In cricket, a run is the unit of scoring. The team with the most runs wins in many versions of the game, and always draws at worst (see result), except for some results decided by the DLS method. One run (known as a "single") is scored when a batsman (known as the "striker") has hit the ball with the bat, or with a gloved hand holding the bat, and directed it away from the fielders so that both the striker and the non-striker are able to run the length of the pitch (22 yards), crossing each other and arriving safely at the other end of the pitch, before the fielders can retrieve the ball and hit the wicket.
Depending on how long it takes the fielding team to recover the ball, the batsmen may run more than once. Each completed run increments the scores of both the team and the striker. A batsman may also score 4 or 6 runs by striking the ball to the boundary. The team's total score in the innings is the aggregate of all its batsmen's individual scores plus any extras. To complete a run, both batsmen must make their ground, with some part of their person or bat touching the ground behind the popping crease at the other end of the pitch. Attempting a run carries a risk factor because either batsman can be run out, (one method of dismissal), if the fielding side can break the wicket with the ball before the batsman has completed the run.
Scoring runs is the subject of Law 18 in the Laws of Cricket .Boundaries are covered in Law 19. How the Batsman makes his ground is Law 30.
Batsmen frequently run singles and also "twos" and "threes". If the batsmen run a single or a three, they have "changed ends", so the striking batsman becomes the non-striker for the next delivery, and vice-versa. If the single or three is scored off the last delivery of the over, the striker, having changed ends, retains the strike for the first delivery of the next over. There are rare instances of "fours" being all run when the ball does not reach the boundary. A "five" is possible, but usually arises from a mistake by the fielders, such as an overthrow. The batsman is never compelled to run and can deliberately play without attempting to score; baseball's force out rule has no equivalent in cricket.
This is known as running between wickets.
The batsmen stop running when they judge that the ball is sufficiently controlled by the fielding team to prevent another run, for example when it is returned to the bowler or the wicketkeeper.
If, when turning for an additional run, one of the batsmen fails to ground some part of their body or bat behind the popping crease, the umpire declares a "short run" and the run does not count but, even if the bat is dropped, runs do count as long as each batsman makes his ground with his bat or person somehow.
The act of running is unnecessary if the batsman hits the ball to the marked boundary of the field. If the ball reaches the boundary having made contact with the ground, four runs are added to the scores of both the batsman and the team. If the batsman succeeds in hitting the ball onto or over the boundary on the full (i.e. the ball does not contact the ground until it has hit or is beyond the boundary), six runs are added. If the batsmen are running when the ball reaches the boundary, they can stop, and their team will be awarded either the number of runs for the boundary (4 or 6), or runs the batsmen completed together (including a run in progress if they already crossed when the boundary is scored), whichever is greater.
In addition to runs scored by the batsmen, the team total is incremented by extras, (also known as "sundries" in Australia,) which arise because the bowler has delivered a wide or no-ball, or the fielders have caused a no-ball, (each of which incurs a one-run penalty,) or have failed to control a ball which did not make contact with the bat (byes and leg byes,) thus allowing the batsmen to run. Byes, leg-byes and wides that elude the fielders and cross the boundary score four (never six) in addition to the one-run penalty scored for a no-ball or wide if applicable. Extras are not added to a batsman's individual score.
Five penalty runs are awarded by the umpires, either to the batting team or to the fielding team as applicable, for infringement of some of the Laws, usually relating to unfair play or player conduct. For example five runs are awarded to the batting team if the ball hits a helmet on the ground belonging to the fielding team; five runs are awarded to the fielding team if the batting team causes avoidable damage to the wicket after due warning by the umpire. If the umpire considers a short run to have been a deliberate act he will disallow all runs attempted, and impose a five-run penalty on the batting team.
In the written records of cricket, "run" is as old as "cricket" itself. In the earliest known reference to the sport, dated Monday, 17 January 1597 (Julian date), Surrey coroner John Derrick made a legal deposition concerning a plot of land in Guildford that when (c. 1550):
"a scholler of the Ffree Schoole of Guildeford, hee and diverse of his fellowes did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies".
It may well be that, in this context, "runne" meant running in general. For a long time, until well into the 18th century, the scorers sat on the field and increments to the score were known as "notches" because they would notch the scores on a stick, with a deeper knick at 20. The same method was used by shepherds when counting sheep. In the earliest known Laws of cricket, dated 1744, one of the rules states:
"If in running a Notch, the Wicket is struck down by a Throw, before his Foot, Hand, or Bat is over the Popping-Crease, or a Stump hit by the Ball, though the Bail was down, it's out".
In the 1774 version, the equivalent rule states:
"Or if in running a notch, the wicket is struck down by a throw, or with the ball in hand, before his foot, hand, or bat is grounded over the popping-crease; but if the bail is off, a stump must be struck out of the ground by the ball".
These are the earliest known references to running as the means of scoring. The change of terminology from "notch" to "run" was gradual and both terms were in use in 1800. The result of a match played in Sussex on 3 August 1800 was a win "by 25 notches"while another match in Sussex on 9 August 1800 was won "by an innings and 38 runs".
For team and individual run-scoring records, see List of Test cricket records, List of One Day International cricket records, List of Twenty20 International records, and List of first-class cricket records.
Fielding in the sport of cricket is the action of fielders in collecting the ball after it is struck by the batsman, to limit the number of runs that the batsman scores and/or to get the batsman out by catching the ball in flight or by running the batsman out. There are a number of recognised fielding positions, and they can be categorised into the offside and leg side of the field.
In cricket, an umpire is a person who has the authority to make decisions about events on the cricket field, according to the Laws of Cricket. Besides making decisions about legality of delivery, appeals for wickets and general conduct of the game in a legal manner, the umpire also keeps a record of the deliveries and announces the completion of an over.
Backyard cricket, street cricket, beach cricket, gully cricket, corridor cricket, deef or garden cricket is an informal ad hoc variant of the game of cricket, played by people of all genders and all ages in gardens, back yards, on the street, in parks, carparks, beaches and any area not specifically intended for the purpose.
The Laws of Cricket is a code which specifies the rules of the game of cricket worldwide. The earliest known code was drafted in 1744 and, since 1788, it has been owned and maintained by its custodian, the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in London. There are currently 42 Laws which outline all aspects of how the game is to be played. MCC has re-coded the Laws six times, the seventh and latest code being released in October 2017. The 2nd edition of the 2017 Code came into force on 1 April 2019. The first six codes prior to 2017 were all subject to interim revisions and so exist in more than one version.
In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings. First, it is one of the two sets of three stumps and two bails at either end of the pitch. The wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket and to score runs where possible.
This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are also defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding (cricket).
In cricket, a no-ball is an illegal delivery to a batsman. It is also the Extra run awarded to the batting team as a consequence. For most cricket games, especially amateur ones, the definition of all forms of no-ball is from the MCC Laws of Cricket
In the sport of cricket, the crease is a certain area demarcated by white lines painted or chalked on the field of play, and pursuant to the rules of cricket they help determine legal play in different ways for the fielding and batting side. They define the area within which the batsmen and bowlers operate. The term crease may refer to any of the lines themselves, particularly the popping crease, or to the region that they demark. Law 7 of the Laws of Cricket governs the size and position of the crease markings, and defines the actual line as the back edge of the width of the marked line on the grass, i.e., the edge nearest to the wicket at that end.
In cricket, a bye is a type of extra run scored by the batting team when the ball has not been hit by the batsman and the ball has not hit the batsman's body.
Dead ball is a term in many ball sports in which the ball is deemed temporarily not playable, and no movement may be made with it or the players from their respective positions of significance. Depending on the sport, this event may be quite routine, and often occurs between individual plays of the game.
In cricket, an extra is a run scored by, or awarded to, a batting team which is not credited to any individual batsman. They are the runs scored by methods other than striking the ball with the bat.
In cricket, a dismissal occurs when a batsman's period of batting is brought to an end by the opposing team. It is also known as the batsman being out, the batting side losing a wicket, and the fielding side taking a wicket. The dismissed batsman must leave the field of play permanently for the rest of their team's innings, and is replaced by a teammate. A team's innings ends if 10 of the 11 team members are dismissed - as players bat in pairs, when only one person is undismissed it is not possible for the team to bat any longer. This is known as bowling out the batting team, who are said to be all out.
In the sport of cricket, a leg bye is a run scored by the batting team if the batsman has not hit the ball with their bat, but the ball has hit the batsman's body or protective gear. It is covered by Law 23 of the Laws of Cricket.
Baseball and cricket are the best-known members of a family of related bat-and-ball games.
Obstructing the field is one of the nine methods of dismissing a batsman in the sport of cricket. It dictates that either batsman can be given out if he wilfully attempts to obstruct or distract the fielding side by word or action. It is governed by Law 37 of the laws of cricket, and is a rare way for a batsman to be dismissed; in the history of cricket, there has been only one instance in Test matches, six occasions in One Day International (ODI) games, and only one instance in Twenty20 International matches. However, there have also been seven instances in Test cricket, and two in ODIs, where a batsman has been dismissed handled the ball, a mode of dismissal now folded into obstructing the field. In most cases an obstruction occurs when a batsman thinks that he is going to be run out and he blocks the ball with his bat or changes his course while running between wickets to block the ball. The obstruction has to be deliberate, so a batsman will not be out if the contact with the ball is inadvertent.
Caught is a method of dismissing a batsman in cricket. A batsman is caught if the batsman hits the ball, from a legitimate delivery, with the bat, and the ball is caught by the bowler or a fielder before it hits the ground.
Run out is a method of dismissal in the sport of cricket governed by Law 38 of the Laws of cricket.
Law 41 of the Laws of Cricket covers unfair play. This law has developed and expanded over time as various incidents of real life unfair play have been legislated against.
Single wicket cricket is a form of cricket played between two individuals, who take turns to bat and bowl against each other. The one bowling is assisted by a team of fielders, who remain as fielders at the change of innings. The winner is the one who scores more runs. There was considerable interest in single wicket during the middle part of the 18th century when it enjoyed top-class status.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of which is a 20-metre (22-yard) pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, and by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground. When ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches. They communicate with two off-field scorers who record the match's statistical information.