This article is a record of Scotland's results at the FIFA World Cup . Scotland have played at eight World Cups,including five consecutive tournaments from 1974 to 1990. Scotland have never advanced beyond the first round of the finals competition. They have missed out on progressing to the second round three times on goal difference: in 1974, when Brazil edged them out; in 1978, when the Netherlands progressed; and in 1982, when the USSR qualified.
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. It competes in the three major professional tournaments, the FIFA World Cup, UEFA Nations League and the UEFA European Championship. Scotland, as a constituent country of the United Kingdom, is not a member of the International Olympic Committee and therefore the national team does not compete in the Olympic Games. The majority of Scotland's home matches are played at the national stadium, Hampden Park.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War. The current champion is France, which won its second title at the 2018 tournament in Russia.
The 1974 FIFA World Cup was the 10th FIFA World Cup, and was played in West Germany between 13 June and 7 July. The tournament marked the first time that the current trophy, the FIFA World Cup Trophy, created by the Italian sculptor Silvio Gazzaniga, was awarded. The previous trophy, the Jules Rimet Trophy, had been won for the third time by Brazil in 1970 and awarded permanently to the Brazilians. The host nation won the title, beating the Netherlands 2–1 in the final at Munich's Olympiastadion. The victory was the second for West Germany, who had also won in 1954. Australia, East Germany, Haiti and Zaire made their first appearances at the final stage, with East Germany making their only appearance before Germany was reunified in 1990.
The Scottish Football Association (SFA) is the second oldest in the world; it was founded in 1873, the year after the first official international match was played between Scotland and England at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow.
The Scottish Football Association, is the governing body of football in Scotland and has the ultimate responsibility for the control and development of football in Scotland. Members of the SFA include clubs in Scotland, affiliated national associations as well as local associations. It was formed in 1873, making it the second oldest national football association in the world. It is not to be confused with the "Scottish Football Union", which is the name that the SRU was known by until the 1920s.
The England national football team represents England in senior men's international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England.
Hamilton Crescent is a cricket ground located in the Partick area of Glasgow, Scotland. It is the home of the West of Scotland Cricket Club.
The FIFA World Cup is an international association football competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The competition has been held every four years since the first tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946, due to World War II.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.
The 1930 FIFA World Cup was the inaugural FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Uruguay from 13 to 30 July 1930. FIFA, football's international governing body, selected Uruguay as host nation, as the country would be celebrating the centenary of its first constitution, and the Uruguay national football team had successfully retained their football title at the 1928 Summer Olympics. All matches were played in the Uruguayan capital, Montevideo, the majority at the Estadio Centenario, which was built for the tournament.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
The World Cup consists of two parts, the qualification phase and the final phase (officially called the World Cup Finals). The qualification phase, which currently take place over the three years preceding the Finals, is used to determine which teams qualify for the Finals. The current format of the Finals involves 32 teams competing at venues within the host nation (or nations) over a period of about a month. The World Cup Finals is the most widely viewed sporting event in the world, with an estimated 715.1 million people watching the 2006 tournament final.
The FIFA World Cup qualification is the process that a national association football team goes through to qualify for the FIFA World Cup finals. The FIFA World Cup is the largest international team sport competition in the world with a qualification process required to reduce the large field of countries from 211 to just 32 for the World Cup finals.
Scotland did not compete in the first three World Cup competitions, in 1930, 1934 and 1938. Because of a dispute with FIFA over "broken-time" payments to players, the SFA, with the football associations of England, Ireland and Wales, withdrew from FIFA in 1928,and did not rejoin as a permanent member until 1946.
The 1934 FIFA World Cup was the second FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Italy from 27 May to 10 June 1934.
The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from 4 to 19 June 1938. Italy retained the championship by beating Hungary 4–2 in the final. Italy's 1934 and 1938 teams became the only ones to have won two World Cups under the same coach, Vittorio Pozzo.
The readmission of the Scottish Football Association to FIFA in 1946 meant that Scotland were now eligible to enter the 1950 FIFA World Cup. FIFA advised that places would be awarded to the top two teams in the 1949–50 British Home Championship, but the SFA announced that Scotland would attend the finals only if Scotland won the competition.Scotland won their first two matches, but a 1–0 home defeat by England meant that the Scots finished as runners-up. The SFA stood by this proclamation, despite pleas to the contrary by the Scotland players, supported by England captain Billy Wright and the other England players. Sportswriter Brian Glanville later described the SFA as showing "baffling insularity and pique" in their refusal to send a team to the World Cup.
The 1950 FIFA World Cup, held in Brazil from 24 June to 16 July 1950, was the fourth FIFA World Cup. It was the first World Cup since 1938, the planned 1942 and 1946 competitions having been cancelled due to World War II. It was won by Uruguay, who had won the inaugural competition in 1930. They clinched the cup by beating the hosts Brazil 2–1 in the deciding match of the four-team final group. This was the only tournament not decided by a one-match final. It was also the first tournament where the trophy was referred to as the Jules Rimet Cup, to mark the 25th anniversary of Jules Rimet's presidency of FIFA.
1949–50 British Home Championship was one of the most significant competitions of the British Home Championship football tournament. This year saw the competition doubling up as Group 1 in the qualifying rounds for the 1950 FIFA World Cup. It was the first time that either England, Wales, Scotland or Ireland (IFA) had entered a World Cup competition. It was also a significant moment in the history of Irish football as it was the last time that the (Northern) Irish Football Association entered a team featuring players born in both Northern Ireland and what is now the Republic of Ireland.
Brian Lester Glanville is an English football writer and novelist.
The same qualification rules as in 1950 were in place for the 1954 FIFA World Cup, with the 1953–54 British Home Championship acting as a qualifying group. Scotland again finished second, but this time the SFA allowed a team to participate in the Finals, held in Switzerland. To quote the SFA website, "The preparation was atrocious".The SFA only sent 13 players to the finals, even though FIFA allowed 22-man squads at the tournament. Despite this self-imposed hardship in terms of players, the SFA dignitaries travelled in numbers, accompanied with their wives. Scotland lost 1–0 against Austria in their first game in the finals. After falling out with the SFA, probably due to the poor preparation of the team, manager Andy Beattie resigned hours before the game against Uruguay. Uruguay were reigning champions and had never before lost a game at the World Cup finals. The gulf in class was exposed in horrific fashion as Uruguay won 7–0.
Scotland qualified for the 1958 FIFA World Cup, finishing ahead of Spain.Manchester United manager Matt Busby had been due to manage the Scotland team at the World Cup, but the severe injuries he suffered in the Munich air disaster in February meant that trainer Dawson Walker took charge of the team instead. In their first match at the finals Scotland achieved a creditable draw against Yugoslavia. Players Archie Robertson and Tommy Docherty were sent to watch next opponents Paraguay and they reported back that Paraguay was a "rough, fit and good" team. Walker chose to ignore this advice and left out some of his combative players, including Docherty, and Scotland lost 3–2. They exited the competition after also losing to France.
Scotland failed to qualify for another World Cup in the next 16 years.In the 1962 competition, a "skilful but fragile" team finished joint-top of UEFA qualification group 8 with Czechoslovakia. This meant that the teams had to play-off in a neutral venue for the qualification place, which the Czechs won 4–2 after extra time.
Jock Stein was appointed manager on a part-time basis ahead of 1966 FIFA World Cup qualification.Scotland were drawn with Italy, Poland and Finland in UEFA qualification group 8. Scotland got off to a good start with two wins against Finland and a draw in Poland, but then conceded two late goals to lose 2–1 to Poland at home. A 1–0 home win against Italy kept hopes alive going into the final game, where Scotland either needed to win in Italy to qualify or draw to force another play-off. Several first choice players withdrew due to injury; Scotland lost 3–0 and failed to qualify. Stein relinquished the Scotland job after this defeat to concentrate on his full-time role with Celtic.
Now managed by Bobby Brown, Scotland were drawn with West Germany, Austria and Cyprus in their 1970 qualification group.Scotland started well, beating Austria at home and scoring 13 goals in the two matches against Cyprus. A draw at home with West Germany meant that Scotland needed to avoid defeat in the return game to retain any hope of qualification. Scotland scored first in Hamburg, and then equalised midway through the second half, but succumbed to a 3–2 defeat.
Willie Ormond was appointed Scotland manager in 1973. Ormond lost his first match in charge 5–0 to England, but recovered to steer Scotland to the 1974 World Cup finals in West Germany. Scotland then achieved their most impressive performance at a World Cup tournament,as the team was unbeaten but failed to progress beyond the group stages on goal difference. After beating Zaire, they drew with both Brazil and Yugoslavia, and went out because they had beaten Zaire by the smallest margin. This performance has been assessed as a "gallant failure", but the choice to retain possession instead of pressing for more goals against Zaire has been criticised.
Scotland appointed Ally MacLeod as manager in 1977. Scotland qualified for the 1978 FIFA World Cup with victories over Czechoslovakia and Wales.During the build-up to the tournament, MacLeod fuelled the hopes of the nation by stating that Scotland would come home from Argentina with a medal. As the squad left for the finals, they were given an enthusiastic send off as they were paraded around a packed Hampden Park. Thousands more fans lined the route to Prestwick Airport as the team set off for South America. This enthusiasm was not just generated internally, as respected coaches such as Rinus Michels and Miljan Miljanić rated Scotland amongst the favourites to win the competition. The Royal Mail commissioned designs of commemorative stamps that would have been circulated if Scotland had won the World Cup.
Scotland's first game was against Peru in Córdoba. Two spectacular goals by Teófilo Cubillas meant that the result was a 3–1 loss. The second game was a very disappointing 1–1 draw against Iran.Scotland had not even scouted Iran. The disconsolate mood of the nation was reflected by footage of Ally MacLeod in the dugout with his head in his hands. MacLeod had made strange selection choices, picking inexperienced full-backs and retaining the out-of-form Bruce Rioch and Don Masson.
After taking a single point from their opening two games, Scotland had to defeat the Netherlands by three clear goals to progress.Despite the Dutch taking the lead, Scotland fought back to win 3–2 with a goal from Kenny Dalglish and two from Archie Gemmill, the second of which is considered one of the greatest World Cup goals ever; Gemmill beat three Dutch defenders before lifting the ball over goalkeeper Jan Jongbloed into the net. The victory was not sufficient to secure a place in the second round, however, as Scotland were eliminated on goal difference for the second successive World Cup. This performance against strong opponents only heightened the frustration at the poor results earlier in the competition. MacLeod initially retained his position, but resigned later that year.
Jock Stein, who had won nine consecutive Scottish league titles and the European Cup as manager of Celtic, was appointed Scotland manager in 1978.After failing to qualify for the 1980 European Championship, Scotland qualified for the 1982 FIFA World Cup from a tough group including Sweden, Portugal, Israel and Northern Ireland, losing just one match in the process. They were then drawn in a "Group of death" with New Zealand, Brazil and the Soviet Union. Scotland beat New Zealand by 5–2 in their first game, but then lost 4–1 to a Brazil team containing Socrates, Zico, Eder and Falcão. Scotland were again eliminated on goal difference, after a 2–2 draw with the Soviet Union. This match is best remembered for defenders Alan Hansen and Willie Miller colliding while chasing a long ball, which allowed the Soviets to run through and score.
Scotland qualified for the 1986 FIFA World Cup, their fourth in succession, in traumatic circumstances. The squad went into their last qualification match against Wales needing a point to progress to a qualifying playoff against Australia. With only nine minutes remaining and Wales leading 1–0, Scotland were awarded a penalty kick, which was calmly scored by Davie Cooper.The 1–1 draw meant that Scotland progressed, but as the players and fans celebrated, national coach Jock Stein suffered a heart attack and died shortly afterwards. His assistant Alex Ferguson took over. Scotland qualified by winning 2–0 against Australia in a two-leg playoff, but were again drawn into a group of death, this time with Uruguay, Denmark and West Germany. Scotland were eliminated from the tournament with just one point from their three matches, a goalless draw with Uruguay.
Now managed by Andy Roxburgh, Scotland qualified for their fifth consecutive World Cup in 1990 by finishing second in their qualifying group behind Yugoslavia and ahead of France.In the finals they were drawn in a group with Costa Rica, Sweden, and Brazil, but the Scots lost 1–0 to Costa Rica in their opening match. While they recovered to beat Sweden 2–1 in their second game, they lost to Brazil in their third match 1–0 and were once again eliminated after the first round. Goalkeeper Jim Leighton fumbled a shot that allowed Brazil to score the only goal.
Scotland failed to qualify for the 1994 FIFA World Cup. The team finished fourth in their qualifying group behind Italy, Switzerland and Portugal. When it became clear that Scotland could not qualify, Andy Roxburgh resigned from his position as team manager.
Craig Brown guided Scotland to qualification for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, finishing as the best runners-up. Scotland were drawn against holders Brazil in the opening game of the World Cup.John Collins scored from the penalty spot to level the score at 1–1, but a Tom Boyd own goal led to a 2–1 defeat. Scotland drew their next game 1–1 with Norway in Bordeaux, but the final match against Morocco ended in a 3–0 defeat. Scotland have not appeared at the World Cup since.
Scotland failed to qualify for the 2002 FIFA World Cup, finishing third in their qualifying group behind Croatia and Belgium.Craig Brown to resigned after the final qualifying match.
The SFA then appointed the first foreign manager of Scotland, former Germany manager Berti Vogts.Poor results in friendly matches and a bad start to 2006 FIFA World Cup qualification caused the team to drop to a record low of 77th in the FIFA World Rankings. Vogts announced his resignation in 2004, blaming the hostile media for his departure. Walter Smith was brought in to replace Vogts and some improved results followed, but the team finished third in their group behind Italy and Norway and failed to qualify.
After a narrow failure to qualify for UEFA Euro 2008, George Burley was hired as the new Scotland manager. He was criticised by the media after the team lost their first 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification match against Macedonia.After Scotland lost their fourth match 3–0 to the Netherlands, captain Barry Ferguson and goalkeeper Allan McGregor were excluded from the starting lineup for the following match against Iceland due to a "breach of discipline". Despite winning 2–1 against Iceland, Scotland suffered a terrible 4–0 defeat by Norway in the following qualifier, which left Scotland effectively needing to win their last two games to have a realistic chance of making the qualifying play-offs. Scotland defeated Macedonia 2–0 in the first of those two games, but were eliminated by a 1–0 loss to the Netherlands in the second game. Burley was sacked after a 3–0 friendly defeat by Wales soon afterwards.
Craig Levein replaced Burley, but he left following a poor start to 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification, having taken just two points from four games.Gordon Strachan was appointed Scotland manager in January 2013, but defeats in his first two competitive matches meant that Scotland were the first UEFA team to be mathematically eliminated from the 2014 World Cup. Scotland finished their qualification section by winning three of their last four matches, including two victories against Croatia.
In qualification for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, Scotland were drawn in the same group as England, facing their rivals in a competitive fixture for the first time since 1999.On 11 November 2016, England beat Scotland 3–0 at Wembley. The return match saw Leigh Griffiths score two late free-kicks to give Scotland a 2–1 lead, but Harry Kane scored in added time to force a 2–2 draw. A draw in Slovenia in the final game of the group ended Scottish hopes of a play-off position, and Strachan subsequently left his position by mutual consent.
|1930||Did not enter|
|1950||Withdrew||Group – 2nd||3||2||0||1||10||3|
|1954||Round 1||2||0||0||2||0||8||Group – 2nd||3||1||1||1||8||8|
|1958||Round 1||3||0||1||2||4||6||Group – 1st||4||3||0||1||10||9|
|1962||Did not qualify||Group – 2nd||5||3||0||2||12||11|
|1966||Group – 2nd||6||3||1||2||8||8|
|1970||Group – 2nd||6||3||1||2||18||7|
|1974||Round 1||3||1||2||0||3||1||Group – 1st||4||3||0||1||8||3|
|1978||Round 1||3||1||1||1||5||6||Group – 1st||4||3||0||1||6||3|
|1982||Round 1||3||1||1||1||8||8||Group – 1st||8||4||3||1||9||4|
|1990||Round 1||3||1||0||2||2||3||Group – 2nd||8||4||2||2||12||12|
|1994||Did not qualify||Group – 4th||10||4||3||3||14||13|
|1998||Round 1||3||0||1||2||2||6||Group – 2nd||10||7||2||1||15||3|
|2002||Did not qualify||Group – 3rd||8||4||3||1||12||6|
|2006||Group – 3rd||10||3||4||3||9||7|
|2010||Group – 3rd||8||3||1||4||6||11|
|2014||Group – 4th||10||3||2||5||8||12|
|2018||Group – 3rd||10||5||3||2||17||12|
| 1954 |
| 1958 |
| 1974 |
|Group stage||2–0||W||Dortmund||Lorimer, Jordan|
| 1978 |
|3–2||W||Mendoza||Dalglish, Gemmill (2)|
| 1982 |
|Group stage||5–2||W||Málaga||Dalglish, Wark (2), Robertson, Archibald|
| 1986 |
| 1990 |
| 1998 |
|1||Jim Leighton||9||1986, 1990 and 1998|
|2||Kenny Dalglish||8||1974, 1978 and 1982|
|3||Joe Jordan||7||1974, 1978 and 1982|
|4||Alan Rough||6||1978 and 1982|
|Graeme Souness||6||1978, 1982 and 1986|
|Gordon Strachan||6||1982 and 1986|
|Roy Aitken||6||1986 and 1990|
|8||Martin Buchan||5||1974 and 1978|
|Danny McGrain||5||1974 and 1982|
|Willie Miller||5||1982 and 1986|
|David Narey||5||1982 and 1986|
|Alex McLeish||5||1982, 1986 and 1990|
|Maurice Malpas||5||1986 and 1990|
|1||Joe Jordan||4||1974 (2), 1978 (1) and 1982 (1)|
|Kenny Dalglish||2||1978 and 1982|
The Republic of Ireland national football team represents Ireland in association football. It is governed by the Football Association of Ireland (FAI) and stages its home fixtures at the Aviva Stadium in Dublin.
The Wales national football team represents Wales in international football. It is controlled by the Football Association of Wales (FAW), the governing body for football in Wales and the third-oldest national football association in the world.
The Latvia national football team represents the country in international football competitions, such as the World Cup and the European Championships. It is controlled by the Latvian Football Federation, the governing body for football in Latvia. They have never qualified for the World Cup, but they have, however, qualified for the European Championship in 2004, under Aleksandrs Starkovs.
The Czech national football team represents the Czech Republic in association football and is controlled by the Football Association of the Czech Republic, the governing body for football in the Czech Republic. Historically, the team participated in FIFA and UEFA competitions as Bohemia, Austria-Hungary and Czechoslovakia, finishing second at the 1934 and 1962 World Cups and winning the European Championship in 1976.
Hans-Hubert "Berti" Vogts is a former German footballer who played as a defender. He played for Borussia Mönchengladbach in the Bundesliga his whole professional club career and won the FIFA World Cup with West Germany in 1974. He later managed the national teams of Germany, Scotland, Nigeria and Azerbaijan.
The Faroe Islands national football team, represents the Faroe Islands in association football and is controlled by the Faroe Islands Football Association. The Faroe Islands became a member of FIFA in 1988 and UEFA in 1990 and is the fourth smallest UEFA country by population.
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Alistair Reid "Ally" MacLeod was a Scottish professional football player and manager. He is perhaps best known for his time as the Scotland national football team manager, including their appearance at the 1978 FIFA World Cup. MacLeod played as a left winger for Third Lanark, St Mirren, Blackburn Rovers, Hibernian and Ayr United. He then managed Ayr United, Aberdeen, Scotland, Motherwell, Airdrieonians and Queen of the South.
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The England women's national football team has been governed by the Football Association (FA) since 1993, having been previously administered by the Women's Football Association (WFA). England played its first international match in November 1972 against Scotland. Although most national football teams represent a sovereign state, as a member of the United Kingdom's Home Nations, England is permitted by FIFA statutes to maintain its own national side that competes in all major tournaments, with the exception of the Women's Olympic Football Tournament.
The Scotland women's national football team represents Scotland in international women's football competitions. Since 1998, the team has been governed by the Scottish Football Association (SFA). Scotland qualified in the FIFA Women's World Cup for the first time in 2019, and qualified for their first UEFA Women's Euro in 2017. As of December 2018, the team was 20th in the FIFA Women's World Rankings.
Andrew Roxburgh is a Scottish former football player and manager currently serving as an administrator. Roxburgh's entire professional playing career was spent in the Scottish Football League. After retiring as a player, he was appointed as the Scottish Football Association's first Director of Coaching. He achieved success with the national youth teams, winning the 1982 UEFA European Under-18 Football Championship.
The history of the Scotland national football team dates back to the first ever international football match in 1872. Until the Second World War, Scotland mainly competed against the other Home Nations in the British Home Championship, with the most keenly contested fixture being the match with England. The Scottish Football Association, which governs the team, joined the international governing body FIFA in 1910, but along with the other Home Nations withdrew from FIFA in 1928. This meant that Scotland did not participate in the World Cups of 1930, 1934 or 1938. The Home Nations rejoined FIFA after the Second World War and Scotland then started to participate in international competitions. Scotland have since participated in eight World Cups and two European Championship tournaments, but have never progressed beyond the first stage. Scotland have not qualified for a tournament since the 1998 World Cup.
Craig Alexander Thomson is a Scottish football referee who has been a match official since 1988. Thomson originates from Paisley, Renfrewshire.
Jorge Aarón Claros Juárez is a Honduran footballer, who plays for Alajuelense.
Scotland was one of the earliest modern footballing nations, with Glasgow club Queen's Park early pioneers of the game throughout the UK. More clubs formed in Scotland, resulting in the commencement of the first major competition in 1873, the Scottish Cup, then the founding of the Scottish Football League in 1890. With the official sanctioning of professionalism, the Old Firm of Celtic and Rangers became dominant in Scotland, and remain so, although other clubs have enjoyed brief periods of success too.
The FIFA World Cup is an international association football competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The championship has been contested every four years since the first tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946, due to World War II. The Wales national football team has entered every World Cup since the 1950 tournament, but to date has only qualified for one World Cup, in 1958. On that occasion, they reached the quarter-finals before being eliminated by eventual winners Brazil.
The role of a Scotland national football team manager was first established in May 1954, when Andy Beattie was appointed. Beattie took charge of six matches before and during the 1954 FIFA World Cup, when Scotland competed at their first major tournament. Twenty-two men have occupied the post since its inception, with Beattie and Jock Stein occupying it in two different spells. Five of those managers were in caretaker or interim roles. Craig Brown held the position for the longest to date; a tenure of 9 years, comprising two major tournaments and a total of 71 matches.
The UEFA European Football Championship is the main football competition of the men's national football teams governed by UEFA. Held every four years since 1960, in the even-numbered year between World Cup tournaments, it was originally called the UEFA European Nations Cup, changing to the current name in 1968. Starting with the 1996 tournament, specific championships are often referred to in the form "Euro 2008" or whichever year is appropriate. Prior to entering the tournament all teams other than the host nations compete in a qualifying process.