12th man (football)

Last updated

The 12th man or 12th player is a collective term for fans of sports teams in many eleven-a-side games, in particular association football or American football. As most football leagues allow a maximum of eleven players per team on the playing field at a time, referring to a team's fans as the 12th man implies that they have a potentially helpful and significant role in the game.


The presence of fans can have a notable impact on how the teams perform, an element in the home advantage. Namely, the home team fans would vocally support and urge on their team to win the game. Thus these fans will often create loud sounds or chant in the hope of encouraging their team; or of distracting, demoralizing or confusing the opposing team while they have possession of the ball; or to persuade a referee to make a favorable decision to the team. Noises are made by shouting, singing, whistling, stomping, clapping and various other techniques.

In Canadian football, 12 players from each team are usually on the field at one time and the term 13th man is often used to refer to fans. Similarly, in Australian rules football 18 players are on the field and the fans are often referred to as the 19th man. However, in basketball, where five players are on the court, the term Sixth man generally refers to an energetic substitute player. Similarly, in rugby sevens, with seven players from each team on the field, "Eighth man" is not used to refer to fans as the term refers to the eighth forward in rugby union. The term Twelfth Man has a specifically different meaning in cricket, referring instead to the nominated first substitute player who fields when a member of the fielding side is injured during play.


Texas A&M's E. King Gill during the 1921-1922 season E king hill 12thman.jpg
Texas A&M's E. King Gill during the 1921–1922 season

The first recorded use of the term "twelfth man" was a magazine published by the University of Minnesota in September 1900, that referred to "the mysterious influence of the twelfth man on the team, the rooter." [1] Later, in the November 1912 edition of The Iowa Alumnus, an alumni publication of the University of Iowa (then known as State University of Iowa), E. A. McGowan described the 1903 game between Iowa and the University of Illinois. In his article, "The Twelfth Player", McGowan wrote: "The eleven men had done their best; but the twelfth man on the team (the loyal spirited Iowa rooter) had won the game for old S.U.I." [2]

The 1922 Dixie Classic served as the setting for an event later referred to as "The story of the 12th Man." [3] This football game featured the top-ranked Centre College and The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas (later known as Texas A&M). During the game, A&M coach Dana X. Bible realized that one more injury would leave him without another backfield player to send into the game. Bible called E. King Gill, a sophomore basketball player, down from the stands to stand ready as a substitute. Gill was ready in uniform on the sidelines if his team ever needed him. Gill never went into the game, but it is his spirit that lives on in the "12th Man." [4]

Individuals have occasionally been labeled by local media as the "Twelfth Man" of their team. In 1930, W. H. Adamson, Principal of Oak Cliff (Dallas) High School was called the "Twelfth Man" of the school's American football team by a local reporter due to the rousing pre-game speeches he would give to the players. Likewise, sometimes, fans of both teams in an annual contest have been described as the 12th man. [5]

In the 1935 PrincetonDartmouth game before 56,000 fans who braved the snow and cold, [6] spectator Mike Mesco was initially reported to have left his seat from the stands to join the Dartmouth defensive line and was referred to in a local newspaper as the "Twelfth Dartmouth Man", [7] though later was found to be not Mesco, but George Larsen of Cranford, New Jersey. [8] [9]

Use in football (soccer)

Derry City's twelfth man in Paris, France. DC12thmanontour.JPG
Derry City's twelfth man in Paris, France.

The term "12th man" is commonly used in football to refer to the fans and occasionally the manager. A notable club famous for the twelfth man reference comes from Aston Villa, referring to the Holte End stand at Villa Park. Large European teams such as Bayern Munich, Malmö FF, Hammarby IF, Helsingborgs IF, Werder Bremen, Aberdeen, Rangers, Paris Saint-Germain, Lazio, Feyenoord, PSV, Ferencvárosi TC, FC Red Star, Fenerbahçe S.K., and Sporting CP have officially retired the number 12 to the fans. Stockport County fans are registered as official members of their squad with the number 12.[ citation needed ] Portsmouth F.C. has also retired its number 12 shirt, and lists the club's supporters, "Pompey Fans", as player number 12 on the squad list printed in home match programmes,[ citation needed ] while Plymouth Argyle have theirs registered to the Green Army (the nickname for their fans).[ citation needed ] Number 12 is also reserved for the fans at many other clubs, including CSKA Moscow and Zenit Saint Petersburg in Russia, Bristol Rovers and Grimsby Town in England, as well as Aarhus Gymnastikforening (AGF), Odense Boldklub, also known as OB, in Denmark, Malmö FF and Hammarby IF in Sweden, Persija Jakarta in Indonesia, Botev Plovdiv in Bulgaria and Perth Glory in Australia. On Hammarby IF's, Helsingborgs IF, Malmö FF, Feyenoord and Werder Bremen's home games, the stadium speaker announces number 12 as "the fans" during team lineup announcements.

Dynamo Dresden in Germany also keeps number 12 for their fans, as well as the official team anthem being "We are the 12th man". Aberdeen F.C. supporters commonly display a large banner in the shape of a football shirt with the text "Red Army 12" in place of a player's name and number.[ citation needed ] The fans of the Northern Ireland national football team and Derry City are referred to as the 12th man as well. In the League of Ireland, Shamrock Rovers F.C. retired the number 12 jersey in recognition of the fans who took over the club in 2005. Cork City F.C., Clube Atlético Mineiro and Clube de Regatas do Flamengo also retired the number 12 for the fans.[ citation needed ] The most vociferous fans of Boca Juniors in Argentina are known as the "Jugador Numero 12" (Spanish for "Player Number 12") or simply "La Doce" ("The 12"). On September 18, 2004, U.S. Lecce, an Italian team currently playing in Serie B, retired the number 12 to the fans, which was handed to them by the former captain Cristian Ledesma. They symbolically represent a 12th Man in the field.[ citation needed ] In the beginning of 2009–2010 season, Happy Valley AA introduced the club's mascot, a panda, on squad list as the fan club captain wearing the number 12 jersey. [10] As of the end of the 2011–2012 season, Rangers F.C announced that the number 12 jersey would be retired in honour of the fans support throughout a period of financial difficulty. [11]

Use in American football

The 12th Man flag of the Seattle Seahawks 12th Man Flag.jpg
The 12th Man flag of the Seattle Seahawks

The term has been used by various American football teams including the University of Minnesota, the University of Iowa, Baylor University, Dartmouth College, Simmons College, Texas A&M and the NFL's Seattle Seahawks, Green Bay Packers, Buffalo Bills, Denver Broncos, Washington Commanders, Indianapolis Colts, Miami Dolphins, [12] and Chicago Bears in marketing practices in reference to their supporters. The Bears currently use the phrase "4th Phase" (with the first three phases being offense, defense, and special teams), [13] and the Seahawks currently use the phrase "The 12s." [14]

12th Man clubs

Many high schools in the United States incorporate 12th Man language into their booster, supporter, or rooter clubs. Examples of such "12th Man Clubs" include the Dana Hills Dolphins, [15] Washington Panthers, [16] Richwood Knights, [17] Diamond Bar Brahmas, [18] Fairfield Falcons, [19] and Brentwood Bruins. [20]

The Campbellsville University Tigers of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also have a 12th Man Club. [21]

Buffalo Bills

Buffalo Bills 12th Man coin, from the December 12, 1992, Wall of Fame induction. 1992 Buffalo Bills 12th Man Coin.png
Buffalo Bills 12th Man coin, from the December 12, 1992, Wall of Fame induction.

On December 12, 1992, (12/12/1992) the Buffalo Bills of the National Football League honored their 12th Man as the seventh inductee into the Buffalo Bills Wall of Fame, located inside New Era Field. [22] Their fans were inducted because of their loyal support during the team's early '90s Super Bowl runs. [23] In 2008, the Bills renamed their "12th Man Walk of Fame" as "Tim Russert Plaza," in honor of the Buffalo native and lifelong fan. [24] The team continues to refer to its fans as the "12th Man," [25] [26] [27] with their independent, international fan clubs known as "Bills Backers Chapters." [28] The Bills have a licensing agreement with Texas A&M over the use of the "12th Man" term. [29] [30]

Indianapolis Colts

Fans of the Indianapolis Colts of the NFL were known as the 12th Man. [31] The Colts created a Ring of Honor on September 23, 1996, after playing 13 seasons in Indianapolis, Indiana. In 2007, the Colts inducted their 12th Man as the sixth entrant into the team's Ring of Honor, then located on the interior facade of the RCA Dome. [32] The Ring of Honor currently encircles Lucas Oil Stadium, the team's home venue. The organization also designates a "12th Man Fan of the Game". [33] [34] [35] On November 12, 2015, Texas A&M announced the filing of a lawsuit against the Colts based on the team's usage of the term. [36] On February 17, 2016, the lawsuit was settled with the Colts agreeing to remove the phrase from their Ring of Honor and to immediately cease all other uses of the trademarked phrase. [37]

Seattle Seahawks

The Seattle Seahawks retired the number 12 jersey on December 15, 1984, in honor of their fans. In 2003, the Seahawks installed a giant flagpole in the south end zone of what is now Lumen Field, and began a tradition of raising a giant flag with the number 12 on it in honor of the fans, one of whom is Sam Adkins, the former Seahawks quarterback who did wear the number 12. [38] Usually, a local celebrity or a season ticket holder raises the flag during pregame ceremonies. [39] In recent years, 12th Man flags [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] have been seen all over Seattle whenever the Seahawks make the playoffs, including atop the Space Needle. In 2014, Boeing painted a Boeing 747-8 freighter aircraft with a special Seahawks livery, with the number 12 on the tail, and they later flew it over eastern Washington in a flight path spelling the number 12. [45] [46] When the Seahawks took the field for Super Bowl XLVIII, they were led by LB Heath Farwell carrying the team's 12th Man flag [47] [48] per team tradition. [49] In May 2016, mountaineer David Liaño González displayed a 12th Man flag at the summit of Mount Everest. [50]

The Seahawks' 12th Man has twice set the Guinness World Record loudest crowd noise at a sporting event, first on September 15, 2013, registering 136.6 dB during a game against the San Francisco 49ers [51] [52] and again on December 2, 2013, during a Monday Night Football game against the New Orleans Saints, with a roar of 137.6 dB. [53] [54] As per an agreement struck between the Seahawks and Texas A&M in 2016, the Seahawks have virtually ceased from referring to their fans as the "12th Man", [55] and instead are using the term "12s" or the 12 Fan. [56] [57]

Texas A&M

The Texas A&M student section of Kyle Field stands the entire game to show support for the football team 12th Man trademark slogan at Kyle Field, Texas A&M.jpg
The Texas A&M student section of Kyle Field stands the entire game to show support for the football team

The first known instance of Texas A&M referring to its fanbase as the "12th Man" is contained on page 17 of the November 25, 1921 edition of The Battalion, the Texas A&M campus newspaper. [58] Ever since the day E. King Gill left the stands in 1922, the entire student body has stood throughout the game to symbolize their "readiness, desire, and enthusiasm" to take the field if needed. [59] [ better source needed ] A statue of E. King Gill stands on the campus. [60] [61]

Football coach Jackie Sherrill created the "12th Man Kick-Off Team" in the 1980s, composed of non-athletic scholarship students who tried out for the team. Coach Sherrill has written a book entitled "No Experience Required" which details this team and the tradition. These students were placed on the roster for the sole purpose of kickoffs. The squad was nicknamed "the suicide squad". These students often had little regard for their safety and were determined to make a tackle at any cost. [62] [63] The 12th Man Kick-Off Team was extremely successful and eventually held opponents to one of the lowest yards-per-return average in the league during kickoffs.[ when? ] [64] Later, head coach R. C. Slocum changed the team to allow only one representative of the 12th Man on the kick off team who wears uniform number 12. [60] The player is chosen based on the level of determination and hard work shown in practices. Under Dennis Franchione, the 12th Man Kick-Off Team composed of walk-ons was brought back, though used only rarely when the team was up by quite a few points. [65] [66]

On June 30, 2014, Texas A&M bought the domain name 12thman.com, which then became its official athletics website. [67] [68]

Washington Commanders

In 1986, the Washington Redskins (now known as the Washington Commanders) released a video entitled "Thanks to the 12th Man". [69] [70] A blogger on NFL.com considered it to be among the worst sports videos of all time. [71]

Other usage

In American football, the sideline is sometimes also referred to as the "12th man" or "12th defender": since a player is considered down when he steps out of bounds, the sideline effectively acts as an extra defender. This usage is less common than the one referring to the fans. In most sports the term can also be construed to mean the referee, implying that the match official favours one team and is not impartial. [72]


The effects of the "12th man" vary widely, but can be put in two categories. The first is simply psychological, the effect of showing the home team that they are appreciated, and showing the away team that they are somewhat unwelcome. The second directly relates to the deafening effects of a loud crowd.

In association football, the crowd can be very passionate and often sing throughout the whole match. Some occasions where the crowd noise is extra loud can be before kickoff; during the buildup to and scoring of a goal; when encouraging the team to come back from defeat; to discourage an opposition penalty taker; or to harass a referee giving a free kick to the opposition team.

In American football, fans are most incited by physical play, especially good plays made by the defense. [73] Additionally, the home team can derive energy from the loud noise of their fans; former American football players have described the feeling of their adrenaline pumping after hearing the fans yell, which is "like you have a reserve energy tank." [74]

The noise of the crowd can have a significant impact on the players on the field. In American football, an extremely loud crowd can prevent the offensive linemen from hearing the snap count. This can have the effect of making the player slower to react when the ball is snapped, and his eventual response may be weaker than normal because each play is begun "with some indecision and doubt". [74] The noise can also prevent players from hearing audibles and can make it difficult for the team's offense to coordinate plays in the huddle. The effect of the noise can often be measured in mistakes, such as false start penalties. [75]

Coaches can take steps to minimize the effect of the crowd noise on their teams. Some American football teams bring large speakers to their practice fields and broadcast loud noises such as jet engines to prepare their teams for the anticipated noise level. [76] Crowd noise tends to diminish after a long lull in play, such as a pause for instant replay. Former NFL player Brian Baldinger speculates that some coaches draw out reviews as part of a coaching strategy to quiet the crowd for their next play. [74]

A researcher from Harvard University discovered in a study that some association football referees appeared to be impacted by crowd noise. His studies revealed that a home team acquired an additional 0.1 goal advantage for every 10,000 fans in the stadium. [77]

Delia Smith, Norwich City's joint major shareholder, received some attention when she took to the pitch during a half time interval, with a microphone in hand and Sky TV cameras in tow, to tell fans the side "need their twelfth man". "Where are you?" she cried. Norwich City lost the game in the final seconds, but Smith's passion worked to increase the affection the fans held for her. [78]

The current naturally loudest football stadium is the Turk Telecom Arena, in Turkey, host of the Galatasaray team. [79] As a prepared attempt, the current world record for crowd noise at an athletic event was set on September 29, 2014, when the Kansas City Chiefs hosted the New England Patriots. Noise during that event reached a high of 142.2 decibels during a timeout. [80] [81]

Texas A&M trademark

Texas A&M University applied on December 26, 1989, for trademark U.S. Ser. No. 74013898 related to usage of the term. The United States Patent and Trademark Office issued the "trademark registration" September 4, 1990, to Texas A&M. Four additional Trademark claims related to the "12th Man" term were also filed and granted at later dates by Texas A&M University (See U.S. Ser. Nos. 74560726 , 76671314 , 85977835 and 85851199 ), the first three of which have achieved Incontestable Status as a result of its section 15 affidavit with the Patent and Trademark Office.[ citation needed ] According to former Texas A&M Athletic Director Bill Byrne, he contacted the Chicago Bears and Buffalo Bills about halting their "12th Man" themes. [82] Byrne stated that, "they responded quickly with our requests to stop using our Twelfth Man trademark." [83] Texas A&M sent requests to stop using the phrase to the Seattle Seahawks in both 2004 and 2005. The Seahawks did not respond to the requests. [84]

In January 2006, Texas A&M filed a trademark infringement lawsuit against the Seattle Seahawks and in May 2006, the dispute was settled out of court. Neither side admitted any fault or liability. In the agreement, the Seahawks licensed the phrase in exchange for $100,000, along with public acknowledgement as to Texas A&M's ownership rights of the phrase, and an additional annual fee. [85] The compensation amounted to $5,000 per year. [86] [87] The agreement, which expired in 2016, limited the Seahawks' usage to seven western states and forbid them from selling any "12th Man" merchandise. [86] In August 2015, the Seahawks shifted towards calling their fans the "12s", and replaced their "Home of the 12th Man" stadium sign with a new "Home of the 12s" sign. [88]

On November 12, 2015, Texas A&M filed suit against the Indianapolis Colts after repeated cease and desist requests were ignored by the NFL team. [89] On February 17, 2016, the lawsuit was settled with the Colts agreeing to remove the phrase from their Ring of Honor and to immediately cease all other uses of the trademarked phrase. [37]

In August 2016, the Seahawks agreed to a new five-year trademark licensing agreement with Texas A&M. As part of the agreement, the Seahawks agreed to pay Texas A&M $140,000 for limited rights to use the trademarked term. This agreement, like the previous agreement, prohibits the Seahawks from using the "12th Man" term on any merchandise. The new agreement, however, also prohibits Seattle from using the term on social media, nor are they allowed to use the term on any signage within their stadium, including their Ring of Honor. [57]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Seattle Seahawks</span> National Football League franchise in Seattle, Washington

The Seattle Seahawks are a professional American football team based in Seattle. The Seahawks compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's National Football Conference (NFC) West, which they rejoined in 2002 as part of conference realignment. The club entered the NFL as an expansion team in 1976 in the NFC. From 1977 to 2001, Seattle was assigned to the American Football Conference (AFC) West. They have played their home games at Lumen Field in Seattle's SoDo neighborhood since 2002, having previously played home games in the Kingdome (1976–1999) and Husky Stadium. The Seahawks are currently coached by Pete Carroll.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lumen Field</span> Multi-purpose stadium in Seattle, Washington, U.S.

Lumen Field is a multi-purpose stadium in Seattle, Washington, United States. Located in the city's SoDo neighborhood, it is the home field for the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League (NFL), the Seattle Sea Dragons of the XFL, the Seattle Sounders FC of Major League Soccer (MLS), and OL Reign of the National Women's Soccer League (NWSL). Originally called Seahawks Stadium, it was renamed Qwest Field in June 2004 when telecommunications carrier Qwest acquired the naming rights. The stadium became known as CenturyLink Field following Qwest's June 2011 acquisition by CenturyLink and was nicknamed "The Clink" as a result; it received its current name in November 2020 with CenturyLink's rebrand to Lumen Technologies. It is a modern facility with views of the Downtown Seattle skyline and a seating capacity of 68,740 spectators for NFL games and 37,722 for most MLS matches. The complex also includes the Event Center which is home to the Washington Music Theater, a parking garage, and a public plaza. The venue hosts concerts, trade shows, and consumer shows along with sporting events. Located within a mile (1.6 km) of Downtown Seattle, the stadium is accessible by multiple freeways and forms of mass transit.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pete Carroll</span> American football coach (born 1951)

Peter Clay Carroll is an American football coach who is the head coach and executive vice president for the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League (NFL). He was previously the head football coach at USC from 2000 to 2009, where he won six bowl games and back to back National Championships in 2003 and 2004.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Husky Stadium</span> Stadium at the University of Washington

Husky Stadium is an outdoor football stadium in the northwest United States, located on the campus of the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington. It has been home to the Washington Huskies of the Pac-12 Conference since 1920, hosting their football games.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">J. P. Losman</span> American football player and coach (born 1981)

Jonathan Paul Losman is an American football coach and former quarterback. Losman played in the National Football League for seven seasons, primarily with the Buffalo Bills. He played college football at UCLA and Tulane and was drafted by the Bills in the first round in the 2004 NFL Draft.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dwight Freeney</span> American football player (born 1980)

Dwight Jason Freeney is an American former football player who played as a defensive end and outside linebacker for 16 seasons in the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Syracuse University, where he earned unanimous All-American honors, and was drafted by the Indianapolis Colts in the first round of the 2002 NFL Draft. With the Colts, Freeney won Super Bowl XLI over the Chicago Bears, and made seven Pro Bowls. He also played for the San Diego Chargers, Arizona Cardinals, Atlanta Falcons, Seattle Seahawks and Detroit Lions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antoine Winfield Sr.</span> American football player (born 1977)

Antoine Duane Winfield Sr. is a former American football cornerback who played 14 years in the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for Ohio State University, earning consensus All-American honors and winning the Jim Thorpe Award. He was drafted by the Buffalo Bills in the first round of the 1999 NFL Draft. He played five seasons for the Bills and nine seasons for the Minnesota Vikings. He was a three-time Pro Bowl selection as a member of the Vikings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marshawn Lynch</span> American football player (born 1986)

Marshawn Terrell Lynch is an American former football running back who played in the National Football League (NFL) for 12 seasons. Nicknamed "Beast Mode", he spent the majority of his career with the Seattle Seahawks. Lynch played college football at California, where he earned first-team All-American honors and became the school's second all-time career rusher. He was selected by the Buffalo Bills in the first round of the 2007 NFL Draft and played three full seasons before joining Seattle during the 2010 season.

The 2010 NFL season was the 91st regular season of the National Football League and the 45th of the Super Bowl era.

The Seattle Seahawks are a professional American football team organized in 1976 and based in Seattle, Washington, US, that plays in the National Football League. This article details the history of the Seattle Seahawks American football club.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stephen Hauschka</span> American football player (born 1985)

Stephen Theodore Hauschka is a former American football placekicker. He was signed by the Minnesota Vikings as an undrafted free agent in 2008. He played college football at Middlebury College and North Carolina State.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Russell Wilson</span> American football player (born 1988)

Russell Carrington Wilson is an American football quarterback for the Denver Broncos of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football and baseball at NC State from 2008 to 2010 before transferring to Wisconsin in 2011, where he set the single-season FBS record for passing efficiency (191.8) and led them to a Big Ten title and the 2012 Rose Bowl. He also played minor league baseball for the Tri-City Dust Devils in 2010 and the Asheville Tourists in 2011 as a second baseman. As of 2019, his professional baseball rights are held by the Somerset Patriots, the Double-A affiliate of the New York Yankees.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earl Thomas</span> American football player (born 1989)

Earl Winty Thomas III is an American former football free safety who played in the National Football League (NFL). He was drafted by the Seattle Seahawks in the first round of the 2010 NFL Draft. During his time with the Seahawks, he was a core member of the Legion of Boom defense and won Super Bowl XLVIII against the Denver Broncos. He played college football at Texas and received consensus All-American honors. Thomas signed with the Baltimore Ravens as a free agent in 2019 and played one season with the team.

The 2013 NFL season was the 94th season in the history of the National Football League (NFL) and the 48th of the Super Bowl era. The season saw the Seattle Seahawks capture the first championship in the franchise's 38 years in the league with a lopsided victory over the Denver Broncos in Super Bowl XLVIII, the league's championship game. The Super Bowl was played at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, on Sunday, February 2, 2014. It was the first Super Bowl hosted by New Jersey and the first to be held outdoors in a cold weather environment. The Seahawks scored 12 seconds into the game and held the lead the rest of the way on the back of their Legion of Boom defense.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bruce Irvin</span> American football player (born 1987)

Bruce Pernell Irvin Jr. is an American football outside linebacker for the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League (NFL). He was drafted by the Seattle Seahawks in the first round with the 15th overall pick of the 2012 NFL Draft. Irvin won Super Bowl XLVIII over the Denver Broncos, and also played in Super Bowl XLIX where he became the first player ever to be ejected from a Super Bowl. He played college football at West Virginia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2013 Seattle Seahawks season</span> 38th season in franchise history; first Super Bowl win

The 2013 season was the Seattle Seahawks' 38th in the National Football League (NFL) and their fourth under head coach Pete Carroll. With the Seahawks tenth win in the eleventh week of the season, the team secured double-digit victories in consecutive seasons for the first time in franchise history. Their 13–3 regular season record is tied with the 2005 season for the best in franchise history. Seattle’s defense in 2013 is regarded by many to be one of the best in NFL history.

The 2014 NFL season was the 95th season in the history of the National Football League (NFL) and the 49th of the Super Bowl era. The season began on Thursday, September 4, 2014, with the annual kickoff game featuring the defending Super Bowl XLVIII champion Seattle Seahawks hosting the Green Bay Packers, which resulted with the Seahawks winning. The season concluded with Super Bowl XLIX, the league's championship game, on Sunday, February 1, 2015, at University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona, with the New England Patriots defeating the Seahawks, in one of the closest games in Super Bowl history.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2015 NFL season</span> 2015 National Football League season

The 2015 NFL season was the 96th season in the history of the National Football League (NFL), and the 50th in the Super Bowl era. To celebrate the 50th season of the Super Bowl, a gold-plated NFL logo and other various gold-themed promotions were used throughout the season. It began on Thursday, September 10, 2015, with the annual kickoff game featuring the defending Super Bowl XLIX champion New England Patriots defeating the Pittsburgh Steelers. The season concluded with Super Bowl 50, the league's championship game, on Sunday, February 7, 2016, at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara, California, with the Denver Broncos defeating the Carolina Panthers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">DeForest Buckner</span> American football player (born 1994)

DeForest George Buckner is an American football defensive tackle for the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at the University of Oregon, and was selected by the San Francisco 49ers in the first round of the 2016 NFL Draft. With the 49ers, Buckner made a Pro Bowl and was a second-team All-Pro selection in 2019. With the Colts, he was selected to the first-team All Pro in 2020 and made the Pro Bowl the following year.


  1. Unknown (1900). "Editorial". Minnesota Magazine. University of Minnesota. 7 (September 1900): 32.
  2. McGowan, E. A. "The Twelfth Player". The Iowa Alumnus. University of Iowa. Alumni Association. 10 (November 1912): 30. Archived from the original on November 18, 2015. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
  3. Svyantek, Daniel J., ed. (2017). Sports and Understanding Organizations. Charlotte, North Carolina: Information Age Publishing. p. 44. ISBN   978-1681237923.
  4. MacCambridge, Michael, ed. (2005). ESPN College Football Encyclopedia: The Complete History of the Game. New York: ESPN Books. p. 44. ISBN   978-1401337032.
  5. "Twelfth Men" (PDF). Dallas Morning News . No. 195. December 18, 1938.
  6. "Oddities in 1935 Sports". Reading Eagle . December 23, 1935 via Google News.
  7. "none". World Telegram. November 30, 1935.
  8. Alexander, Jack (December 1, 1935). "Yale's Error! Fetes Wrong Butt-In Hero". Sunday News.
  9. Whittingham, Richard (2001). Rites of Autumn, The Story of College Football.
  10. "HVAA Player Profile" . Retrieved October 10, 2009.
  11. "Rangers Dedicate No 12 Jersey to Fans". rangers.co.uk. Archived from the original on June 7, 2012.
  12. Major, Andy (September 22, 2009). "Dolphins' owner: Parcells OK with glitz and celebrities". Associate Press. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  13. "Fan Club". Chicago Bears . Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  14. "The 12s". Seattle Seahawks. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  15. "Welcome 2014 12th Man Club Board". Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  16. Mark Kiel. "High School Sports Rule". The Peorian.
  17. Lonnie Schwindenhammer AND Stan Morris. "Time to open the gates for high school football". Journal Star.
  18. "12th MAN CLUB". DIAMOND BAR HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014.
  19. "12th Man Club". Archived from the original on February 2, 2015.
  20. "Brentwood Bruin Football".
  21. "Campbellsville University Athletics News". Archived from the original on February 21, 2014.
  22. "Bills Daily Charge". Buffalo Bills. December 12, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  23. "Buffalo Bills History - Wall of Fame". Buffalo Bills. Archived from the original on March 22, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
  24. Major, Andy (November 6, 2013). "Russert forever remembered by Bills". Buffalo Bills. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  25. Brown, Chris (November 28, 2010). "Bills calling on 12th man". Buffalo Bills. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  26. Brown, Chris (September 14, 2011). "Fitz on home field edge". Buffalo Bills. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  27. Brown, Chris (December 11, 2009). "Fan Friday 12-11". Buffalo Bills. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  28. "Bills Backers - Buffalo Bills".
  29. Taylor, John (July 2, 2014). A&M up in arms over Buffalo Bills fans’ ’12th Man’ petition Archived July 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine . CollegeFootballTalk.com. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  30. Lester, Sean (July 2, 2014). "To protect trademark, Texas A&M sends 12th Man usage complaint to double amputee, cancer survivor". Dallas News. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  31. Wells, Mike (October 7, 2013). "The Colts have their own 12th Man". ESPN. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  32. Chappell, Mike (December 31, 2007). "Sanders already repaying Colts". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  33. Gina Gallucci-White (September 5, 2009). "Damascus woman becomes 12th man for pro team". Frederick News-Post. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  34. Staci DaSilva (August 13, 2013). "Sioux City Hospice Patient & Lifelong Colts Fan Attends First Ever Game". KCAU-TV. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  35. "Dr. James Malec Honored as Colts 12th Man Fan of the Game". Wilson Kehoe Winingham.
  36. "Texas A&M Aggies sue Indianapolis Colts over use of '12th Man' trademark". ESPN.com. November 12, 2015.
  37. 1 2 "Indianapolis Colts agree to stop using '12th Man' in settlement with Texas A&M". Indianapolis Star. February 18, 2016.
  38. The Only Man to Wear 12 For the Seattle Seahawks | NFL Films Presents, NFL Films, October 13, 2017, retrieved October 16, 2017
  39. "History of the 12th Man". Seahawks.com. Seattle Seahawks. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
  40. "The 12s". Seahawks.com. Seattle Seahawks. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  41. Ballard, Chris (November 6, 2013). "Into the belly of beast mode with Seattle's 12th Man". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved February 16, 2014 via sportsillustrated.cnn.com.
  42. Roberts, Chris (February 4, 2014). "Seattle Seahawks 12th Man Flag to Torment 49ers Fans". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  43. "World's largest 12th Man flag unfurled". KIRO TV. January 30, 2014. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  44. Stead, Jordan; Trujillo, Joshua (January 31, 2014). "12th Man flag unfolds under Lady Liberty". SeattlePI.com. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  45. Mutzabaugh, Ben (January 30, 2014). "Boeing rolls out a mean-looking Seahawks 747 jumbo jet". USA Today. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
  46. "Boeing unveils Seattle Seahawks 747 plane". foxnews.com. Fox News. January 31, 2014. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
  47. Cohen, Rachel (February 2, 2014). "Super Bowl Watch: Seattle Soaring in Super Bowl". madison.com. Associated Press. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  48. "Super Bowl XLVIII: Seahawks vs. Broncos highlights". NFL.com. National Football League.
  49. "Seattle Seahawks win Super Bowl in a rout on February 2, 2014". historylink.org.
  50. "Top of the world! Fan takes love of Seahawks to summit of Mount Everest". Seattle Times. June 8, 2016.
  51. Wilson, Ryan (September 16, 2013). "Seahawks fans set Guinness World Record for loudest stadium". cbssports.com. CBS Sports. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  52. "12th Man lifts CenturyLink Field into Guinness World Record book for loudest stadium". Seahawks.com. Seattle Seahawks. September 15, 2013. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  53. Florio, Mike (December 2, 2013). "12th Man sets new noise record". profootballtalk.nbcsports.com. NBC Sports. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  54. Quinton, Sean (December 2, 2013). "Seattle's 12th Man reclaims Guinness crowd noise record". SeattlePI.com. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  55. Rovell, Darren (August 11, 2016). "Seahawks reach 5-years licensing deal with Texas A&M". ESPN.com. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  56. "The 12s". Seahawks.com. Seattle Seahawks. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  57. 1 2 "Seahawks ink $140K deal with A&M for 12th Man". ESPN.com. August 11, 2016.
  58. Unknown. "The Twelfth Man". The Battalion. Vol. 10, no. November 25, 1921. Students Association of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. p. 17. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013.
  59. AP Newswire. "Texas Ag of Twelfth Man Fame Serving Uncle Sam" (PDF). Dallas Morning News. No. 16 July 1942.
  60. 1 2 Cook, Beano (October 8, 2006). "Ten Days That Shook the Sport". ESPN. Retrieved July 26, 2007.
  61. Michael MacCambridge, ed. (2005). ESPN College Football Encyclopedia: The Complete History of the Game. New York, NY: ESPN Books. p. 25. ISBN   978-1401337032.
  62. Durham, Timothy (September 29, 2008). "12th Man honors Sherrill". The Battalion. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012.
  63. "NBC Evening News". Vanderbilt Television News Archive. September 2, 1983. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  64. "Twelfth Man". Aggie Traditions. Archived from the original on December 29, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2006.
  65. "McNeil sets Aggie offense record in win over SMU". KTRK-TV. Associated Press. September 17, 2005. Archived from the original on November 11, 2005.
  66. Heater, Jay (December 27, 2006). "LaMantia A&M's main 12th Man". Oakl. Trib.   via  HighBeam Research (subscription required). Archived from the original on May 9, 2012.
  67. Barron, David (July 7, 2014). "Texas A&M purchases 12thMan.com domain for athletics". Sports Update. Houston Chronicle . Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  68. "Texas A&M Secures Ownership of 12thman.com" (Press release). Texas A&M Athletics. July 7, 2014. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  69. "Washington Redskins". facebook.com.
  70. Tinsman, Brian (February 15, 2012). "NFL.com 'Grammy' For Redskins Fan Video". Redskins.com. Washington Redskins. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
  71. Rank, Adam (February 12, 2012). "And the Grammy for worst sports video ever by a team". NFL.com. National Football League. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
  72. "Bacary Sagna: Man City defender charged by FA for Instagram post". BBC Sport . January 10, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017. The Football Association allege that the defender's post, which was later deleted, "questioned the integrity of the match official".
  73. Boling, Dave (September 21, 2006). "Artificial noise? Much ado about Hawks' 12th Man". The News Tribune. Tacoma, Washington. Archived from the original on November 17, 2007. Retrieved September 11, 2007.
  74. 1 2 3 Baldinger, Brian (January 12, 2004). "Gaps in action can kill home-field edge". The Sporting News. Archived from the original on October 24, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2007.
  75. Acee, Kevin (December 26, 2006). "They're right on Q". The San Diego Tribune . Archived from the original on December 27, 2006. Retrieved September 11, 2007.
  76. "Panthers thrive in hostile environments". The Augusta Chronicle . January 21, 2006. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
  77. "Study reveals referees' home bias". bbc.co.uk. BBC News. May 6, 2007. Retrieved September 11, 2007.
  78. "Delia Smith BBC interview". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved May 11, 2006.
  79. Villegas Gama, Karla (October 24, 2013). "Loudest Stadiums in World Football". bleacherreport.com. Turner Sports Network. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  80. Fussell, James A. (October 3, 2014). "KC Chiefs pay thousands to proclaim 'loudest stadium' record". kansascity.com; The Kansas City Star. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
  81. "Loudest crowd roar at a sports stadium". guinnessworldrecords.com.
  82. "Seahawks' "12th Man" angers A&M". ESPN.com. ESPN. January 28, 2006. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
  83. Moghe, Sonia (January 27, 2006). "Trademarking your territory". thebatt.com. Archived from the original on May 22, 2010. Alt URL Archived August 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  84. "Texas A&M seeks restraining order over '12th man'". USA Today. January 31, 2006.
  85. "'12th Man' for everyone: Seattle, A&M resolve dispute". ESPN. May 8, 2006. Retrieved July 26, 2007.
  86. 1 2 Jessop, Alicia (January 31, 2014). "Texas A&M Stands To Earn More In Upcoming 12th Man Trademark Licensing Negotiations As Seahawks' Exposure Rises". Forbes. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  87. Hamburg, Brandon (January 19, 2014). ""12th Man" - Inside Texas A&M's License Agreement with the Seattle Seahawks". Good Bull Hunting.
  88. Daniels, Chris (August 14, 2015). "CenturyLink Field no longer 'Home of the 12th Man'". KING 5 News. Archived from the original on August 17, 2015. Retrieved August 15, 2015.
  89. Rovell, Darren (November 12, 2015). "Texas A&M says Colts ignoring calls to stop use of '12th Man'". ESPN. Retrieved November 12, 2015.