College Football Playoff

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College Football Playoff
College Football Playoff logo.svg
In operation 2014–present
Preceded by BCS (19982013)
Bowl Alliance (19951997)
Bowl Coalition (19921994)
Number of playoff games3 (championship game, 2 semifinal games)
Championship trophy College Football Playoff National Championship Trophy
Television partner(s) ESPN (2014–present)
Most playoff appearances Alabama (5)
Most playoff wins Alabama (6)
Most playoff championships Alabama and Clemson (2)
Conference with most appearances SEC (6)
Conference with most game wins SEC (7)
Conference with most championships ACC and SEC (2)
Last championship game 2019 College Football Playoff National Championship
Current champion Clemson
Executive director Bill Hancock

The College Football Playoff (CFP) is an annual postseason knockout invitational tournament to determine a national champion of the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest level of college football competition in the United States. The inaugural tournament was held at the end of the 2014 NCAA Division I FBS football season which was won by Ohio State. [1] Four teams play in two semifinal games, and the winner of each semifinal advances to the College Football Playoff National Championship game. [2]

National Collegiate Athletic Association Non-profit organization that regulates many American college athletes and programs

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a "non-profit" organization which regulates student athlete of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It also organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, and helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.

NCAA Division I highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association

NCAA Division I (D-I) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the United States. D-I schools include the major collegiate athletic powers, with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities and more athletic scholarships than Divisions II and III as well as many smaller schools committed to the highest level of intercollegiate competition.

The NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), formerly known as Division I-A, is the top level of college football in the United States. The FBS is the most competitive subdivision of NCAA Division I, which itself consists of the largest and most competitive schools in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). As of 2018, there are 10 conferences and 130 schools in FBS.


A 13-member committee selects and seeds the four teams to take part in the CFP. [3] This system differs from the use of polls or computer rankings that had previously been used to select the participants for the Bowl Championship Series (BCS), the title system used in FBS from 1998 to 2013. The current format is a Plus-One system, an idea which became popular as an alternative to the BCS after the 2003 and 2004 seasons ended in controversy. [4] [5]

Sports rating system

A sports rating system is a system that analyzes the results of sports competitions to provide ratings for each team or player. Common systems include polls of expert voters, crowdsourcing non-expert voters, betting markets, and computer systems. Ratings, or power ratings, are numerical representations of competitive strength, often directly comparable so that the game outcome between any two teams can be predicted. Rankings, or power rankings, can be directly provided, or can be derived by sorting each team's ratings and assigning an ordinal rank to each team, so that the highest rated team earns the #1 rank. Rating systems provide an alternative to traditional sports standings which are based on win-loss-tie ratios.

Bowl Championship Series American college football playoff series

The Bowl Championship Series (BCS) was a selection system that created five bowl game match-ups involving ten of the top ranked teams in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of American college football, including an opportunity for the top two teams to compete in the BCS National Championship Game. The system was in place for the 1998 through 2013 seasons and in 2014 was replaced by the College Football Playoff.

The plus-one system, also known as a 4-team playoff, is a method of determining the National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision of NCAA football in the United States where the participants National Championship Game are dependent on the results of two bowl games. The format is of a 4-team playoff, where two bowl games act as semi-final games, and the winners of these games participate in the National Championship Game.

The two semifinal games rotate among six major bowl games, referred to as the New Year's Six: the Rose Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Orange Bowl, Cotton Bowl, Fiesta Bowl, and Peach Bowl. [6] In addition to the four teams selected for the playoff, the final CFP rankings are used to help determine the participants for the other four New Year's Six bowls that are not hosting the semifinals that year. The semifinal games, which take place on the same day, are usually scheduled on Friday, Saturday, or Monday close to or on New Years Day, [7] with flexibility allowed to ensure that they are not in conflict with other bowl games traditionally held on New Year's Day. The National Championship game is then played on the first Monday that is six or more days after the semifinals. [8]

Rose Bowl Game American college football tournament

The Rose Bowl Game is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 at the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California. When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, the game is played on Monday, January 2. The Rose Bowl Game is nicknamed "The Granddaddy of Them All" because it is the oldest bowl game. It was first played in 1902 as the Tournament East–West football game, and has been played annually since 1916. Since 1945, it has been the highest attended college football bowl game. It is a part of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association's "America's New Year Celebration", which also includes the historic Rose Parade.

Sugar Bowl American college football tournament

The Sugar Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game played in New Orleans, Louisiana. It has been played annually since January 1, 1935, and celebrated its 75th anniversary on January 2, 2009. The Sugar Bowl, along with the Orange Bowl and Sun Bowl, are the second-oldest bowl games in the country, behind the Rose Bowl Game.

Orange Bowl American college football bowl game

The Orange Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game played in the Miami metropolitan area. It has been played annually since January 1, 1935, making it, along with the Sugar Bowl and the Sun Bowl, the second-oldest bowl game in the country, behind the Rose Bowl. The Orange Bowl is one of the New Year's Six, the top bowl games for the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision.

The venue of the championship game is selected based on bids submitted by cities, similar to the Super Bowl or NCAA Final Four. The winner of the game is awarded the College Football Playoff National Championship Trophy. Playoff officials commissioned a new trophy that was unconnected with the previous championship systems, such as the AFCA "crystal football" trophy which had been regularly presented after the championship game since the 1990s (as the AFCA was contractually obligated to name the BCS champion as the Coaches Poll champion). [9]

Super Bowl Annual championship game of the National Football League in American football

The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL) where the champion of the National Football Conference (NFC) competes against the champion of the American Football Conference (AFC). The game is the culmination of a regular season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. Normally, Roman numerals are used to identify each game, rather than the year in which it is held. For example, Super Bowl I was played on January 15, 1967, following the 1966 regular season. The sole exception to this naming convention tradition occurred with Super Bowl 50, which was played on February 7, 2016, following the 2015 regular season, and the following year, the nomenclature returned to Roman numerals for Super Bowl LI, following the 2016 regular season. The upcoming Super Bowl is Super Bowl LIV, scheduled for February 2, 2020, following the 2019 regular season.

The College Football Playoff National Championship Trophy is the trophy awarded to the winner of the College Football Playoff (CFP), the postseason tournament in American college football that determines a national champion for the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS). It is currently held by the Clemson Tigers, who won the 2019 College Football Playoff National Championship to cap the 2018 season. The 26.5-inch-tall (67 cm), 35-pound (16 kg) trophy is oblong-shaped like a football at the base, tapering up to a flattened full-size football at the top. It is made of 24-karat gold, bronze and stainless steel, with the bulk of the trophy gold-colored and the football at the top a gray metallic color. The football's four laces represent the four playoff teams.

AFCA National Championship Trophy

The AFCA National Championship Trophy is the trophy awarded annually by the American Football Coaches Association (AFCA) to the NCAA Division I FBS college football national champion as determined by the Coaches' Poll. The trophy has been presented since 1986 and was contractually given to the winner of the BCS National Championship Game and its predecessors from 1992 to 2013. It will continue to be awarded to the No. 1 ranked team in the final poll of the season.

As the NCAA does not organize or award an official national championship for FBS football (instead merely recognizing the decisions made by any of a number of independent major championship selectors), the CFP's inception in 2014 marked the first time a major national championship selector in college football was able to determine their champion by using a bracket competition. [10] [11]

Bracket (tournament) diagram of a tournament

A bracket or tournament bracket is a tree diagram that represents the series of games played during a knockout tournament. Different knockout tournament formats have different brackets; the simplest and most common is that of the single-elimination tournament. The name "bracket" is American English, derived from the resemblance of the links in the tree diagram to the bracket punctuation symbol ] or [. The closest British term is draw, although this implies an element of chance, whereas some brackets are determined entirely by seeding.

Selection process

Selection committee

The first College Football Playoff selection committee was announced on October 16, 2013. The group consists of 13 members who generally serve three-year terms, although some initial selections served terms both shorter and longer than three years "to achieve a rotation" of members. [12] [13]

The current members of the selection committee are: [12] [14]

MemberPositionConference affiliation [lower-alpha 1] Recusals [lower-alpha 2] Term expires
Joe Castiglione Oklahoma athletic director Big 12 Oklahoma, Missouri February 2021
Christopher B. Howard Robert Morris University President; former Air Force running backN/ANoneFebruary 2020
Jeff Bower Former Southern Miss head coachN/ASouthern MissFebruary 2019
Herb Deromedi Former Central Michigan head coachN/ACentral MichiganFebruary 2019
Ronnie Lott Former Southern California defensive backN/AUSCFebruary 2021
Bobby Johnson Former Vanderbilt head coach; former Clemson playerN/ANoneFebruary 2019
Scott Stricklin Florida athletic director SEC FloridaFebruary 2021
Rob Mullens (chairman) [16] Oregon athletic director Pac-12 OregonFebruary 2020
Todd Stansbury Georgia Tech athletic director ACC Georgia TechFebruary 2021
Frank Beamer Former Virginia Tech head coachN/A Oklahoma, Virginia Tech [lower-alpha 3] February 2020
Paola Boivin Former The Arizona Republic reporterN/ANoneFebruary 2021
Ken Hatfield Former Rice, Air Force, Arkansas and Clemson head coachN/ARice, Air Force, Arkansas, ClemsonFebruary 2021
Gene Smith Ohio State athletic director Big Ten Ohio StateFebruary 2020
Terry Mohajir (joining Feb. 2019) Arkansas State athletic director Sun Belt Arkansas StateFebruary 2022
R. C. Slocum (joining Feb. 2019)Interim Texas A&M athletic director and former head coach SEC/Big 12 Texas A&MFebruary 2022
Ray Odierno (joining Feb. 2019)former Army Chief of StaffN/ANoneFebruary 2022
  1. Current or former, athletic department administration only.
  2. Any programs for which members are required to recuse themselves from voting or discussions. [15]
  3. In addition to Virginia Tech, Beamer is recused from Oklahoma because his son Shane is the Sooners' tight ends coach and assistant head coach. [15]

The committee members include one current athletic director from each of the five "major" conferences—ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC—also known as the Power Five conferences. [17] [18] Other members are former coaches, players, athletic directors, and administrators, plus a retired member of the media. The goal was for the panel to consist proportionally of current "Power Five" athletic directors, former coaches, and a third group of other voters, [17] excluding current conference commissioners, coaches, and media members. [19] During the selection process, organizers said they wanted the committee to be geographically balanced. [20] Conference commissioners submitted lists totaling more than 100 names from which to select the final committee members. [21] [22]

Past members

MemberPositionConference affiliation [lower-alpha 1] Season(s)Replaced by
Michael C. Gould Former Air Force Academy superintendentN/A2014–15Jeff Bower
Tom Osborne Former Nebraska coach and athletic director Big Ten/Big 12 2014–15Lloyd Carr
Mike Tranghese Former Big East commissioner The American 2014–15Herb Deromedi
Pat Haden [lower-alpha 2] USC athletic director; former USC quarterback Pac-12 2014Rob Mullens
Oliver Luck [lower-alpha 3] Former West Virginia athletic director Big 12 2014Kirby Hocutt
Archie Manning [lower-alpha 4] Former NFL and Ole Miss quarterbackN/A-Bobby Johnson
Lloyd Carr [lower-alpha 5] Former Michigan coach Big Ten -Chris Howard
Condoleezza Rice Former United States Secretary of State N/A2014–16Frank Beamer
Barry Alvarez Former Wisconsin coach and athletic director Big Ten 2014–16Gene Smith
Tom Jernstedt Former NCAA executive vice president; former Oregon quarterbackN/A2014–18Ronnie Lott
Steve Wieberg Former USA Today reporterN/A2014–18Paola Boivin
Kirby Hocutt Texas Tech athletic director; former Kansas State linebacker Big 12 2015–18Joe Castiglione
Tyrone Willingham Former Stanford, Notre Dame and Washington head coachN/A2014–18Ken Hatfield
Jeff Long Former Arkansas athletic director SEC 2014–18Scott Stricklin
Dan Radakovich Clemson athletic director ACC 2014–18Todd Stansbury

The selection of Condoleezza Rice, a former U.S. Secretary of State and Stanford University provost, was met with some backlash within the sport and the media. Critics questioned her qualifications, citing gender and lack of football experience. [28] [29]

  1. Current or former, athletic department administration only.
  2. Stepped down October 30, 2015, citing health reasons and instability at USC. Did not participate in 2015 season committee. [23]
  3. Left the committee in 2015, before his term expired, after resigning as West Virginia athletic director to work for the NCAA as executive vice president of regulatory affairs. [24]
  4. Took a leave of absence for health reasons in October 2014 and stepped down in March 2015. Never participated in any committee voting. [25] [26]
  5. Left the committee in 2016 before the season started for health reasons. Committee stayed at 12 members rather than replacing him. [27]

Voting procedure

The committee releases its top 25 rankings weekly on Tuesdays in the second half of the regular season. The top four teams are seeded in that order for the playoff. [30] During the season, the committee meets and releases rankings six or seven times, depending on the length of the season (the number of games is consistent, but the number of weeks those games are played over can vary from year to year). [25] The group, which meets at the Gaylord Texan hotel in Grapevine, Texas, [31] reportedly meets in person up to 10 total times a year. [22]

A team's strength of schedule is one of the most pertinent considerations for the committee in making its selections. [32] Other factors that the committee weighs are conference championships, team records, and head-to-head results, [8] plus other points such as injuries and weather. [33] Unlike the BCS system, the AP Poll, Coaches' Poll, and the Harris Poll, computer rankings are not used to make the selections. [3] [17] Advanced statistics and metrics are expected to be submitted to the committee, though like other analytics, they have no formal role in the decision. [34] Committee members are not required to attend games. [31]

Long said the panel considered less frequent rankings, but ultimately decided on a weekly release. "That's what the fans have become accustomed to, and we felt it would leave a void in college football without a ranking for several weeks," he said. Long also noted: "Early on there was some talk that we would go into a room at the end of the season and come out with a top four, but that didn't last long." [35] In analyzing this change in thinking, Stewart Mandel of Sports Illustrated commented: "The whole point of the selection committee was to replace the simplistic horse-race nature of Top 25 polls – where teams only move up if someone above them loses – with a more deliberative evaluation method. Now the playoff folks are going to try to do both." [36] Addressing the "pecking order" nature of traditional polls, George Schrodeder of USA Today wrote that "if it actually works as intended, we could see volatile swings" from week to week, with lower-ranked teams moving ahead of higher-ranked teams without either team losing (a rarity in traditional polls). Both Long and Bill Hancock, the CFP executive director, say they expect that to happen. [37]

The committee's voting method uses multiple ballots, similar to the NCAA basketball tournament selection process and the entire process is facilitated through custom software developed by Code Authority in Frisco, Texas. [38] From a large initial pool of teams, the group takes numerous votes on successive tiers of teams, considering six at a time and coming to a consensus on how they should be ranked, then repeating the process with the next tier of teams. Discussion and debate happens at each voting step. All votes are by secret ballot, and committee members do not make their ballots public. [35] Each week's ranking process begins anew, with no weight given to the previous week's selections. [37] In this fashion, the committee selects the four teams to compete for the national championship.

Committee members who are currently employed or financially compensated by a school, or have family members who have a current financial relationship (which includes football players), are not allowed to vote for that school. During deliberations about a team's selection, members with such a conflict of interest cannot be present, but can answer factual questions about the institution. [35] All committee members have past ties to certain NCAA institutions, [31] but the committee decided to ignore those ties in the recusal requirements. "We just boiled it down to where we felt this group was fit to its high integrity and would differentiate from those past relationships," Long said. [35] Some football writers, like Dennis Dodd and Mark Schlabach, have said the recusal arrangement isn't transparent or objective, suggesting that members' alma maters and former coaching jobs should be considered disqualifying conflicts of interest. [39] [40]

Impact on scheduling

"Strength of schedule will become such an important factor ... that if you want to be under consideration, you need to have a more meaningful schedule than perhaps you've had in previous years."

Tom Jernstedt, selection committee member [41]

Due to the increased emphasis on strength of schedule, teams have considered playing more challenging opponents during the non-conference portion of their schedules. Some teams have traditionally played three or four "weak" non-conference opponents, but wins against such low-level competition are unlikely to impress the committee. For teams on the cusp of making the playoff four, "I think one of the first things the committee will look at is strength of schedule," said selector Oliver Luck. [42]

Teams in the Big Ten, Big 12 and Pac-12 play nine conference games on their twelve-game schedules and thus only have flexibility in choosing their opponents for the three non-league games. Some programs are opting to increase their schedule strength by scheduling high-profile matchups at neutral sites and on weeknights, garnering primetime TV exclusivity. [43] [44]

In response to the new playoff system, the Southeastern Conference considered increasing its conference schedule from eight to nine games, with Alabama coach Nick Saban a vocal proponent. [45] According to Jon Solomon of the Birmingham News , "The prevailing opinion among SEC athletics directors: The SEC is difficult enough that there's no need for a ninth game." [46] Some in the conference, like Mississippi State athletic director Scott Stricklin, opined that a nine-game SEC schedule would result in more teams with two losses. Commissioner Michael Slive and Vanderbilt AD David Williams, among others, supported a stronger out-of-league schedule, which would likely impress the committee. [46] [47] In April 2014, the league voted to mandate that all SEC teams must play a Power Five foe (ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, or independent Notre Dame) in its non-conference slate beginning in 2016. Slive noted this rule "gives us the added strength-of-schedule we were seeking". [45] In 2014, the first year of the College Football Playoff, one team played two opponents from the Power Five, nine of the 14 teams played one Power Five conference opponent and three lower-level opponents (including one FCS school), and four teams did not face a Power Five foe. [43] In the spring of 2015, the SEC decided to count games played against Independents BYU and Army toward its Power Five requirement.

The ACC, whose teams also play eight conference games (plus Notre Dame at least once every three years), also considered moving to a nine-game conference schedule. However, the league opted to stay with the eight-plus-Notre Dame model, stipulating instead that teams would have to play one Power Five school in their non-league slates beginning in 2017, which would include the Notre Dame game or other ACC schools, [48] as will games against another FBS independent, BYU. [49] Despite the push to increase schedule strength, some ACC coaches preferred the scheduling flexibility available with fewer permanent fixtures on a team's slate. [50] Opinion was split among league athletic directors on moving to a nine-game schedule prior to the vote. [51] An SEC expansion to a nine-game schedule would limit the ACC's opportunities to play Power Five non-conference opponents. [52]


The College Football Playoff uses a four-team knockout bracket to determine the national champion. Six of the most historic bowl games—the Rose Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Orange Bowl, Cotton Bowl, Fiesta Bowl, and Peach Bowl– rotate as hosts for the semifinals. [53] The rotation is set on a three-year cycle with the following pairings: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. The two semifinal bowls and the other four top-tier bowls are marketed as the New Year's Six . [54] Three of these bowls played per day, typically on consecutive days that include New Year's Day. [2] The selection committee seeds the top four teams, and also assigns teams to the at-large bowls (Cotton, Fiesta, and Peach) in years when they do not host semifinals. [55]

The four-team format pits the No. 1-ranked team against No. 4 and No. 2 against No. 3. The seeding determines the semifinal bowl game assigned to each matchup; the No. 1 seed chooses its bowl game to prevent it from playing in a "road" environment. There are no limits on the number of teams per conference, a change from previous BCS rules. [2] However, some non-semifinal bowl selections still maintain their conference tie-ins, similarly to the BCS's automatic qualifier berths. [56] A team from one of the "Group of Five" conferences is guaranteed a spot in one of the New Year's Six bowls. [57]

2014–15 Rose Bowl 2 Oregon (12–1) 3 Florida State (13–0) 59–20 Rose Bowl Stadium, Pasadena, California
Sugar Bowl 4 Ohio State (12–1) 1 Alabama (12–1) 42–35 Mercedes-Benz Superdome, New Orleans, Louisiana
2015–16 Orange Bowl 1 Clemson (13–0) 4 Oklahoma (11–1) 37–17 Sun Life Stadium, Miami Gardens, Florida
Cotton Bowl 2 Alabama (12–1) 3 Michigan State (12–1) 38–0 AT&T Stadium, Arlington, Texas
2016–17 Fiesta Bowl 2 Clemson (12–1) 3 Ohio State (11–1) 31–0 University of Phoenix Stadium, Glendale, Arizona
Peach Bowl 1 Alabama (13–0) 4 Washington (12–1) 24–7 Georgia Dome, Atlanta, Georgia
2017–18 Rose Bowl 3 Georgia (12–1) 2 Oklahoma (12–1) 54–48 2OT Rose Bowl Stadium, Pasadena, California
Sugar Bowl 4 Alabama (11–1) 1 Clemson (12–1) 24–6 Mercedes-Benz Superdome, New Orleans, Louisiana
2018–19 Orange Bowl 1 Alabama (13–0) 4 Oklahoma (12–1) 45–34 Hard Rock Stadium, Miami Gardens, Florida
Cotton Bowl 2 Clemson (13–0) 3 Notre Dame (12–0) 30–3 AT&T Stadium, Arlington, Texas
2019–20 Fiesta Bowl State Farm Stadium, Glendale, Arizona
Peach Bowl Mercedes-Benz Stadium, Atlanta, Georgia

Championship game

Clemson's 2018 Trophy President Trump Welcomes the Clemson Tigers to the White House (32881336088) (cropped).jpg
Clemson's 2018 Trophy

Cities around the country bid to host each year's championship game. The playoff group's leaders make a selection from those proposals, in a similar fashion to other large sporting events, such as the Super Bowl or NCAA Final Four. Officials say the championship game will be held in a different city each year, and that bids must propose host stadiums with a capacity of at least 65,000 spectators. [58] Under the system, cities cannot host both a semifinal game and the title game in the same year.

2014 4 Ohio State (13–1) 2 Oregon (13–1) 42–20 AT&T Stadium, Arlington, Texas
2015 2 Alabama (13–1) 1 Clemson (14–0) 45–40 University of Phoenix Stadium, Glendale, Arizona
2016 2 Clemson (13–1) 1 Alabama (14–0) 35–31 Raymond James Stadium, Tampa, Florida
2017 4 Alabama (12–1) 3 Georgia (13–1) 26–23 OT Mercedes-Benz Stadium, Atlanta, Georgia
2018 2 Clemson (14–0) 1 Alabama (14–0) 44–16 Levi's Stadium, Santa Clara, California
2019 Mercedes-Benz Superdome, New Orleans, Louisiana
2020 Hard Rock Stadium, Miami Gardens, Florida
2021 Lucas Oil Stadium, Indianapolis, Indiana
2022 Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park, Inglewood, California
2023 NRG Stadium, Houston, Texas


College Football Playoff appearances by team

Usa edcp relief location map.png
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Michigan State
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Ohio State
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Teams that have appeared in the College Football Playoff
Blue pog.svg 5 appearances, Red pog.svg 4 appearances, Yellow pog.svg 3 appearances,
Black pog.svg 2 appearances, White pog.svg 1 appearance
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Ohio State
Teams that have won the College Football Playoff
Black pog.svg 2 championships, White pog.svg 1 championship
AppearancesTeamWLPctGame(s) wonGame(s) lost
5[[Alabama Crimson Tide football|Alabama]]63.667 2015 Cotton Bowl (Dec. 2015)
2016 CFP National Championship

2016 Peach Bowl

2018 Sugar Bowl
2018 CFP National Championship
2018 Orange Bowl (Dec. 2018)
2015 Sugar Bowl

2017 CFP National Championship

2019 CFP National Championship

4[[Clemson Tigers football|Clemson]]52.714 2015 Orange Bowl

2016 Fiesta Bowl (Dec. 2016)
2017 CFP National Championship

2018 Cotton Bowl (Dec. 2018)
2019 CFP National Championship
2016 CFP National Championship

2018 Sugar Bowl

3[[Oklahoma Sooners football|Oklahoma]]03.000  2015 Orange Bowl

2018 Rose Bowl

2018 Orange Bowl (Dec. 2018)

2[[Ohio State Buckeyes football|Ohio State]]21.667 2015 Sugar Bowl
2015 CFP National Championship
2016 Fiesta Bowl (Dec. 2016)
1[[Georgia Bulldogs football|Georgia]]11.500 2018 Rose Bowl 2018 CFP National Championship
1[[Oregon Ducks football|Oregon]]11.500 2015 Rose Bowl 2015 CFP National Championship
1[[Florida State Seminoles football|Florida State]]01.000  2015 Rose Bowl
1[[Michigan State Spartans football|Michigan State]]01.000  2015 Cotton Bowl (Dec. 2015)
1[[Notre Dame Fighting Irish football|Notre Dame]]01.000  2018 Cotton Bowl (Dec. 2018)
1[[Washington Huskies football|Washington]]01.000  2016 Peach Bowl

College Football Playoff appearances by conference

ConferenceAppearancesWLPctChampionships# of teamsTeam(s)
SEC 674.63622 Alabama (5)
Georgia (1)
ACC 553.62522 Clemson (4)
Florida State (1)
Big Ten 322.50012 Ohio State (2)
Michigan State (1)
Big 12 303.00001 Oklahoma (3)
Pac-12 212.33302 Oregon (1)
Washington (1)
FBS Independents 101.00001 Notre Dame (1)

The 2018 Championship Game featured SEC teams Alabama and Georgia. The SEC has a record of 6–3 (.667) in games against other conferences.


The television broadcast rights to all six CFP bowls and the National Championship are owned by ESPN through at least the 2025 season. [59] ESPN then reached 12-year agreements to retain rights to the Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, and Sugar Bowl following the dissolution of the Bowl Championship Series. [60] In November, ESPN reached a 12-year deal to broadcast the remaining three bowls, the championship game, as well as shoulder programming such as ranking shows; as a whole, the contract is valued at around $470 million per year, or nearly $5.7 billion for the life of the contract. [61]


The inaugural College Football Playoff games in January 2015 generated larger ratings than previous BCS games. The 2015 College Football Playoff National Championship had an 18.9 Nielsen rating [62] and was watched by approximately 33.4 million people, the largest broadcast audience of all time on American cable television (non-broadcast), according to AdWeek. That was a 31 percent audience increase over the previous year's championship game and a 22 percent increase over the BCS title game's best rating on cable (a 16.1 rating in 2011). [63] The semifinal games, the 2015 Rose Bowl and 2015 Sugar Bowl, saw 28.16 million and 28.27 million viewers, respectively. [64] According to ESPN, these games also set (and briefly held) all-time records for cable TV viewership. [65] [66]

In 2015, the ratings for the two semifinal games were down from the prior season's equivalents, with the Orange Bowl reaching a 9.7 rating (in comparison to 15.5 for the 2015 Rose Bowl) and the Cotton Bowl reaching a 9.9 rating (in comparison to a 15.3 rating for the 2015 Sugar Bowl). On the online WatchESPN streaming service, excluding 2014 FIFA World Cup games, the Cotton Bowl and the Orange Bowl drew the second and third-largest streaming audiences in the service's history, behind the 2015 national championship. The ratings drops were attributed to the New Year's Eve time slot, as fewer people were at home to watch the game. [67] The decline in ratings was a factor in changes for the scheduling of future CFP semi-final games. [7]


In 2012, ESPN reportedly paid about $7.3 billion over 12 years for broadcasting rights to all seven games, an average of about $608 million per year. That includes $215 million per year which was already committed to the Rose, Sugar and Orange bowls, [68] plus $470–475 million annually for the rest of the package. [69] By comparison, the most recent contract with the BCS and the Rose Bowl had paid approximately $155 million per year for five games. [70]

The average revenue to the new system over 12 years is to be about $500 million per year. After $125–150 million in expenses, the Power Five conferences split about 71.5 percent of the remaining money, for an approximate average payout of $250 million a year ($50 million per league) over the life of the contract. The "Group of Five" conferences split 27 percent, about $90 million a year ($18 million per league). Notre Dame receives around one percent, about $3.5-4 million, and other FBS independents get about 0.5 percent of the deal. [71] [72]

Extra revenue goes to conferences in contracts with the Rose, Sugar, and Orange bowls, which split revenue 50/50 between their participating leagues. [71] In non-semifinal years, the Rose Bowl's TV revenue would be divided between the Big Ten and Pac-12 conferences; likewise, the Sugar Bowl and Orange Bowl revenue to its participant conferences. When those bowls are semifinal games, the money is distributed by the playoff system to all FBS conferences. [68] ESPN has paid about $80 million a year each for the Rose and Sugar bowls over 12 years. The Orange Bowl deal is worth $55 million per year. [73] For example, in a non-semifinal year, the Big Ten could receive about $90 million (half of its $80 million Rose Bowl deal plus about $50 million from the playoff system). [71]

Conferences receive an additional $6 million each year for each team it places in the semifinals and $4 million for a team in one of the three at-large bowls; Notre Dame receives the same amount in either scenario. No additional money is awarded for reaching the championship game. [71]

The Power Five conferences and the "Group of Five" have not decided on their respective revenue-sharing formulas, though the SEC initially receives more revenue than the other four Power Five conferences due to its BCS success. [71] [72] Reports say the money is to be divided based on several criteria such as "on-field success, teams' expenses, marketplace factors and academic performance of student-athletes." [74] The playoff system awards academic performance bonuses of $300,000 per school for meeting the NCAA's Academic Progress Rate standard of 930. [71] In a hypothetical 14-team conference, $4.2 million ($300,000 x 14) would be allocated to that league, and if only 12 of the 14 members meet the APR standard, then each of the 12 schools would receive $350,000 ($4.2 million / 12), [72] penalizing schools that fall below the threshold. [75]


BCS Properties, LLC holds all properties related to the College Football Playoff. [76] Previous BCS commissioner Bill Hancock is the executive director of the playoff organization, [77] with former ACC Senior Associate Commissioner Michael Kelly as COO. [78] Like the BCS, the playoff system's management committee [79] consists of the conference commissioners from the 10 FBS conferences [80] and Notre Dame's athletic director. [21] The playoff system's headquarters is in Irving, Texas. [77]

Board of Managers

According to the CFP website, the system's operations are controlled by the Board of Managers, which consists of presidents and chancellors of the playoff group's member universities. The eleven members have sole authority to develop, review and approve annual budgets, policies and operating guidelines. The group also selects the company's officers. [81]

Athletics Directors Advisory Group

According to the CFP website, the Athletics Directors Advisory Group is appointed by the management committee to "offer counsel" on the operations of the system. As an advisory board, it has no authority in the management of the CFP. [81]


Although being generally well received, [5] the College Football Playoff has been criticized much like its predecessor, the Bowl Championship Series, which had several controversies. [82]

Team selection

Because the tournament has four teams, at least one Power Five champion misses the playoffs every season. However, not all teams selected have been conference winners. In the 2016–17 season, one of the teams selected was Ohio State, who did not qualify to the Big Ten Championship Game. As a result, both the Big Ten and Big 12 champions were not selected for the playoffs. In the 2017–18 season, two of the four selected teams were from the SEC: conference champions Georgia, and Alabama, who lost to SEC runner-up Auburn. Analysts have discussed whether the committee should select conference champions only. [83] [84]

Another critique centered around a perceived bias against smaller conferences such as the Big 12 which used to not stage a conference championship game, but was reintroduced for the 2017 season. The American Athletic Conference addressed this issue by adding Navy to its ranks for 2015, bringing its membership to 12 teams, which allowed it to stage a conference championship game under then-current NCAA rules. [85] Since the 2016 season, FBS conferences have been allowed to stage football championship games even if they do not have 12 members. [86]

There are opinions labeling the CFP system "just as" or "even more polarizing" than the BCS or the old wire-service poll system. [87] [88] [89] [90] However, most in sports media believe the College Football Playoff Committee got the right foursome for the 2017-18 playoff. [91] [92] [93]

Selection committee

The qualifications of selection committee members has also been scrutinized. As an outsider to the sports world, Condoleezza Rice was the focus of some criticism. Former Clemson head coach Tommy Bowden opined that the committee's members should be "people who played the game and preferably coached the game". [94] Former Auburn head coach Pat Dye said that "All she knows about football is what somebody told her ... or what she read in a book, or what she saw on television. To understand football, you've got to play with your hand in the dirt". Former Big East commissioner Mike Tranghese also gained membership on the selection committee despite having never played football in college. [95] Former sportswriter Steve Weiberg and retired U.S. Air Force General Michael Gould are other committee members without significant football playing, coaching, or administrative experience.


The semifinal games for the 2015 season were scheduled for December 31; they were expected to have lower television viewership because the date is not a federal holiday, and because the second game faced heavy competition for television viewers in primetime from New Year's Eve specials (such as New Year's Rockin' Eve , which is aired by ESPN's sister broadcast network ABC). Under television contracts with ESPN that predate the College Football Playoff, both the Rose and Sugar Bowl games are guaranteed exclusive TV time slots on January 1 (or January 2 if New Year's Day falls on a Sunday), regardless of whether they are hosting a semifinal game. [96] In an interview with CBS Sports, CFP commissioner Bill Hancock suggested this scheduling issue would "change the paradigm of what New Year's Eve is all about," opining that "if you're hosting a New Year's Eve party, you better have a bunch of televisions around." [97] Although ESPN proposed moving the Thursday, December 31, 2015 semifinal games to Saturday, January 2, 2016, the idea was rejected. [98] The semifinal games' ratings were ultimately down significantly from those of the previous season. [67]

In an effort to reduce the impact of their New Year's Eve scheduling, the 2016 semifinal games, which fell on a Saturday, had earlier kickoff times, at 3:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. ET respectively. The 2016 Orange Bowl was played in primetime on December 30, 2016, rather than in an early afternoon window on New Year's Eve. Hancock considered the earlier start times to be a compromise to reduce the games' intrusion into New Year's Eve festivities, but reiterated that there were no plans to move the semi-final games from New Year's Eve outside of years where they are hosted by the Rose Bowl and Sugar Bowl. [99] [100]

On July 28, 2016, however, Hancock reversed this stance and announced revisions to the scheduling for future College Football Playoff semi-final games. The games were rescheduled so that they will not necessarily be played on New Year's Eve yearly: outside of years when they are hosted by the Rose and Sugar Bowls (where they retain their traditional New Year's Day scheduling), they will now be scheduled primarily on the last Saturday or federally observed holiday of the year. In some years, this date will land on New Year's Eve. In 2021, the games will be played on Friday, December 31, because the day will be observed as a holiday. [7] [101] Viewership of the 2018 semi-finals were down by 25% over the previous semi-finals, which were played on New Year's Day. [102]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Peach Bowl College football bowl

The Peach Bowl is an annual college football bowl game played in Atlanta since December 1968. Since 1997, it has been sponsored by Chick-fil-A and officially known as the Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl. From 2006 to 2013, it was officially referred to as simply the Chick-fil-A Bowl.

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Mid-major is a term used in American NCAA Division I college sports, especially men's basketball, to refer to athletic conferences that are not among the so-called "Power Five conferences" (the ACC, Big 10, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC, in the Big East, or in the American Athletic Conference. These conferences are sometimes referred to as "high majors" by comparison. The term "mid-major" was coined in 1977 by Jack Kvancz, head coach of Catholic University's men's basketball team. Such a distinction is not officially acknowledged by the NCAA, nor does the NCAA use the terms "major" and "mid-major" to differentiate between Division I athletic conferences. It is considered offensive and derogatory by some fans and schools.

In college football, the term Power Five conferences refers to five athletic conferences whose members are part of the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of NCAA Division I, the highest level of collegiate football in the United States. The conferences are the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), Big Ten Conference (B1G), Big 12 Conference, Pac-12 Conference, and Southeastern Conference (SEC). The term "Power Five" is not defined by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and the origin of the term is unknown. It has been used in its current meaning since at least 2006. The term is also used in other college sports, although in basketball there are considered at least six, and as many as eight high-major conferences.

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