High school football

Last updated

A running back sweeps the left end during a high school football game near Cincinnati, Ohio, 1999 Hs running back.jpg
A running back sweeps the left end during a high school football game near Cincinnati, Ohio, 1999

High school football is gridiron football played by high school teams in the United States and Canada. It ranks among the most popular interscholastic sports in both countries. It is also popular amongst American High school teams in Europe.

Gridiron football Sport primarily played in the United States and Canada

Gridiron football, also known as North American football or simply football, is a football sport primarily played in the United States and Canada. American football, which uses 11-player teams, is the form played in the United States and the best known form of gridiron football worldwide, while Canadian football, featuring 12-player teams, predominates in Canada. Other derivative varieties include indoor football, football for smaller teams, and informal games such as touch and flag football. Football is played at professional, collegiate, semi-professional, and amateur levels.

Contents

High school football began in the late 19th century, concurrent with the start of many college football programs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many college and high school teams played against one another. Today, the oldest high school football rivalry dates back to 1875 in Connecticut, between the Norwich Free Academy Wildcats and the New London High School Whalers. [1]

High school football traditions such as pep rallies, marching bands, mascots, and homecomings are mirrored from college football. No true minor league farm organizations exist in American football. Therefore, high school football is generally considered to be the third tier of American football in the United States, behind professional and college competition. It is the first level of play in which a player will accumulate statistics, which will determine his chances of competing at the college level, and ultimately the professional level if he is talented enough.

Pep rally

A pep rally or pep assembly is a gathering of people, typically students of middle school, high school, and college age, before a sports event. The purpose of such a gathering is to encourage school spirit and to support members of the team. It is generally seen as an American phenomenon.

Marching band company of instrumental musicians

A marching band is a group in which instrumental musicians perform while marching, often for entertainment or competition. Instrumentation typically includes brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments. Most marching bands wear a uniform, often of a military style, that includes an associated organization's colors, name or symbol. Most high school marching bands, and some college marching bands, are accompanied by a color guard, a group of performers who add a visual interpretation to the music through the use of props, most often flags, rifles, and sabres.

Mascot person, animal, or object thought to bring luck, or for fictional, representative spokespeople for consumer products

A mascot is any person, animal, or object thought to bring luck, or anything used to represent a group with a common public identity, such as a school, professional sports team, society, military unit, or brand name. Mascots are also used as fictional, representative spokespeople for consumer products, such as the rabbit used in advertising and marketing for the General Mills brand of breakfast cereal, Trix.

In the 2000s and beyond, there has been growing concern about safety and long-term brain health, both regarding the occasional concussion as well as the steady diet of lesser hits to the head. [2]

A game during the start of the first quarter High School Football Game.jpg
A game during the start of the first quarter

Rules

A high school football game in Texas. Hischool football sunset.jpg
A high school football game in Texas.

The National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) establishes the rules of high school football in the United States.

National Federation of State High School Associations organization

The National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) is the body that writes the rules of competition for most high school sports and activities in the United States. NFHS's headquarters are located in White River State Park in Indianapolis, Indiana.

As of the next high school season of 2019, Texas is the only state that does not base its football rules on the NFHS rule set, instead using NCAA rules with certain exceptions shown below. [3] [4] Through the 2018 season, Massachusetts also based its rules on those of the NCAA, [5] but it adopted NFHS rules for 2019 and beyond. [6]

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

National Collegiate Athletic Association Non-profit organization that regulates many American college athletes and programs

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It also organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, and helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Massachusetts State of the United States of America

Massachusetts, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.

With their common ancestry, the NFHS rules of high school football are largely similar to the college game, though with some important differences:

At least one unique high school rule has been adopted by college football. In 1996, the overtime rules originally utilized by Kansas high school teams were adopted by the NCAA, although the NCAA has made two major modifications: (a) starting each possession from the 25-yard line, and (b) starting with the third overtime period, requiring teams to attempt a two-point conversion following a touchdown.

Thirty-four states have a mercy rule that comes into play during one-sided games after a prescribed scoring margin is surpassed at halftime or any point thereafter. The type of mercy rule varies from state to state, with many using a "continuous clock" after the scoring margin is reached (wherein, except for specific situations, the clock keeps running on plays where the clock would normally stop), while other states end the game once the margin is reached or passed. For example, Texas uses a 45-point mercy rule (to stop the game) only in six-man football; for 11-man football there is no automatic stoppage but the coaches may mutually agree to use a continuous clock.

Most Canadian schools use Canadian football rules adapted for the high school game. The exception is British Columbia, which uses NFHS rules as used in the United States. [7]

Sanctioning organizations

Each state has at least one sanctioning organization for public schools. In many states a separate organization governs interscholastic athletics at most private schools. Each sanctioning body divides its member schools up into anywhere from two to eight size classifications based on the number of students enrolled at a school (so that schools are assured to compete against other schools of comparable size) and then each classification is further divided into geographic regions; the nomenclature and number of divisions vary from state to state. A school's size classification can change if its enrollment rises or declines over the years. At the smallest schools, particularly in rural communities or smaller private schools, variations on the game using six, eight, or nine players per side instead of the traditional eleven (or twelve in Canada) are encountered.[ citation needed ]

Home schooling and high school football

Homeschooled students may also participate in high school football through independent or freelance teams, which compete against small private (or in a few cases, public) schools. In some states, such as Florida, state law allows homeschooled students to compete in interscholastic athletics for their local school district. Thus, homeschooled Tim Tebow, who was one of the top quarterback prospects in the nation, was able to play for the nationally ranked public Nease High School after he and his mother rented an apartment in that school district.

Season

High school football stadium in Manhattan, Kansas Bishop Stadium (MHS).JPG
High school football stadium in Manhattan, Kansas

Training for the upcoming season usually starts with weightlifting and other conditioning activities, such as specialized speed and agility training. In some states, this begins a few weeks after the end of the previous season, and in others as late as August. Some states allow seven on seven scrimmages, while others prohibit formal practices during most of the summer. Near the end of the summer in mid-August, double sessions tend to begin and usually last for one week or until school starts. After double sessions end, regular season practices begin with daily sessions each week day afternoon except on game day. Practices are often held on Saturday as well, but almost never on Sunday.

The regular season typically consists of ten games in most states; Kansas is one of the few states which limits teams to nine. Teams in Minnesota usually play eight, [8] while teams in New York typically schedule only seven. The first game of the season is usually in early September, or late August, and the final regular season game is usually in mid to late October, with the end of the season varying by state and climate. Teams may have one or more bye weeks during the regular season. Larger schools (especially those with successful programs) can often draw attendances in the thousands, even for regular season games, and in some cases may play the game at a college or professional stadium to accommodate the expected large crowds.

The vast majority of high school football games are scheduled on Friday nights, with Thursday evenings and Saturdays being less heavily used. Alternate days are most common in larger school districts where the facilities are used by multiple schools, or where the playing field is not illuminated for nighttime use due to financial limitations, local regulations, or neighborhood opposition against night games.

Playoffs and post-season

Prior to the 1970s, many states crowned state champions through polls, but playoff systems have become nearly universal. Since then, most states have steadily increased the number of teams eligible to participate and total number of classifications. Though the playoff scheme and number of teams eligible varies, regional champions will compete in elimination playoff rounds – in a tradition borrowed from pro football rather than college – to determine a state champion for each size classification.

Only one state, New Jersey, does not crown state public-school champions, only determining regional state champions, but does crown state champions for non-public schools. Massachusetts did not establish a state championship until 2014, previously crowning only regional champions as in New Jersey. New York's championships are nominally statewide, but only include upstate New York because the divisions representing New York City and Long Island (which cover the majority of the state's population) abstain from the state tournaments. [9] In many large cities, including Pittsburgh, New York City, and Los Angeles, as well as some very small districts in places such as Western New York, [10] public high schools compete in their own "city leagues" and may or may not ever play opponents outside of them. At the other extreme are states such as Illinois, Louisiana and West Virginia, in which regional championships do not exist; the state's playoffs are seeded on a statewide basis.

The championship games are usually held at a neutral site, usually a college or NFL stadium needed to accommodate the larger crowds. College and professional fields are also usually better equipped to handle inclement weather which is common since state championship games are typically held in late November to the middle of December. In the vast majority of states, all championship games are played at one site, such as the UNI-Dome in Iowa, War Memorial Stadium in Arkansas, Pratt & Whitney Stadium in Connecticut, Camp Randall Stadium in Wisconsin, Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Georgia (formerly the Georgia Dome), Ford Field in Michigan, the DakotaDome in South Dakota, Kroger Field in Kentucky, the Mercedes-Benz Superdome in Louisiana, Lucas Oil Stadium in Indiana, Memorial Stadium in Nebraska, the Carrier Dome in New York, and AT&T Stadium in Texas.

Alabama previously played all of its championship games at Legion Field, but at the urging of Alabama Crimson Tide coach Nick Saban, the games now alternate between Bryant–Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa and Jordan–Hare Stadium in Auburn. Mississippi, which previously held its games at Mississippi Veterans Memorial Stadium in Jackson, has done the same, alternating between Vaught–Hemingway Stadium in Oxford and Davis Wade Stadium in Starkville.

Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Idaho and New Mexico are among the states which play only one championship game per site.

The current record for number of state high school football championships is held by Washington High School in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, which is 37 as of 2010. [11] [12]

Some publications and internet sites release nationwide rankings based on polls or mathematical formulas which take into account various factors like average margin of victory and strength of schedule. Schools that finish atop these rankings, particularly the USA Today poll, are sometimes considered to be the national champions.

Outside of the playoff tournaments, high school football on Thanksgiving has also historically been popular; originally the traditional end of the high school football season, Thanksgiving football has become less common because of state tournaments (it is still widely popular in some states, particularly in New England). Because of its overlap with the playoff season, many teams forgo their rights to a playoff tournament to participate in exhibition rivalry games that are held over Thanksgiving weekend. Others will play a rivalry game only when they do not qualify for the playoffs. Many of the state championship tournaments are purposely scheduled to conclude on the weekend of Thanksgiving.

Canadian post-season games

In Ontario, high schools play in bowl games similar to college football in the United States. Until 2012, the games were determined by geographical location as opposed to a team's record. There were five bowl games for five different geographical regions; the Northern Bowl, the Golden Horseshoe Bowl, the National Capital Bowl, the Western Bowl and the Metro Bowl. For instance, the National Capital Bowl champion is determined through contests between teams from the Bay of Quinte, Simcoe County, Kawartha Lakes, Ottawa Valley and East Ontario. East Ontario or EOSSAA (Eastern Ontario Secondary School Athletic Association) champion is determined by the champions from divisions within itself such as KASSAA (Kingston Area Secondary School Athletic Association).

Since 2013, the Ontario Federation of School Athletic Associations has held an annual bowl game series at Tim Hortons Field in Hamilton, Ontario featuring random pairings between the champions of the OFSAA's 18 member associations. Since 2015, the festival has featured nine bowls: Western Bowl – SWOSSAA/ WOSSAA, Golden Horseshoe Bowl – GHAC/ SOSSA, Metro Bowl – TDCAA/ TDSSAA, Central Bowl – CWOSSA/ ROPSSAA, Simcoe Bowl – GBSSA/ YRAA, National Capital Bowl – NCSSAA/ EOSSAA, Northern Bowl – NOSSA/ NWOSSAA, Eastern Bowl – LOSSA/ COSSA, and Independent Bowl – CISAA/ 2nd Entry with one of two associations drawn to compete one year, and the other automatically competing in that bowl game in the following year. The remaining nine associations are drawn by lottery to determine their pairing. [13]

Other provinces typically divide schools by size and hold playoffs in a similar manner to those contested in US states.

High school football in Europe

All DoDEA Europe high schools offering football will participate in regular season competition facing their Division opponents. In Division I the top four teams at the end of the season will advance to the semi-final games with the winners of those games advancing to the championship game. Division II will be divided into two conference with the top 4 in each conference participating in quarter-final matchups, with the winners advancing to the semi-finals and the final two teams remaining participating in the championships. The FINAL FOUR Championships will be held in the Kaiserslautern Military Community following the play-offs.

Coaching

See: Head coach#High school football and Category:High school football coaches in the United States

Junior varsity and freshman teams

Offensive line for Mission Secondary School lines up against Defensive line for Hugh Boyd Secondary in JV game played at MSS September 17, 2015. MSS is Located in Mission, British Columbia, Canada. Lineup missionvshughboyd.JPG
Offensive line for Mission Secondary School lines up against Defensive line for Hugh Boyd Secondary in JV game played at MSS September 17, 2015. MSS is Located in Mission, British Columbia, Canada.

Many larger high schools also have a separate junior varsity team along with their regular or varsity team. In many cases, these teams – sometimes called the "sophomore team" – are made up of sophomores and some freshmen, although some underclassmen will be called up to play varsity, especially to replace injured varsity players or if the underclassman player is exceptionally talented. At larger schools, there often will be a third team for freshmen (called the freshman team) or, in unified school districts, a "modified" team that includes freshmen and middle school students.

Typically, there are no playoffs for junior varsity teams, although many leagues will award a championship title to the team with the best record. Overtime rules are often disregarded, meaning it is possible for games to end in a tie. Junior varsity teams usually have the same schedule as the varsity, with many games played on the same night and at the same site as the varsity game, with the JV game serving as a preliminary contest before the varsity game.

Some schools also field a true junior varsity team, which are simply made up of junior and senior players who typically do not see playing time in the varsity game (except during the final minutes of a one-sided game); some freshmen and sophomores will also play in these games, as will a few juniors who start but either are playing in a different position or will be expected to have leadership roles as seniors. In addition to providing opportunities to play in a timed contest, coaches may use these types of contests to see how well underclassmen and juniors play together, since they would replace varsity players lost to graduation; and to assess the talent and actual game-situation abilities of those players who rarely get to play in varsity games. While sometimes these games will be played on the same night as varsity games, true JV teams often play on a different night and may have a separate schedule composed of conference and non-conference teams.

College recruiting

In all states, the HS football season will have ended by late December, but the recruiting process by which colleges offer scholarships to high school seniors often starts in the summer, before the school year and football season begin. Physical assessment is an increasingly important part of the recruiting process. Football camps are held at college campuses where a large number of potential recruits can be evaluated simultaneously in various speed and skills drills. Players are evaluated based on running the 40-yard dash, agility shuttle, vertical jump and the number of repetitions on the bench press that they can perform at a given weight. Recently, the SPARQ rating has become a popular composite metric to evaluate overall athleticism. Based on performance over the course of their careers and at camps, colleges will typically take potential recruits on tours of the campus and athletic facilities, or the college may have its team's coach visit the recruit at home or at school.

While all colleges do much of their recruiting from local and in-state high schools, where they can network with HS coaches and booster clubs, the nation's top college programs can easily recruit athletes from around the country. Some colleges have historically been aided in this regard through their prominence within their religious affiliation, such as Notre Dame or BYU.

Students who played for larger high schools, or who competed in nationally televised matches, have a natural advantage towards recruitment, while players who competed at smaller schools – such as most states' 1A and 2A categories – or in states where high school football is not perceived as being of a high caliber will have their skills and achievements judged versus the lower-caliber opposition they faced and, as such, are rarely considered as top prospects. Occasionally, though, a student at a smaller school will receive a full scholarship; an extreme example of this is Jehuu Caulcrick, a fullback who received a full scholarship to Michigan State University despite playing high school in Clymer, New York, one of the smallest school districts in the state (and a state where high school football is not seen as particularly high caliber). Caulcrick went on to have a successful college career and several years as a journeyman professional, ending his football career as a member of his hometown team, the Buffalo Bills.

Though it is an expensive project, high school football players often increase their visibility by sending out video highlights of their playing skills to college recruiters. If a student receives no scholarship offers, they may still attempt to make a college team by becoming a "walk on" and paying their own tuition in the hopes that they can make the team and possibly receive a scholarship. Others will try out for a non-scholarship team, such as a Division III school, or a two-year junior college team. The latter option is also popular with students with academic or behavioral issues that would prevent them from playing at a four-year college.

While the vast majority of high school football players will not even be considered for a scholarship offer, players who receive nationwide attention will invariably receive scholarship offers from more than one school and will often hold a press conference to announce their final selection. "All Star" exhibition games like the U.S. Army All-American Bowl, which is televised nationally by NBC, give the nation's top prospects the opportunity to publicly announce their college selection or to provide one last opportunity to showcase their talents to college recruiters. By National Signing Day, the first Wednesday in February, most top recruits will have already signed non-binding letters of intent or verbally committed with colleges.

Rivalries

See: List of high school football rivalries (100 years+) and List of high school football rivalries (less than 100 years old)

All-star games

See: Category:High school football games in the United States

A number of all-star football games are played among high school football players in the United States. The caliber of these games varies widely; games such as the aforementioned U.S. Army All-American Bowl tend to draw some of the most renowned high school players in the country, while smaller regional contests such as the Big 30 All-Star Football Game may only draw from a small region.

The International Federation of American Football sponsors the biennial U19 World Championship for high school-aged players around the world. As with all IFAF tournaments, players play for national teams; the U.S. and Canada national teams have alternated as champions and runners-up throughout the tournament's existence.

Awards

See: Category:High school football trophies and awards in the United States

Mascots

As with college and professional football teams, most high school teams in every state have a mascot or team name. Many are generic allusions conveying an image sense of strength, speed, or bravery. Thus, pluralized team names such as Tigers, Eagles, Wildcats, Trojans, and Warriors are fairly common throughout the country. Other team names, however, have a historical connection to the town or area where the high school or school district is located, such as a locally important industry. For example, Yuma High School in Yuma, Arizona is known as the "Criminals" due to the school's historic connection to the infamous Yuma Territorial Prison. Many new schools, or schools that had merged with other schools, have allowed their students to "vote" on a new school mascot or team nickname.

Coverage by broadcast media

Because of high school football's mostly limited regional appeal, and because most games take place during prime time (albeit during the Friday night death slot), television exposure of high school football on both a local and national basis tends to be limited to championship games only, or for the regular season to the lower-tier stations in a market such as a MyNetworkTV affiliate or independent television station where no critical programming would be pre-empted, where the game chosen for coverage may be put up to a public vote. Local public access cable television and local radio stations often air regular season contests, and in some cases, the school's own radio station (or a nearby college) broadcasts the game using student announcers. One such example is San Diego's Prep Pigskin Report. High school football is often an integral part of the modern full service radio format, which centers on local information; radio's prime times are traditionally earlier in the day, and there is far less risk of preemption, since many stations would otherwise be automated or off the air during the times high school football games are played, or air much less popular evening talk shows.

There has also been a marked increase in recent years of web-based media covering high school sporting events. Examples include Mid America Broadcasting in Indiana, Champs Sports Network and MSA Sports Network in Western Pennsylvania, MSBN in Minnesota, and BSports.org in Washington. In many television markets, local stations will air 30 or 60-minute 'scoreboard' shows following their late Friday newscast with scores and highlights from games in their coverage area. Many national media outlets have been producing national high school football rankings, including High School Football America, which has been releasing its Top 25 since 2011. [14]

Despite increased national media attention, some states restrict the broadcast of high school games. One example is the University Interscholastic League, which governs public school sports in Texas.[ citation needed ] The UIL has a long-standing ban on television broadcasting of high school football games on Friday nights, believing that doing so could hurt ticket sales (radio broadcasts are allowed, though).[ citation needed ] Because of this, several games that have been broadcast on ESPN and Fox Sports Net in recent years have had to be played on either Thursday night or on Saturday to avoid the UIL's ban.

The Sports Broadcasting Act of 1961 and Public Law 89-800, which govern the antitrust exemptions given to the National Football League, prohibit the broadcasting of NFL games within 75 miles of any high school football game on Friday nights between September and early December. Because most populated areas of the United States have at least one high school football game within a 75-mile radius, and because broadcasting is an integral part of the NFL's business model (roughly half of the league's revenue comes from television contracts), this effectively prohibits the playing of NFL games in competition with high school football. (These rules do not apply during preseason, when Friday night games are common, nor does it apply at the end of the season, though the only time regular season games are played on Friday in the NFL is on Christmas.) Only recently have national sports television channels fully capitalized on this rule; since 2005, the ESPN family of networks (usually the sub-networks ESPN2, ESPNU and online broadcaster ESPN3, although the main channel also shows occasional games) has aired regular season matchups between nationally ranked teams under the High School Showcase banner. Fox Sports 1 also included high school football in its lineup when it launched in 2013.

Portrayals in movies, television, and literature

Hollywood portrayals of high school football, whether comedies or dramas, often portray the game at the center of a small town's existence and the focus of its attention. Also see Jock (subculture)

Safety and brain health concerns

Robert Cantu, a Professor of Neurology and Neurosurgery and Co-Founder of the CTE Center at the Boston University School of Medicine, believes that children under 14 should not play tackle football. [15] Their brains are not fully developed, and myelin (nerve cell insulation) is at greater risk in shear when the brain is young. Myelination is completed at about 15 years of age. Children also have larger heads relative to their body size and weaker necks. [16] [17]

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is caused by repeated brain trauma, such as concussions and blows to the head that do not produce concussions. It has been found in football players who had played for only a few years, including some who only played at the high school level. [2] [18]

An NFL-funded study reported that high school football players suffered 11.2 concussions per 10,000 games or practices, nearly twice as many as college football players. [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

College football collegiate rules version of American/Canadian football, played by student-athletes of American/Canadian colleges and universities

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States.

Tommy Kramer American football player

Thomas Francis "Tommy" Kramer is an American former professional football player who was a quarterback in the NFL from 1977 to 1990. He played collegiately at Rice University and was selected by the Minnesota Vikings in the first round of the 1977 NFL Draft after being named MVP of the 1977 Senior Bowl. He was inducted with the 2012 class into the College Football Hall of Fame.

Joe Montana American football player, quarterback

Joseph Clifford Montana Jr., nicknamed Joe Cool and The Comeback Kid, is a former American football quarterback who played in the National Football League (NFL) for 16 seasons with the San Francisco 49ers and Kansas City Chiefs. After winning a college national championship at Notre Dame, Montana started his NFL career in 1979 with San Francisco, where he played for the next 14 seasons. While a member of the 49ers, Montana started and won four Super Bowls and was the first player ever to have been named Super Bowl Most Valuable Player three times. He also holds Super Bowl career records for most passes without an interception and the all-time highest passer rating of 127.8. In 1993, Montana was traded to the Kansas City Chiefs where he played his final two seasons, and led the franchise to its first AFC Championship Game in January 1994. Montana was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2000, his first year of eligibility.

Steve Young former professional American football quarterback

Jon Steven Young is a former professional American football quarterback who played 15 seasons in the National Football League (NFL) and is best known for his 13 seasons with the San Francisco 49ers. He also played for the NFL Tampa Bay Buccaneers and the Los Angeles Express of the United States Football League (USFL). Young played college football for Brigham Young University, setting school and NCAA records en route to being runner-up for the 1983 Heisman Trophy.

Randall Cunningham American football player

Randall Wade Cunningham (born March 27, 1963) is a former American football quarterback in the National Football League (NFL). He played in the NFL for 16 seasons, primarily with the Philadelphia Eagles. Cunningham is also known for his tenure with the Minnesota Vikings. He is the younger brother of former college and professional football player Sam Cunningham and the father of Randall Cunningham II and world champion high jumper Vashti Cunningham. Cunningham was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 2016.

Drew Bledsoe American football player, quarterback

Drew McQueen Bledsoe is a former American football quarterback who played 14 seasons in the National Football League (NFL). He played for the New England Patriots, Buffalo Bills, and Dallas Cowboys.

William Stanley Humphries is a former professional American football quarterback. He played for the Washington Redskins and San Diego Chargers of the National Football League. He played high school football at Southwood High School and college football at Northeast Louisiana. He was selected by the Redskins in the sixth round of the 1988 NFL Draft.

Official (American football) game administrator in American football

In American football, an official is a person who has responsibility in enforcing the rules and maintaining the order of the game.

The fair catch kick is a rule at the professional and high school levels of American football that allows a team that has just made a fair catch to attempt a free kick from the spot of the catch. The kick must be either a place kick or a drop kick, and if it passes over the crossbar and between the goalposts of the defensive team's goal, a field goal, worth three points, is awarded to the offensive team.

Vince Ferragamo American football player

Vince Anthony Ferragamo is an American former gridiron football player. He played professionally as a quarterback in the National Football League (NFL) and the Canadian Football League (CFL).

Troy Aikman American retired football quarterback

Troy Kenneth Aikman is a former American football quarterback who played for the Dallas Cowboys in the National Football League (NFL). The number one overall draft pick in 1989, Aikman played twelve consecutive seasons as quarterback with the Cowboys. During his career he was a six-time Pro Bowl selection, led the team to three Super Bowl victories, and was the MVP of Super Bowl XXVII. Aikman was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2006 and to the College Football Hall of Fame on December 9, 2008 in New York City.

The 2010 NFL season was the 91st regular season of the National Football League.

Sidney Rice American football player, wide receiver

Sidney R. Rice is a former American football wide receiver who played seven seasons in the National Football League (NFL). Rice played college football at South Carolina. He was drafted by the Minnesota Vikings in the second round of the 2007 NFL Draft.

Florida State Seminoles football American college football team

The Florida State Seminoles football team represents Florida State University in the sport of American football. The Seminoles compete in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the Atlantic Division of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC). The team is known for its storied history, distinctive helmet, fight song and colors as well as the many traditions associated with the school.

San Diego State Aztecs football football team of San Diego State University

The San Diego State Aztecs football team represents San Diego State University in the sport of American football. The Aztecs compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) and the West Division of the Mountain West Conference (MW). They play their homes games at SDCCU Stadium and are currently coached by Rocky Long. They have won twenty-one conference championships and three national championships at the small college division.

American football in the United States

American football is the most popular sport in the United States. The National Football League has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world. In the United States the game is most often referred to as simply "football".

American football Team field sport

American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, which is the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, which is the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, and otherwise they turn over the football to the defense; if the offense succeeds in advancing ten yards or more, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.

In gridiron football, replay review is a method of reviewing a play using cameras at various angles to determine the accuracy of the initial call of the officials. An instant replay can take place in the event of a close or otherwise controversial call, either at the request of a team's head coach or the officials themselves.

The National Football League (NFL) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) are respectively the most popular professional and amateur football organizations in the United States. The National Football League was founded in 1920 and has since become the largest and most popular sport in the United States. The NFL has the highest average attendance of any sporting league in the world, with an average attendance of 66,960 persons per game during the 2011 NFL season. The NFL championship game, the Super Bowl, is among the biggest events in club sports worldwide. It is played between the champions of the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC), and its winner is awarded the Vince Lombardi Trophy.

Bryan Stork is a former American football center. He was drafted by the New England Patriots in the fourth round of the 2014 NFL Draft. He played college football at Florida State.

References

  1. https://blogs.usafootball.com/blog/6512/the-oldest-high-school-football-rivalries-in-the-u-s
  2. 1 2 Toporek, Bryan. "New: High School Football Can Lead to Long-Term Brain Damage, Study Says". Education Week. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  3. "2018–19 Football Manual" (PDF). University Interscholastic League . Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  4. "Section 159 – Football Rules". TAPPS Constitution. Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools . Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  5. "Rule 69.1" (PDF). Rules and Regulations Governing Athletics. Massachusetts Interscholastic Athletic Association. July 1, 2009 – June 30, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
  6. "MIAA Aligns Rules with NFHS in Football, Volleyball & Baseball" (Press release). National Federation of State High School Associations. August 8, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  7. "BCFOA Home". British Columbia Football Official's Association. Archived from the original on September 13, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
  8. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. "High Schools – The Buffalo News". blogs.buffalonews.com. Archived from the original on December 2, 2011. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
  10. McShea, Keith (November 3, 2011). The Ralph is a busy place for football playoffs Archived November 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . The Buffalo News. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
  11. National High School Record Book. NFHS. p. 76. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
  12. SDPB Championships. South Dakota Public Broadcasting. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  13. "OFSAA Football Bowl 2015 Matchups – Ontario Federation of School Athletic Associations". www.ofsaa.on.ca. Archived from the original on October 3, 2017.
  14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved October 11, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  15. Nader, Ralph; Reed, Kenneth (November 8, 2016). "The X's and O's of brain injury and youth football". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 27, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  16. Cantu, " Concussions and Our Kids"
  17. Paul Solotaroff, "This Is Your Brain on Football" Archived October 1, 2017, at the Wayback Machine , January 31, 2013, Rolling Stone
  18. "Deadly Hits: The Story of Ex-football Player Chris Coyne". Lauren Tarshis YouTube page. Lauren Tarshis. September 21, 2012. Archived from the original on May 28, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  19. Preps at greater concussion risk Archived November 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine , ESPN, Tom Farrey, October 31, 2013.