualify for the 2002 FIFA World Cup, finishing third in their qualifying group behind Croatia and Belgium. [42] This second successive failure to qualify prompted Craig Brown to resign from his position after the final qualifying match. [42] The SFA appointed former Germany manager Berti Vogts as Brown's successor. [47] Scotland reached the qualification play-offs for Euro 2004. Scotland beat the Netherlands 1–0 at Hampden Park, but suffered a 6–0 defeat in the return leg. Poor results in friendly matches and a bad start to the 2006 World Cup qualification caused the team to drop to a record low of 77th in the FIFA World Rankings. [48] Vogts announced his resignation in 2004, [49] blaming the hostile media for his departure. [50]

Walter Smith, a former Rangers and Everton manager, was brought in to replace Vogts. Improved results meant that Scotland rose up the FIFA rankings and won the Kirin Cup, a friendly competition in Japan. [51] Scotland failed to qualify for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, finishing third in their group behind Italy and Norway. Smith left the national side in January 2007 to return to Rangers, with Scotland leading their Euro 2008 qualification group. [52] Alex McLeish was named as Smith's successor and Scotland's twentieth manager. [53] McLeish guided Scotland to wins against Georgia, the Faroe Islands, Lithuania, France and Ukraine, but defeats by Georgia and Italy ended their chances of qualification for Euro 2008. [54] These improved results, particularly the wins against France, lifted Scotland into the top 20 of the FIFA world rankings. [3]

After the narrow failure to qualify for Euro 2008, McLeish left to join Premier League club Birmingham City. [55] Southampton manager George Burley was hired as the new manager, but he came in for criticism from the media after the team lost their first qualifier against Macedonia. [56] After Scotland lost their fourth match 3–0 to the Netherlands, [57] captain Barry Ferguson and goalkeeper Allan McGregor were excluded from the starting lineup for the following match against Iceland due to a "breach of discipline". [58] Despite winning 2–1 against Iceland, [59] Scotland suffered a terrible 4–0 defeat by Norway in the following qualifier, which left Scotland effectively needing to win their last two games to have a realistic chance of making the qualifying play-offs. [60] Scotland defeated Macedonia 2–0 in the first of those two games, [61] but were eliminated by a 1–0 loss to the Netherlands in the second game. [62] Burley was allowed to continue in his post after a review by the SFA board, [63] but a subsequent 3–0 friendly defeat by Wales led to the SFA sacking him. [64]

2010s

Gordon Strachan was appointed Scotland manager in January 2013. Strachan Gordon.jpg
Gordon Strachan was appointed Scotland manager in January 2013.

The SFA appointed Craig Levein as head coach of the national team in December 2009. [65] In UEFA Euro 2012 qualifying, Scotland were grouped with Lithuania, Liechtenstein, the Czech Republic and world champions Spain. [66] [67] They took just four points from the first four games, leaving the team needing three wins from their remaining four games to have a realistic chance of progression. [67] They only managed two wins and a draw and were eliminated after a 3–1 defeat by Spain in their last match. [68] Levein left his position as head coach following a poor start to 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification, having taken just two points from four games. [69]

Gordon Strachan was appointed Scotland manager in January 2013, [70] but defeats in his first two competitive matches meant that Scotland were the first UEFA team to be eliminated from the 2014 World Cup. [71] Scotland finished their qualification section by winning three of their last four matches, including two victories against Croatia. [72] [73] In UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying, Scotland appeared to have a better chance of qualification as the finals tournament was expanded from 16 teams to 24. [74] After losing their opening match in Germany, Scotland recorded home wins against Georgia, the Republic of Ireland and Gibraltar. [74] Steven Fletcher scored the first hat-trick for Scotland since 1969 in the game with Gibraltar. [75] Later in the group, Scotland produced an "insipid" performance as they lost 1–0 in Georgia. [74] A home defeat by Germany and a late equalising goal by Poland eliminated Scotland from contention. [74] After a win against Gibraltar in the last qualifier, Strachan agreed a new contract with the SFA. [76]

In qualification for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, Scotland were drawn in the same group as England, facing their rivals in a competitive fixture for the first time since 1999. [77] On 11 November 2016, England beat Scotland 3–0 at Wembley. [78] The return match saw Leigh Griffiths score two late free-kicks to give Scotland a 2–1 lead, but Harry Kane scored in added time to force a 2–2 draw. [79] A draw in Slovenia in the final game of the group ended Scottish hopes of a play-off position, and Strachan subsequently left his position by mutual consent. [80] In February 2018, Alex McLeish was appointed manager for the second time. [81]

Competitive record

FIFA World Cup

Scotland did not compete in the first three World Cup competitions, held in 1930, 1934 and 1938. FIFA ruled that all its member associations must provide "broken-time" payments to cover the expenses of players who participated in football at the 1928 Summer Olympics. In response to what they considered to be unacceptable interference, the football associations of Scotland, England, Ireland and Wales held a meeting at which they agreed to resign from FIFA. [82] The Scottish Football Association did not rejoin FIFA as a permanent member until 1946. [83] The SFA declined to participate in 1950 although they had qualified, as Scotland were not the British champions. [84]

Scotland have since qualified for eight finals tournaments, [45] including five consecutive tournaments from 1974 to 1990. Scotland have never advanced beyond the first round of the finals competition – no country has qualified for as many World Cup finals without progressing past the first round. They have missed out on progressing to the second round three times on goal difference: in 1974, when Brazil edged them out; [24] in 1978, when the Netherlands progressed; [30] and in 1982, when the Soviet Union went through. [33]

Year Final Tournament Qualification
RoundPldWDLFARoundPldWDLFA
1930 Did not enter [83]
1934
1938
1950 Qualified but withdrew [84] Group – 2nd 3201103
1954 Round 1200208 Group – 2nd 311188
1958 Round 1301246 Group – 1st 4301109
1962 Did not qualify Group – 2nd 53021211
1966 Group – 2nd 631288
1970 Group – 2nd 6312187
1974 Round 1312031 Group – 1st 430183
1978 Round 1311156 Group – 1st 430163
1982 Round 1311188 Group – 1st 843194
1986 Round 1301213 Play-off 8422104
1990 Round 1310223 Group – 2nd 84221212
1994 Did not qualify Group – 4th 104331413
1998 Round 1301226 Group – 2nd 10721153
2002 Did not qualify Group – 3rd 8431126
2006 Group – 3rd 1034397
2010 Group – 3rd 8314611
2014 Group – 4th 10325812
2018 Group – 3rd 105321712
Totals8/212347122541125622835192136

UEFA European Championship

Scotland have qualified for two European Championships, but have failed to advance beyond the first round on both occasions. Their most recent participation was at the 1996 European Championship, where the Netherlands progressed instead of Scotland on goals scored. [85] Scotland is due to host three group games and a last 16 match in UEFA Euro 2020, which is being held at venues across Europe. [86]

Year Final Tournament Qualification
RoundPldWDLFARoundPldWDLFA
1960 Did not enter
1964
1968 Did not qualify Group – 2nd 6321108
1972 Group – 3rd 630347
1976 Group – 3rd 623186
1980 Group – 4th 83141513
1984 Group – 4th 6123810
1988 Group – 4th 833275
1992 Round 1310233 Group – 1st 8431147
1996 Round 1311112 Group – 2nd 10721193
2000 Did not qualify Play-offs 126331612
2004 Play-offs 105231314
2008 Group – 3rd 128042112
2012 Group – 3rd 8323910
2016 Group – 4th 104332212
2020 TBD
Totals2/15621345110522632166119

UEFA Nations League

When the UEFA Nations League was inaugurated in 2018–19, Scotland were allocated to League C. With a 3–2 win against Israel in their final match, Scotland won promotion to League B of the 2020–21 competition. [87]

UEFA Nations League record
SeasonDivisionGroupRoundPosPldWDLGFGAP/R
2018–19 C 1 Group stage1st4301104Green Arrow Up Darker.svg
2020–21 B To be determinedN/A
Totals4301104

Other honours

Stadium

Hampden Park, the traditional home of the Scotland national football team. This picture was taken before the friendly match with the United States in 2005. Hampden Park WP EN.JPG
Hampden Park, the traditional home of the Scotland national football team. This picture was taken before the friendly match with the United States in 2005.

Hampden Park in Glasgow is the traditional home of the Scotland team and is described by the SFA as the National Stadium. [88] The present stadium is one of three stadiums to have used the name. Stadiums named Hampden Park have hosted international matches since 1878. The present site was opened in 1903 and became the primary home ground of the Scotland team from 1906. The attendance record of 149,415 was set by the Scotland v England match in 1937. [89] Safety regulations reduced the capacity to 81,000 by 1977 and the stadium was completely redeveloped during the 1990s, giving the present capacity of 52,000. Hampden is rated as a category four (elite) stadium within the UEFA stadium categories, having previously held the five-star status under the old rating system. [90]

Some friendly matches are played at smaller venues. Pittodrie Stadium in Aberdeen and Easter Road in Edinburgh were both used as venues during the 2012–13 season. Other stadiums were also used while Hampden was being redeveloped during the 1990s. Celtic Park, Pittodrie Stadium, Ibrox Stadium and Rugby Park all hosted matches during the 1998 World Cup qualifying campaign, [91] while Tynecastle Stadium, [92] Pittodrie, [93] Celtic Park and Ibrox were used for Euro 2000 qualifying matches. Since the last redevelopment to Hampden was completed in 1999, Scotland have played most of their competitive matches there. The most recent exception to this rule was in 2014, when Hampden was temporarily converted into an athletics stadium for the 2014 Commonwealth Games. [94]

Media coverage

Scotland's home matches are presently covered by the pay-TV broadcaster Sky Sports. [95] [96] Television rights to away games vary, although Sky Sports also held the rights to both home and away qualifiers for Euro 2016 and the 2018 World Cup. [96] The arrangements to show Scotland matches on pay-TV have been criticised by the Scottish Government, who have argued that qualifying matches should be included in the list of sporting events which can only be broadcast on free-to-air television. [95] [97] The SFA have argued that limiting the rights to free-to-air broadcasters would severely reduce the amount of revenue that they could generate. [98] An independent advisory panel recommended that qualifying matches played by all four Home Nations be added to the list, but UK Sports Minister Hugh Robertson deferred a decision until the completion of the digital switchover. [99]

BBC Scotland, [95] [100] STV, Setanta Sports, [95] [101] Channel 5 [102] and BT Sport [103] are among other networks that have previously shown live fixtures. All matches are broadcast with full commentary on BBC Radio Scotland and, when schedules allow, BBC Radio 5 Live also. [100] [104]

Colours

Scotland players, including Andrew Watson (top centre), wearing the Rosebery colours of primrose and pink in 1882 Andrew Watson Footballer.jpg
Scotland players, including Andrew Watson (top centre), wearing the Rosebery colours of primrose and pink in 1882

Scotland traditionally wear dark blue shirts with white shorts and dark blue socks, the colours of the Queen's Park team who represented Scotland in the first international. [9] The blue Scotland shirt was earlier used in a February 1872 rugby international, with reports stating that "the scotch were easily distinguishable by their uniform of blue jerseys.... the jerseys having the thistle embroidered". [105] The thistle had previously been worn to represent Scotland in the 1871 rugby international, but on brown shirts. [106] The shirt is embroidered with a crest based upon the lion rampant of the Royal Standard of Scotland.

Kit left arm.svg
Kit body sco96.png
Kit body.svg
Kit right arm.svg
Kit shorts sco96.png
Kit shorts.svg
Kit socks long.svg
Tartan-style kit with blue shorts worn at UEFA Euro 1996

Another style often used by Scotland comprises blue shirts, white shorts and red socks. Change colours vary, but are most commonly white or yellow shirts with blue shorts. [107] From 1994–96 a tartan kit was used; this kit was worn at UEFA Euro 1996. [108]

Scotland have not always played in dark blue; on a number of occasions between 1881 and 1951 they played in the primrose and pink racing colours of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery. A former Prime Minister, Lord Rosebery was an influential figure in Scottish football, serving as honorary President of the SFA and Edinburgh team Hearts. His colours were used most frequently in the first decade of the 20th century, but were discontinued in 1909. The colours were briefly reprised in 1949, and were last used against France in 1951. In 1900, when Scotland defeated England 4–1, Lord Rosebery remarked, "I have never seen my colours so well sported since Ladas won the Derby". [109] Rosebery colours were revived as a change kit for the UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying matches. [110] [111]

The current version of the crest is a roundel similar to the crest used from 1961 to 1988 enclosing a shield, with "Scotland" written on the top and "Est 1873" on the bottom. In the shield background there are 11 thistles, representing the national flower of Scotland, in addition to the lion rampant. Since 2005, the SFA have supported the use of Scottish Gaelic on the national team's strip in recognition of the language's revival in Scotland. [112]

Supporters

The Tartan Army in Milan in 2005, prior to their 2006 World Cup qualifying match against Italy Tartan Army.png
The Tartan Army in Milan in 2005, prior to their 2006 World Cup qualifying match against Italy

Scotland fans are collectively known as the Tartan Army. During the 1970s, Scotland fans became known for their hooliganism in England, particularly after they invaded the Wembley pitch and destroyed the goalposts after the England v Scotland match in 1977. [113] [114] Since then, the Tartan Army have won awards from UEFA for their combination of vocal support, friendly nature and charity work. [115] [116] The Tartan Army have been awarded a Fair Play prize by the Belgian Olympic Committee [117] and were named as the best supporters during the 1992 European Championship. [117] The fans were also presented with a trophy for non-violence in sport and were voted by journalists to be the best supporters for their sense of fair play and sporting spirit at the 1998 World Cup in France. [118]

Players

Current squad

The following players were called up for the matches against Kazakhstan and San Marino in March 2019. [119] [120]

As of 19:00, 24 March 2019 (UTC)
No.Pos.PlayerDate of birth (age)CapsGoalsClub
1 GK Scott Bain (1991-11-22) 22 November 1991 (age 27)30 Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic
1 GK Liam Kelly (1996-01-23) 23 January 1996 (age 23)00 Flag of Scotland.svg Livingston
1 GK Jon McLaughlin (1987-09-09) 9 September 1987 (age 31)10 Flag of England.svg Sunderland

2 DF David Bates (1996-10-05) 5 October 1996 (age 22)40 Flag of Germany.svg Hamburger SV
2 DF Stuart Findlay (1995-09-14) 14 September 1995 (age 23)00 Flag of Scotland.svg Kilmarnock
2 DF Scott McKenna (1996-11-12) 12 November 1996 (age 22)100 Flag of Scotland.svg Aberdeen
2 DF Stephen O'Donnell (1992-05-11) 11 May 1992 (age 26)70 Flag of Scotland.svg Kilmarnock
2 DF Liam Palmer (1991-09-19) 19 September 1991 (age 27)10 Flag of England.svg Sheffield Wednesday
2 DF Andrew Robertson (captain) (1994-03-11) 11 March 1994 (age 25)292 Flag of England.svg Liverpool
2 DF John Souttar (1996-09-25) 25 September 1996 (age 22)30 Flag of Scotland.svg Heart of Midlothian

3 MF Stuart Armstrong (1992-03-30) 30 March 1992 (age 26)131 Flag of England.svg Southampton
3 MF John Fleck (1991-08-24) 24 August 1991 (age 27)00 Flag of England.svg Sheffield United
3 MF John McGinn (1994-10-18) 18 October 1994 (age 24)140 Flag of England.svg Aston Villa
3 MF Callum McGregor (1993-06-14) 14 June 1993 (age 25)110 Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic
3 MF Kenny McLean (1992-01-08) 8 January 1992 (age 27)61 Flag of England.svg Norwich City
3 MF Scott McTominay (1996-12-08) 8 December 1996 (age 22)70 Flag of England.svg Manchester United
3 MF Callum Paterson (1994-10-13) 13 October 1994 (age 24)120 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Cardiff City [note 2]
3 MF Graeme Shinnie (1991-08-04) 4 August 1991 (age 27)60 Flag of Scotland.svg Aberdeen

4 FW Oliver Burke (1997-04-07) 7 April 1997 (age 21)60 Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic
4 FW James Forrest (1991-07-07) 7 July 1991 (age 27)285 Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic
4 FW Ryan Fraser (1994-02-24) 24 February 1994 (age 25)71 Flag of England.svg Bournemouth
4 FW Oliver McBurnie (1996-06-04) 4 June 1996 (age 22)70 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Swansea City [note 2]
4 FW Marc McNulty (1992-09-14) 14 September 1992 (age 26)20 Flag of Scotland.svg Hibernian
4 FW Lewis Morgan (1996-09-30) 30 September 1996 (age 22)20 Flag of England.svg Sunderland
4 FW Johnny Russell (1990-04-08) 8 April 1990 (age 28)111 Flag of the United States.svg Sporting Kansas City

Recent call-ups

The following players have also been selected by Scotland in the past 12 months.

Pos.PlayerDate of birth (age)CapsGoalsClubLatest call-up
GK Jordan Archer (1993-04-12) 12 April 1993 (age 25)10 Flag of England.svg Millwall 21 March 2019, v. Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan
GK Allan McGregor RET (1982-01-31) 31 January 1982 (age 37)420 Flag of Scotland.svg Rangers 20 November 2018, v. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
GK Jamie MacDonald (1986-04-17) 17 April 1986 (age 32)00 Flag of Scotland.svg Kilmarnock 20 November 2018, v. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
GK Craig Gordon (1982-12-31) 31 December 1982 (age 36)540 Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic 17 November 2018, v. Flag of Albania.svg  Albania

DF Kieran Tierney (1997-06-05) 5 June 1997 (age 21)120 Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic 24 March 2019, v. Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino
DF Charlie Mulgrew (1986-03-06) 6 March 1986 (age 33)393 Flag of England.svg Blackburn Rovers 21 March 2019, v. Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan
DF Jack Hendry (1995-05-07) 7 May 1995 (age 23)30 Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic 20 November 2018, v. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
DF Michael Devlin (1993-10-03) 3 October 1993 (age 25)00 Flag of Scotland.svg Aberdeen 17 November 2018, v. Flag of Albania.svg  Albania
DF Lewis Stevenson (1988-01-05) 5 January 1988 (age 31)10 Flag of Scotland.svg Hibernian 2 June 2018, v. Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
DF Barry Douglas (1989-09-04) 4 September 1989 (age 29)10 Flag of England.svg Leeds United 29 May 2018, v. Flag of Peru (state).svg  Peru

MF Barry Bannan (1989-12-01) 1 December 1989 (age 29)270 Flag of England.svg Sheffield Wednesday 21 March 2019, v. Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan
MF Ryan Christie (1995-02-22) 22 February 1995 (age 24)50 Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic 20 November 2018, v. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
MF Gary Mackay-Steven (1990-08-31) 31 August 1990 (age 28)20 Flag of Scotland.svg Aberdeen 20 November 2018, v. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
MF Kevin McDonald (1988-11-04) 4 November 1988 (age 30)50 Flag of England.svg Fulham 17 November 2018, v. Flag of Albania.svg  Albania
MF Ryan Jack (1992-02-27) 27 February 1992 (age 27)20 Flag of Scotland.svg Rangers 17 November 2018, v. Flag of Albania.svg  Albania
MF Robert Snodgrass (1987-09-07) 7 September 1987 (age 31)267 Flag of England.svg West Ham United 14 October 2018, v. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
MF Tom Cairney (1991-01-20) 20 January 1991 (age 28)20 Flag of England.svg Fulham 7 September 2018, v. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
MF Chris Cadden (1996-09-19) 19 September 1996 (age 22)20 Flag of Scotland.svg Motherwell 2 June 2018, v. Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
MF Dylan McGeouch (1993-01-15) 15 January 1993 (age 26)20 Flag of England.svg Sunderland 2 June 2018, v. Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
MF Jamie Murphy (1989-08-28) 28 August 1989 (age 29)20 Flag of Scotland.svg Rangers 2 June 2018, v. Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
MF Matt Ritchie (1989-09-10) 10 September 1989 (age 29)163 Flag of England.svg Newcastle United 29 May 2018, v. Flag of Peru (state).svg  Peru

FW Steven Fletcher (1987-03-26) 26 March 1987 (age 31)3310 Flag of England.svg Sheffield Wednesday 20 November 2018, v. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
FW Matt Phillips (1991-03-13) 13 March 1991 (age 28)141 Flag of England.svg West Bromwich Albion 20 November 2018, v. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
FW Steven Naismith (1986-09-14) 14 September 1986 (age 32)499 Flag of Scotland.svg Heart of Midlothian 14 October 2018, v. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
FW Leigh Griffiths (1990-08-20) 20 August 1990 (age 28)194 Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic 11 October 2018, v. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel

RET Player has announced retirement from international football.

Honoured players

The Scottish Football Association operates a roll of honour for every player who has made more than 50 appearances for Scotland. [8] As of November 2017 there are 31 members of this roll, [8] with Craig Gordon the most recent addition to the list. The qualifying mark of 50 appearances means that many notable Scotland players including Jim Baxter, Hughie Gallacher, John Greig, Jimmy Johnstone, Billy McNeill, Bobby Murdoch, Archie Gemmill and Lawrie Reilly are not on the roll of honour.

The Scottish Football Museum operates a hall of fame which is open to players and managers involved in Scottish football. This means that membership is not restricted to people who have played for Scotland; inductees include Brian Laudrup and Henrik Larsson. At the most recent induction ceremony, Alan Rough, Martin Buchan, Eddie Gray, Tommy Docherty, Scot Symon and Bobby Walker were added to its membership. [121] Sportscotland operates the Scottish Sports Hall of Fame, which has inducted some footballers. [122]

Managers

From 1872 to 1953, and 1954 to 1957, the Scotland national team was appointed by a selection committee. Andy Beattie was manager for six matches in 1954 when Scotland competed at their first World Cup. After the tournament the selection committee resumed their duties, continuing until the appointment of Matt Busby in 1958. Busby was initially unable to assume his duties due to the serious injuries he sustained in the Munich air disaster. [19]

Statistically the most successful manager was Alex McLeish, who won seven of the ten games during his first spell as manager. Discounting managers who took charge of less than ten games, the least successful manager was George Burley, with just three wins in 14 games.

NameScotland careerPlayedWonDrawnLostWin %
Selection committee1872–19532311394250060.17
Andy Beattie 19546213033.33
Selection committee1954–1957231076043.48
Dawson Walker [note 3] 19586123016.67
Matt Busby 19582110050.00
Andy Beattie 1959–196012336025.00
Ian McColl 1960–1965281738060.71
Jock Stein 1965–19667313042.86
John Prentice 19664013000.00
Malky McDonald [note 4] 1966–19672110050.00
Bobby Brown 1967–1971289811032.14
Tommy Docherty 1971–197212723058.33
Willie Ormond 1973–19773818812047.37
Ally MacLeod 1977–197817755041.18
Jock Stein 1978–198561261223042.62
Alex Ferguson [note 5] 1985–198610343030.00
Andy Roxburgh 1986–199361231919037.70
Craig Brown 1993–200271321821045.07
Berti Vogts 2002–2004318716025.81
Tommy Burns [note 4] 20041001000.00
Walter Smith 2004–200716754043.75
Alex McLeish 200710703070.00
George Burley 2008–200914338021.43
Craig Levein 2009–2012241059041.67
Billy Stark [note 4] 20121100100.00
Gordon Strachan 2013–20174019912047.50
Malky Mackay [note 4] 20171001000.00
Alex McLeish 2018–12507041.67
Totals769362167240047.07

Last updated: San Marino v Scotland, 24 March 2019. Statistics include official FIFA-recognised matches only. The SFA includes a match against a Hong Kong League XI played on 23 May 2002 in its statistical totals. [123] [124]

Records

Kenny Dalglish scored a joint record 30 goals in a record 102 international appearances for Scotland between 1971 and 1986. Kenny Dalglish 2009 Singapore.jpg
Kenny Dalglish scored a joint record 30 goals in a record 102 international appearances for Scotland between 1971 and 1986.

Kenny Dalglish holds the record for Scotland appearances, having played 102 times between 1971 and 1986. He is the only Scotland player to have reached 100 caps. [8] Jim Leighton is second, having played 91 times, a Scottish record for appearances by a goalkeeper. [8] The title of Scotland's highest goalscorer is shared by two players. Denis Law scored 30 goals between 1958 and 1974, during which time he played for Scotland on 55 occasions. Kenny Dalglish scored an equal number from 102 appearances. Hughie Gallacher as well as being the third highest scorer is also the most prolific with his 24 goals coming from only 20 games (averaging 1.2 goals per game). [125]

The largest margin of victory achieved by a Scotland side is 11–0 against Ireland in the 1901 British Home Championship. [126] The record defeat occurred during the 1954 FIFA World Cup, a 7–0 deficit against reigning world champions Uruguay. [127]

Scotland's 1937 British Home Championship match against England set a new world record for a football attendance. The Hampden Park crowd was officially recorded as 149,415, though the true figure is unknown as a large number of additional fans gained unauthorised entry. This attendance was surpassed 13 years later by the decisive match of the 1950 FIFA World Cup, but remains a European record. [128] [129]

United Kingdom team

Scotland has always participated by itself in most of the major tournaments, such as the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship. At the Olympic Games the International Olympic Committee charter only permit a Great Britain Olympic football team, representing the whole of the United Kingdom, to compete. [130] Teams of amateur players represented Great Britain at the Olympics from 1900 until 1972, but the FA stopped entering a team after then because the distinction between amateur and professional was abolished. The successful bid by London for the 2012 Summer Olympics prompted the FA to explore how a team could be entered. [131] The SFA responded by stating that it would not participate, as it feared that this would threaten the independent status of the Scotland national team. [132] FIFA President Sepp Blatter denied this, [133] but the SFA expressed concern that a future President could take a different view. An agreement was reached in May 2009 whereby the FA would be permitted to organise a team using only England-qualified players, [134] but this was successfully challenged by the British Olympic Association. Only English and Welsh players were selected for the men's squad, [135] but two Scottish players were selected for the women's team. [136]

Notes

  1. The competition did not use goal difference or goal average to separate teams level on points, so the title was shared instead.
  2. 1 2 Cardiff City and Swansea City are Welsh clubs that play in the English football league system.
  3. Dawson Walker was left in charge of the players due to the Munich air disaster, in which official manager Matt Busby was seriously injured.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Served as manager on a caretaker basis.
  5. Alex Ferguson was interim manager, following the death of Jock Stein.

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