Cheering

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Russian troops cheering Ura! (Russian: Ура!) at the 2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade on Moscow's Red Square.

Cheering involves the uttering or making of sounds and may be used to encourage, excite to action, indicate approval or welcome.

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The word cheer originally meant face, countenance, or expression, and came through Old French into Middle English in the 13th century from Low Latin cara, head; this is generally referred to the Greek καρα;. Cara is used by the 6th-century poet Flavius Cresconius Corippus, Postquam venere verendam Caesilris ante caram (In Laud em Justini Minoris). Cheer was at first qualified with epithets, both of joy and gladness and of sorrow; compare She thanked Dyomede for ale ... his gode chere (Chaucer, Troylus) with If they sing ... tis with so dull a cheere (Shakespeare, Sonnets, xcvii.). An early transference in meaning was to hospitality or entertainment, and hence to food and drink, good cheer. The sense of a shout of encouragement or applause is a late use. Defoe (Captain Singleton) speaks of it as a sailor's word, and the meaning does not appear in Johnson.

Of the different words or rather sounds that are used in cheering, "hurrah", though now generally looked on as the typical British form of cheer, is found in various forms in German, Scandinavian, Russian (ura), French (hourra). It is probably onomatopoeic in origin. The English hurrah was preceded by huzza, stated to be a sailors word, and generally connected with heeze, to hoist, probably being one of the cries that sailors use when hauling or hoisting. The German hoch, seen in full in Hoch lebe der Kaiser, &c., the French vive, Italian and Spanish viva, evviva, are cries rather of acclamation than encouragement. The Japanese shout banzai became familiar during the Russo-Japanese War. In reports of parliamentary and other debates the insertion of cheers at any point in a speech indicates that approval was shown by members of the House by emphatic utterances of hear hear. Cheering may be tumultuous, or it may be conducted rhythmically by prearrangement, as in the case of the Hip-hip-hip by way of introduction to a simultaneous hurrah. The saying "hip hip hurrah" dates to the early 1800s. Nevertheless, some sources speculate possible roots going back to the crusaders, then meaning "Jerusalem is lost to the infidel, and we are on our way to paradise". The abbreviation HEP would then stand for Hierosolyma est perdita, "Jerusalem is lost" in Latin. [1]

Chants in North American sports

Rhythmical cheering has been developed to its greatest extent in America in the college yells, which may be regarded as a development of the primitive war-cry; this custom has no real analogue at English schools and universities, but the New Zealand rugby team in 1907 familiarized English crowds at their matches with the haka, a similar sort of war-cry adopted from the Māoris. In American schools and colleges there is usually one cheer for the institution as a whole and others for the different classes.

The oldest and simplest are those of the New England colleges. The original yells of Harvard and Yale are identical in form, being composed of rah (abbreviation of hurrah) nine times repeated, shouted in unison with the name of the university at the end. The Yale cheer is given faster than that of Harvard. Many institutions have several different yells, a favorite variation being the name of the college shouted nine times in a slow and prolonged manner. The best known of these variants is the Yale cheer, partly taken from The Frogs of Aristophanes, which runs thus:

Brekekekex, ko-ax, ko-ax, Brekekekex, ko-ax, ko-ax, O-op, O-op, parabalou, Yale, Yale, Yale, Rah, rah, rah, rah, rah, rah, rah, rah, rah, Yale! Yale! Yale!

The first-known cheer from the sidelines was Princeton University's "rocket call," which was heard during the first-ever intercollegiate football game, between Princeton and Rutgers University in 1869. [2]

By the 1890s, Princeton's original "rocket" had been modified into its distinctive "locomotive" cheer:

Hip, hip!
Rah, rah, rah!
Tiger, tiger, tiger!
Siss, siss, siss!
Boom, boom, boom! Ah!
Princeton! Princeton! Princeton!

It is called the "Locomotive" cheer because it sounds like a train engine that starts slowly then picks up speed. Princeton University also established the first pep club. All-male "yell leaders" supported the Princeton football team with cheers from the sidelines. (cited:: Valliant, Doris, pg 15)

The railroad cheer is like the foregoing, but begun very slowly and broadly, and gradually accelerated to the end, which is enunciated as fast as possible. Many cheers are formed like that of the University of Toronto:

Varsity, varsity,
V-a-r-s-i-t-y (spelled)
VARSIT-Y (spelled staccato)
Var-si-ty,
Rah, rah, rah!

Additionally, a non-traditional cheer has been demonstrated by The New School. In the style of American actress and singer-songwriter Christina Milian, modeled after one of her more popular singles, "Dip It Low", the students' chant dips low and is picked up slow, towards the end.

Take him by the hair
Let him know what's on
If you understand me
Y'all come on
Yeah, yeah, yeah

Another variety of yell is illustrated by that of the School of Practical Science (since 1906, the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering) of University of Toronto:

Who are we? Can't you guess?
We are from the S.P.S.!

The cheer of the United States Naval Academy is an imitation of a nautical syren.

The Royal Military College of Canada cheer is:

Call: Gimme a beer!
Response: Beer! Esses! Emma! T-D-V! Who can stop old RMC! Shrapnel, Cordite, NCT! R-M-C Hooah!

The Amherst cheer is:

Amherst! Amherst! Amherst! Rah! Rah!
Amherst! Rah! Rah!
Rah! Rah! Rah! Rah! Rah! Rah! Amherst!

The Bryn Mawr cheer (in a form of Greek) can only be started by seniors: [3]

Anassa kata, kalo kale
Ia ia ia Nike
Bryn Mawr, Bryn Mawr, Bryn Mawr!

(I.e. ‘Ἄνασσα κατά, καλῶ καλή. Ἰαὶ ἰαὶ ἰαί, Νίκη ’, "Queen, descend, I invoke you, fair one. Hail, hail, hail, Victory.) [4]

Besides the cheers of individual institutions there are some common to all, generally used to compliment some successful athlete or popular professor. One of the oldest examples of these personal cheers is:

Who was George Washington? First in war, First in peace, First in the hearts of his countrymen.

...followed by a stamping on the floor in the same rhythm.

College yells, more informally known as cheers and chants, are used particularly at athletic contests. In any large college there are several leaders, chosen by the students, who stand in front and call for the different songs and cheers, directing with their arms in the fashion of an orchestral conductor. This cheering and singing form one of the distinctive features of inter-collegiate and scholastic athletic contests in America.

Organised chants in North American sports are rarer then in their European counterparts, but some teams have their special routines. Common chants include "Let's go – [team name] -, let's go (clap-clap clap-clap-clap); or in case of a single syllable nickname, "Go – [team name] – Go". Spectators also use derivatives of these to chant the names of particular athletes. A notable example of this is the Derek Jeter chant, where fans chant the name of the then New York Yankees shortstop and employ a similar clapping rhythm. [5] In some contexts, spectator chanting may also be used derisively to chide athletes or contestants.

Most teams have a scoring song played on the PA system, and some professional American football teams sing a fight song after scores. The use of fight songs after a score is universal in college football. Since scoring in basketball is more frequent, and does not generally cause breaks in the game action, scoring songs are not employed in that sport. However, in college basketball, fight songs are universally played during prolonged breaks in game action (timeouts, halftime, and overtime breaks if any). Baseball fans traditionally sing "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" in the middle of the 7th inning. After 9/11, many professional teams chose to use "God Bless America" during that break, either supplementing or replacing "Take Me Out to the Ball Game". A very loud cheer at sporting events is usually called "Do Yay".

In High School Basketball games, if the score was a blow-out and approaching the end of regulation, fans of the winning team would chant "This Game's Over" or "This One's Over." If the losing team makes a play, and that teams fans chant for that, fans of the winning team will start chanting "Scoreboard," indicating that even after the one play, the other team is losing.

Sis boom bah

The term sis boom bah is a term popular in U.S. high school and college cheers. It was used by Johnny Carson's character Carnac the Magnificent:

(Carnac holds the sealed envelope up to his turban)
CARNAC: Sis boom bah.
ED McMAHON: Sis boom bah.
(Carnac rips the envelope open and removes the card)
CARNAC (reading): Describe the sound made when a sheep explodes.

It has also been used by Bugs Bunny in the iconic cartoon, "Super-Rabbit"

Bugs: Bricka bracka firecracka sis boom bah! Bugs Bunny! Bugs Bunny! RAH RAH RAH!
Bugs, Smith and his horse: Bricka bracka firecracka sis boom bah! Bugs Bunny! Bugs Bunny! RAH RAH RAH!
Smith and his horse: Bricka bracka firecracka sis boom bah! Bugs Bunny! Bugs Bunny! RAH RAH RAH! (×2)

Pogo had a recurring character named Miss Sis Boombah, an athletic Rhode Island Red.

Rugby union

Chants are less extensive in rugby union but the Oggy Oggy Oggy chant first became popular on the terraces at Welsh rugby union matches, Australians later modified the tune and created their own chant (Aussie Aussie Aussie! Oi Oi Oi!). England supporters sing "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot", a song long popular in rugby union clubs since the words lend themselves readily to a sequence of lewd hand gestures, which the Australians have been singing as well in the last decade. The Welsh sing "Cwm Rhondda", which is the tune of the hymn "Guide Me O Thou Great Redeemer", as well as the chorus of Max Boyce's "Hymns and Arias". The Fields of Athenry is often sung at matches by supporters of the Irish rugby union team. The New Zealand team (the All Blacks) are known for engaging in a ritual Māori haka before international matches. The Fiji team performs the cibi; the Samoa team the siva tau; and the Tonga team the sipa tau. The Pacific Islanders rugby union team, a joint Fiji/Samoa/Tonga representative team that played for the first time in 2004, uses a specially composed chant combining elements of each nation's traditional chant.

The Australian Rugby Union has made a concerted effort to promote the singing of Waltzing Matilda since 1999, frequently featuring singer John Williamson at home matches to lead the crowd. As singing is not a part of Australian sporting culture[ citation needed ], this "tradition" may well fade without active support from administration.

Cricket

Chants are also used in Cricket, the Barmy Army has a collection of songs and chants such as 'You all live in a convict colony' sung to the tune of 'Yellow Submarine'. It is done to remind Australian cricket fans of their supposed criminal past. The hymn Jerusalem became the song of choice for the England cricket team during the 2005 Ashes series, and Michael Vaughan encouraged the whole country to sing the song before the last Test match at The Oval.

Around the world

Equivalents of English "Hurray" found around the world include, "Hourra!" in France, ¡Viva! in Spanish, "Yatta!" in Japan, and so on. [6]

See also

Related Research Articles

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In U.S. and Canadian sports, a fight song is a song associated with a team. In both professional and amateur sports, fight songs are a popular way for fans to cheer for their team, and are also laden with history; in singing a fight song, fans feel part of a large, time-honored tradition. Although the term "fight song" is primarily used in the United States, the use of fight songs is commonplace around the world, but they may also be referred to as team anthems, team songs or games songs in other countries, even such as Australia, Mexico and New Zealand. Fight songs differ from stadium anthems, used for similar purposes, in that they are usually written specifically for the purposes of the team, whereas stadium anthems are not.

Princeton Reunions

The Princeton Reunions are an annual college reunion event held every year on the weekend before commencement at Princeton University. Known simply as "Reunions", this event brings back to campus upwards of 25,000 alumni and guests for a four-day celebration featuring large outdoor tents, elaborate costumes, sporting events, alumni and faculty presentations, fireworks, and bands from rock to swing.

Cameron Crazies

The Cameron Crazies are the student section supporting the Duke Blue Devils men's basketball team and the Duke Blue Devils women's basketball team. The section can hold approximately 1,200 occupants. The section, also deemed "The Zoo" by Al McGuire for their humorous pranks, and "The Sixth-Man" by Duke men's basketball head coach Mike Krzyzewski, is known for being "rude, crude and lewd – as well as cleverly funny," stated Frank Vehorn of the Virginian-Pilot. The Crazies are famous for painting their bodies blue and white or wearing outrageous outfits. They start their cheering as soon as warm-ups begin. Throughout the game, the Crazies jump up and down when the opposing team has possession of the ball and yell cheers in unison at focal points of the game.

Little Ivies

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Ateneo Blue Eagles

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The Red and the Blue

The Red and Blue may refer to:

  1. A nickname used collectively for the University of Pennsylvania athletic teams. The name derives from the two school colors that are apparent on the university's coat-of-arms. This is not to be confused with the more or less "official" nickname used since the 1890s, the Quakers.
  2. A popular song of the University of Pennsylvania.
Hoya Saxa

Hoya Saxa is the official cheer and "college yell" of Georgetown University and its athletics teams. The term hoya is an Ancient Greek word usually transliterated from οἵα as hoia from the word hoios (οἷος) meaning "such" or "what" as in "what manner of", and is used in certain Biblical quotations. Saxa is Latin for "rocks" or "small stones". It was used in the name of some Roman settlements, such as Saxa Rubra. Before 1900, students at Georgetown were required to study classical linguistics, and both words are in the neuter plural of their respective languages. The phrase together is generally translated into English as "what rocks!", though other translations have suggested "such rocks!" or "great rocks!" or even "what rocks?" as a question. It was also historically rendered as "Hoya, Hoya, Saxa!", a form that is used in "The Hoya Song" from 1930 which mocked the cheers of other universities, and was then included in the school fight song, "There Goes Old Georgetown".

Thomas Peebles was the father of American cheerleading and the first American football coach at the University of Minnesota, in 1883. Peebles coached the team in three games in that early season. They lost two and won one.

The University of Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads comprise the cheerleading organization at the Twin Cities campus of the University of Minnesota. Being the first program ever to form worldwide, the University of Minnesota is consequently considered the "Birthplace of Cheerleading". Today, the Gopher Spirit Squads consist of four separate squads: a cheer squad, a dance team, a hockey cheer squad, and the school's mascot, Goldy Gopher. The squads consistently perform well at national competitions including 19 national championships in dance since 2003, a 2nd-place finish for All-Girl in 2013, a fifth-place finish in 2017, and four-time national champion Goldy Gopher in 2011, 2013, 2017, and 2018. The current head coach is Sam Owens.

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Fired Up! is a 2009 American teen sex comedy film directed by Will Gluck, who is also credited with writing the film under the pseudonym Freedom Jones. The main plot revolves around two popular high school student football players who attend a cheerleading camp for the summer to get close to its 300 female cheerleaders.

There are a multitude of rituals associated with collegiate sporting events across the United States. Varying by sport, demographics, and location, sporting rituals often become essential to the preparation, organization, and game-day experience. In fact, many would argue that rituals are the experience.

The Mount Washington Lacrosse Club is an amateur field lacrosse club based in Baltimore, Maryland. As one of the most successful and well-known lacrosse clubs in history, at one point it dominated the sport at both the collegiate and club level. The team is sometimes referred to by the nickname of the "Wolfpack" or "Mounties". In 1960, Sports Illustrated called Mount Washington "one of the most successful athletic dynasties in history". The home field is Norris Field, located on Kelly Avenue in Mount Washington, Baltimore. It has been shared with the all-girls Bryn Mawr School since 1999.

Catholic University Cardinals

The Catholic University of America's intercollegiate sports teams are called the Cardinals, and they compete in the NCAA's Division III. They are members of the Landmark Conference, the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference (football) and the Mid-Atlantic Rowing Conference (rowing). The team colors are red and black.

Ski-U-Mah is a slogan used at the University of Minnesota since 1884, when the newly emerging football team was coached by Thomas Peebles, a philosophy professor and former Princeton faculty member.

Baseball cheering culture in South Korea

The baseball cheering culture in South Korea started in the 1990s and continues to the present. There are 10 professional clubs and each club has its own way of cheering. The Korean cheering culture generally shares similar characteristics: collective, enthusiastic and empathetic. Baseball cheering is popular among women because of the easy-to-learn melodies of fight songs, break-time events and a variety of foods. Baseball cheering is performed in most parts of a ballpark.

References

  1. Hobbes, Nicholas (2003). Essential Militaria. Atlantic Books. ISBN   978-1-84354-229-2.
  2. Davis, Park H. (1911). Football – The American Intercollegiate Game. Scribner & Sons. p. 46.
  3. "Student Activities. Traditions". Bryn Mawr College.
  4. In Greek kata, κατά, is not a verb and ἰαί, pronounced /i̯a̮i/, would be more properly transliterated as iai. See κατά, ἰαί . Liddell, Henry George ; Scott, Robert ; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  5. Watkins, Jasmine (26 September 2014). "'Derek Jeter' chant breaks out at Fenway Park". Sporting News. Sporting News Media. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  6. Akira Miura Essential Japanese Vocabulary 2013 1462910106 Yatta!やった "Hurray!" Yatta!やった is a frequently used exclamation of joy uttered when something wonderful happens unexpectedly.

Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cheering". Encyclopædia Britannica . 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 21–22.