In American football, a pass deflected, also known as a pass deflection,  a pass defended, a pass defensed, a pass knockdown, or a pass breakup, is an incomplete pass that is caused by a defensive player. This is done by slapping or blocking the ball with a hand or part of the arm, knocking the ball to the ground. It can also be done by aggressively hitting the receiver at the exact moment he first makes contact with the ball, or shortly thereafter, jarring the ball loose. If the defender hits the receiver before the latter first makes contact with the ball, it is pass interference.
Most forms of football have a move known as a tackle. The primary and important purposes of tackling are to dispossess an opponent of the ball, to stop the player from gaining ground towards goal or to stop them from carrying out what they intend.
Field hockey is a widely played team sport of the hockey family. The game can be played on grass, watered turf, artificial turf or synthetic field, as well as an indoor boarded surface. Each team plays with ten field players and a goalkeeper. Players use sticks made of wood, carbon fibre, fibre glass, or a combination of carbon fibre and fibre glass in different quantities, to hit a round, hard, plastic hockey ball. The length of the hockey stick is based on the player's individual height: the top of the stick usually comes to the players hip, and taller players typically have longer sticks. The sticks have a round side and a flat side, and only the flat face of the stick is allowed to be used. Use of the other side results in a foul. Goalies often have a different design of stick, although they can also use an ordinary field hockey stick. The specific goal-keeping sticks have another curve at the end of the stick, which is to give it more surface area to block the ball. The uniform consists of shin guards, shoes, shorts or a skirt, a mouthguard and a jersey.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules. It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964.
A wide receiver, also referred to as a wideout, formerly a split end, is a ball-receiver in gridiron football. A key position, it gets its name from the player being split out "wide", farthest away from the rest of the offensive formation.
In gridiron football, blitzing is a tactic used by the defense to disrupt pass attempts by the offense. During a blitz, a higher than usual number of defensive players will rush the opposing quarterback, in an attempt either to tackle him or force him to hurry his pass attempt.
A fair catch is a feature of American football and several other codes of football, in which a player attempting to catch a ball kicked by the opposing team – either on a kickoff or punt – is entitled to catch the ball without interference from any member of the kicking team. A ball caught in this manner becomes dead once caught, i.e., the player catching the ball is not entitled to advance the ball, and the receiving team begins its drive at the spot where the ball was caught. Under NFL and NFHS rules, a team awarded a fair catch is also entitled to attempt a fair catch kick from the spot of the catch; however, this is rarely done. A player wishing to make a fair catch signals his intent by extending one arm above his head and waving it while the kicked ball is in flight.
In American and Canadian gridiron football, pass interference (PI) is a foul that occurs when a player interferes with an eligible receiver's ability to make a fair attempt to catch a forward pass. Pass interference may include tripping, pushing, pulling, or cutting in front of the receiver, covering the receiver's face, or pulling on the receiver's hands or arms. It does not include catching or batting the ball before it reaches the receiver. Once the ball touches any defensive player or eligible offensive receiver, the above rules no longer apply and the defender may tackle the receiver or attempt to prevent him from gaining control of the ball. Once a forward pass is in the air it is a loose ball and thus any eligible receiver – all defensive players are eligible receivers – may try to catch it. When a defensive player catches a forward pass it is an interception and his team gains possession of the ball. Some actions that are defined as pass interference may be overlooked if the defender is attempting to catch or bat the ball rather than focusing on the receiver.
An incomplete pass is a term in gridiron football which means that a legal forward pass hits the ground before a player on either team gains possession. For example, if the quarterback throws the ball to one of his wide receivers, and the receiver either does not touch it or tries to catch it unsuccessfully, it is ruled as an incomplete pass. An incomplete pass causes the down to advance by one and the offensive team gains no yards. The game clock is stopped.
A formation in football refers to the position players line up in before the start of a down. There are both offensive and defensive formations and there are many formations in both categories. Sometimes, formations are referred to as packages.
Jamar Mondell Israel, born Jamar Mondell Fletcher, is an American former college and professional football player who was a cornerback in the National Football League (NFL) for eight seasons in the early 2000s. He played college football for the University of Wisconsin, and was a two-time All-American. The Miami Dolphins chose him in the first round of the 2001 NFL Draft, and he also played professionally for the San Diego Chargers, Detroit Lions, Houston Texans and Cincinnati Bengals of the NFL.
A trick play, also known as a gadget play, gimmick play or trickeration, is a play in gridiron football that uses deception and unorthodox tactics to fool the opposing team. A trick play is often risky, offering the potential for a large gain or a touchdown if it is successful, but with the chance of a significant loss of yards or a turnover if not. Trick plays are rarely used not only because of the riskiness, but also to maintain the element of surprise for when they are used.
In American football, the specific role that a player takes on the field is referred to as their "position." Under the modern rules of American football, both teams are allowed 11 players on the field at one time and have "unlimited free substitutions," meaning that they may change any number of players during any "dead ball" situation. This has resulted in the development of three task-specific "platoons" of players within any single team: the offense, the defense, and the so-called 'special teams'. Within these three separate "platoons", various positions exist depending on the job that player is doing.
Safety, historically known as a safetyman, is a position in gridiron football played by a member of the defense. The safeties are defensive backs who line up from ten to fifteen yards from the line of scrimmage who can play as linebackers or deep as normal safeties. There are two variations of the position in a typical American formation: the free safety (FS) and the strong safety (SS). Their duties depend on the defensive scheme. The defensive responsibilities of the safety and cornerback usually involve pass coverage towards the middle and sidelines of the field, respectively. While American (11-player) formations generally use two safeties, Canadian (12-player) formations generally have one safety and two defensive halfbacks, a position not used in the American game. As professional and college football have become more focused on the passing game, safeties have become more involved in covering the eligible pass receivers.
In American football a play is a close to the ground "plan of action" or "strategy" used to move the ball down the field. A play begins at either the snap from the center or at kickoff. Most commonly plays occur at the snap during a down. These plays range from basic to very intricate. Football players keep a record of these plays in their playbook.
This is a list of the more common English volleyball jargon terms:
Kent Auburn McCloughan is a former football player and scout. He played cornerback for the American Football League's Oakland Raiders from 1965 through 1969, and for the National Football League's Raiders in 1970, but his career ended early because of a devastating knee injury.
The following terms are used in American football, both conventional and indoor. Some of these terms are also in use in Canadian football; for a list of terms unique to that code, see Glossary of Canadian football.
"Hospital pass" is a term used in various football codes, including Australian rules football, American football, rugby league, and rugby union, to describe a pass that subjects the recipient to heavy contact, usually unavoidable, from an opposing player — the expression implying that the recipient of the pass could end up in hospital. The term has also been applied to similar passes between teammates in other sports including ice hockey, lacrosse, and ultimate. However, in ice hockey, a play leading to a hospital pass is typically described as a suicide pass.
Roundnet is a net sport inspired primarily by concepts from volleyball. It was originally created in 1989 by Jeff Knurek although the equipment he created for the game became outdated and lost popularity in 1995. The sport experienced a revival in 2008 when Spikeball Inc. began promoting it. The company manufactures equipment for the sport, and so "spikeball" became a common name for the sport. There are multiple ways to play roundnet. Most games consist of four players, but there are also two- and six-player variants. Differences include where the players line up and infraction penalties, among others. The materials used in roundnet include a small trampoline-like object with string netting, a small bouncing ball with a 12-inch circumference, and four players. Players initially line up directly across from one another, forming an even diamond around the net at the start of a point. In all versions, the game starts with a serve from one team to another, continues as long as the ball is being hit by players back to the net, and ends when an infraction occurs between either the players or the ball. The game is constantly evolving, with new defensive strategies, serving stances, and playstyles being developed every season. The first ever Roundnet World Championship was scheduled for September 2020 in Belgium.
The Prayer at Jordan–Hare was a game-winning Hail Mary pass thrown during a college football game between the Auburn Tigers and Georgia Bulldogs, played on November 16, 2013 at Jordan–Hare Stadium in Auburn in the 117th installment of the Deep South's Oldest Rivalry.
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