Dead ball

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Dead ball is a term in many ball sports in which the ball is deemed temporarily not playable, and no movement may be made with it or the players from their respective positions of significance. Depending on the sport, this event may be quite routine, and often occurs between individual plays of the game.

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Gridiron football

In gridiron football, a dead ball is a condition that occurs between football plays, after one of the following has occurred:

The ball remains dead until it is snapped to begin the next play. During the time in which the ball is dead, the offensive team may not attempt to advance it and no change of possession can take place. The clock may or may not be stopped during this time, depending on the circumstances.

In the past, in the NFL, the ball was also dead if it came into the possession of the defense for any reason during the try after a touchdown. This rule was changed for the 2015 season, allowing the ball to remain live so that the defense could attempt to return it for a defensive two-point conversion.

Flag football

Times when it can be a dead ball:

See more information in flag football

Baseball

In baseball, when the ball is dead, no runners may advance beyond the respective bases they are entitled to, and no runners may be put out. The ball becomes dead when: [1]

In general, the ball does not automatically become dead after playing action ends. So, for example, although the recording of a third out generally winds down a half inning, the ball is not automatically dead. If it is to the advantage of the defense to attempt to record a fourth out for any reason, the ball is live and such a play is permitted.

After a dead ball, the ball becomes alive again when the pitcher stands on the pitcher's plate ready to pitch, the batter, catcher and umpire are ready, and the umpire calls or signals "Play."

Players and coaches may ask an umpire for "time," but they themselves may not call "time" and cause the ball to become dead. Nevertheless, "time" is usually granted by the umpire when asked, and thus, colloquially, it is often said that players or coaches indeed can "call time." Unlike sports which have clocks to time the play, the phrase "time out" is not used in baseball. Likewise, there is no limit to the number of times a team can "call time."

In baseball, the term "dead ball" is also used in the context of the dead-ball era, a phase during the early history of the game in the early 1900s. In this context, the ball was not actually "dead" but for various reasons tended to be difficult to hit for distance, resulting in low scores and few home runs by modern standards.

Cricket

In cricket, a dead ball is a particular state of play in which the players may not perform any of the active aspects of the game, [5] meaning batsmen may not score runs and fielders may not attempt to get batsmen out.

'The words "dead ball" were first used in the laws in 1798', in relation to a new law imposing a penalty of five runs if the fielder stopped the ball with his hat. 'Before 1798 the words "dead ball" were not used but the meaning was implicit in some of the other laws of the day.' [6]

The ball, referring to the cricket ball, becomes live when the bowler begins his run up in preparation to bowl at the batsman. In the live state, play occurs with the batsmen able to score runs and get out.

The ball becomes dead when any of the following situations occur:

Umpires may also call dead ball at their discretion, in the case of a series for events for which there is no provision in either the Laws of Cricket or agreements made prior to the match. This happened on 9 October 2005, when Australian batsman Michael Hussey hit the retracted roof at the Telstra Dome. What would have been six in an open stadium was ruled a dead ball, and no runs were awarded.

Note that the ball becomes dead as soon as a batsman is out, so it is not possible to dismiss the other batsman immediately. Thus the baseball concept of a double play cannot occur in cricket.

If necessary to make it clear to the players and scorers that the umpire considers the ball to be dead, the umpire signals dead ball by crossing and uncrossing his arms in front of his body.

Association football

In association football (soccer), the term "dead ball" refers to a situation when the ball is not in play, e.g. when play has not been restarted after the ball has gone out of bounds or a foul has been committed. It also applies before each kick-off, either at the start of each half or after a goal has been scored. In a dead ball situation, players can position the ball with their hands prior to restarting play. Furthermore, even though the ball is not in play, the referee may still issue cautions or ejections (yellow or red cards) for any incident that occurs off the ball. Fouls, on the other hand, can occur only while the ball is in play.

Basketball

In basketball, most or any time play is stopped the ball is considered dead, such as when a foul has been committed and called by a referee, a foul shot has been attempted and another one is yet to be attempted, or the ball has gone out of bounds. Player substitutions may then be made. Section IV of the NBA rule book contains the official definition of a dead ball. [7] [8] [9]

Rugby league

Each end of a rugby league field has a dead ball line, when the ball (or player in possession) crosses or touches this line, the ball is said to have gone dead. This results in a goal line drop out if the defending team had caused the ball to go dead; otherwise, a 20-metre restart ensues.

See also

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Baseball rules overview about the rules of baseball at different levels and in different countries

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Appeal play

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Comparison of baseball and cricket

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Ground rule double

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Bat-and-ball games Field games played by two opposing teams

Bat-and-ball games are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the action starts when the defending team throws a ball at a dedicated player of the attacking team, who tries to hit it with a bat and run between various safe areas in the field to score runs (points), while the defending team can use the ball in various ways against the attacking team's players to force them off the field, and thus prevent them from further scoring, when they are not in safe zones. The best known modern bat-and-ball games are cricket and baseball, with common roots in the 18th-century games played in England.

Out of bounds Concept in many sports related to the edge of the playing area

In sports, out of bounds refers to being outside the playing boundaries of the field. Due to the chaotic nature of play, it is normal in many sports for players and/or the ball to go out of bounds frequently during a game. The legality of going out of bounds, and the ease of prevention, vary by sport. In some cases, players may intentionally go or send the ball out of bounds when it is to their advantage.

References

  1. Baseball Field Guide: An In-Depth Illustrated Guide to the Complete Rules of Baseball by Dan Formosa, Da Capo Press; Rev Upd edition (April 7, 2008), ISBN   0-306-81653-9.
  2. "Tropicana Field Ground Rules". MLB.com . Tampa Bay Rays. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  3. Branch, John (5 October 2010). "Tropicana Field's Problems Will Be Reduced With New Ground Rules". The New York Times . Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  4. Blackburn, Pete (9 May 2018). "WATCH: Rays' Adeiny Hechavarria suffers bizarre injury thanks to ball off Tropicana Field catwalk". CBS Sports.com. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  5. "Law 20 – Dead ball". MCC. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  6. Osler, Don (2010). Wisden's The Laws Of Cricket. Random House. ISBN   9781446406717.
  7. "NBA Rulebook". NBA.com. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
  8. "Dead Ball" . Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  9. "Mimi.hu" . Retrieved 5 August 2011.