Umpire (baseball)

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An MLB umpiring crew meeting with the managers from each team before a 2017 game Umpire Bill Miller (26), Cleveland coach, umpire Adam Hamari (78) , umpire Kerwin Danley, umpire Ryan Blakney.jpg
An MLB umpiring crew meeting with the managers from each team before a 2017 game

In baseball, the umpire is the person charged with officiating the game, including beginning and ending the game, enforcing the rules of the game and the grounds, making judgment calls on plays, and handling the disciplinary actions. [1] The term is often shortened to the colloquial form ump. They are also sometimes addressed as blue at lower levels due to the common color of the uniform worn by umpires. In professional baseball, the term blue is seldom used by players or managers, who instead call the umpire by name. Although games were often officiated by a sole umpire in the formative years of the sport, since the turn of the 20th century, officiating has been commonly divided among several umpires, who form the umpiring crew. The position is analogous to that of a referee in many other sports.

Contents

Duties and positions

Home plate umpire Malachi Moore reviews the lineup cards from both teams before a 2016 minor league baseball game Umpire Malachi Moore San Antonio Texas 2016.jpg
Home plate umpire Malachi Moore reviews the lineup cards from both teams before a 2016 minor league baseball game

In a game officiated by two or more umpires, the umpire in chief (usually the home plate umpire) is the umpire who is in charge of the entire game. This umpire calls balls and strikes, calls fair balls, foul balls short of first/third base, and makes most calls concerning the batter or concerning baserunners near home plate. To avoid injury, the home plate umpire wears similar equipment to the catcher, including mask, chest protector, leg guards and shoes with extra protection added over the laces. [1] If another umpire leaves the infield to cover a potential play in foul ground or in the outfield, then the plate umpire may move to cover a potential play near second or third base. (The umpire-in-chief should not be confused with the crew chief, who is often a different umpire; see below.) In the event that an umpire is injured and only three remain, the second base position will generally be left vacant.

In nearly all levels of organized baseball, including the majors, an umpiring crew rotates so that each umpire in the crew works each position, including plate umpire, an equal number of games. In the earliest days of baseball, however, many senior umpires always worked the plate, with Hall of Fame umpire Bill Klem being the last umpire to do so. Klem did so for the first 16 years of his career. [2] On the Major League level, an umpiring crew generally rotates positions clockwise each game. For example, the plate umpire in one game would umpire third base in the next.

Base umpire Stu Scheurwater calls Eduardo Escobar safe. Eduardo Escobar called safe at second, Aug 06 2022 (cropped).jpg
Base umpire Stu Scheurwater calls Eduardo Escobar safe.

Other umpires are called base umpires and are commonly stationed near the bases. (Field umpire is a less-common term.) When two umpires are used, the second umpire is simply the base umpire. This umpire will make most calls concerning runners on the bases and nearby plays, as well as in the middle of the outfield. When three umpires are used, the second umpire is called the first-base umpire and the third umpire is called the third-base umpire, even though they may move to different positions on the field as the play demands. [1] These two umpires also call checked swings, if asked by the plate umpire (often requested by catcher or defensive manager; however, only the plate umpire can authorize an appeal to the base umpire): the first base umpire for right-handed batters, and the third base umpire for left-handed batters; to indicate a checked swing, the umpire will make a "safe" gesture with his arms. To indicate a full swing, he will clench his fist.

When four umpires are used (as is the case for all regular season MLB games unless one has to leave due to injury), each umpire is named for the base at which he is stationed. Sometimes a league will provide six umpires; the extra two are stationed along the outfield foul lines and are called the left-field and right-field umpires (or simply outfield umpires).

Outfield umpires are used in major events, such as the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, and depending on the level, at parts of post-season playoffs. For Major League Baseball, all playoff levels use six umpires adding a left-field and right-field umpire, while at lower levels, six umpires are used at the championship games (such as NCAA). [3] Rulings on catches of batted balls are usually made by the umpire closest to the play.

Crew chief

The term umpire-in-chief is not to be confused with the crew chief, who is usually the most experienced umpire in a crew. At the major-league and high minor-league (Class AAA and AA) levels, the crew chief acts as a liaison between the league office and the crew and has a supervisory role over other members of the crew. [4]

For example, on the Major League level, "The Crew Chief shall coordinate and direct his crew's compliance with the Office of the Commissioner's rules and policies. Other Crew Chief responsibilities include: leading periodic discussions and reviews of situations, plays and rules with his crew; generally directing the work of the other umpires on the crew, with particular emphasis on uniformity in dealing with unique situations; assigning responsibilities for maintaining time limits during the game; ensuring the timely filing of all required crew reports for incidents such as ejections, brawls and protested games; and reporting to the Office of Commissioner any irregularity in field conditions at any ballpark." [4] Thus, on the professional level, some of the duties assigned to the umpire-in-chief (the plate umpire) in the Official Baseball Rules have been reassigned to the crew chief, regardless of the crew chief's umpiring position during a specific game. Instant replay reviews, for example, will be reviewed with the crew chief and one other umpire, with results announced by the crew chief. The crew chief acts analogous to the crew chief in basketball (as referenced in the NBA and FIBA rules) or the referee in American football.

Starting with the 2022 season, umpire crew chiefs will be equipped with wireless microphones to be used when announcing replay challenges and the results of those challenges.

Judgment calls

An umpire's judgment call used to be final, unless the umpire making the call chose to ask his partner(s) for help and then decided to reverse it after the discussion. [1] Since 2014, the MLB allows managers to challenge plays during the game. If the manager successfully has a call overturned, they are rewarded with another challenge. [5] If an umpire seems to make an error in rule interpretation, his call, in some leagues, can be officially protested as is the case in MLB. [1] If the umpire is persistent in his or her interpretation, the matter will be settled at a later time by a league official. An independent study of umpire pitch-call accuracy over 11 seasons (2008–2018) released on April 8, 2019, by Mark T. Williams of Boston University concluded that over 20% of certain pitches were called incorrectly. For the 2018 season, home plate umpires made about 34,000 incorrect ball and strike calls, which is about 14 per game and 1.6 per inning. [6]

In the early years of professional baseball, umpires were not engaged by the league but rather by agreement between the team captains. However, by the start of the modern era in 1901, this had become a league responsibility. There is now a unitary major league umpiring roster, although until the 1999 labor dispute that led to the decertification of the Major League Umpires Association, there were separate National and American League umpires. As a result of the 2000 collective bargaining agreement between Major League Baseball and the newly formed World Umpires Association (now known as the Major League Baseball Umpires Association) all umpires were placed on one roster and work in games in both leagues.

Amateur umpiring

A volunteer umpire officiating a Little League Baseball game One Marine Making the Right Calls DVIDS177654.jpg
A volunteer umpire officiating a Little League Baseball game

An amateur umpire officiates non-professional or semi-professional baseball. Many amateur umpires are paid (typically on a per-game basis) and thus might be considered professionals, while some amateur umpires are unpaid. According to the Little League Baseball official website, umpires should be volunteers. [7]

There are numerous organizations that test or train anyone interested in umpiring for local leagues, and can help make connections to the leagues in the area. Little League Baseball and the Babe Ruth League are two of the most popular organizations when it comes to youth baseball, and each have their own application, test, and training process for becoming an umpire. In Canada, most umpires are certified through a provincial organization, and then hired by local municipal associations through an umpire in chief.

For the Little League World Series, amateur umpires from around the world participate on a volunteer basis. Prospective Little League World Series umpires must participate at various levels of Little League All-Star tournaments, ranging from district to state to regional tournaments, prior to being accepted to work the World Series tournament. [8]

High school umpiring

In the United States, many (if not most) high schools sponsor a baseball team. Many high schools sponsor multiple baseball teams; for instance, "varsity" and "junior varsity" teams. During the 2017–18 academic year there were 16,513 high schools sponsoring at least one baseball team, and 488,859 students participated on a high school baseball team. [9] Thus, high school baseball is one of the most popular levels of baseball in the United States. Unlike college athletics, there is no competitive national championship on the high school level. And, unlike college athletics, umpires on the high school level are not administered by a national organization (such as the NCAA). Rather, high school baseball is administered at the state level (usually by a statewide high school athletic association) and the qualifications for becoming and remaining a high school umpire are usually set by the entity overseeing high school baseball in each individual state. For example, the Florida High School Athletic Association sets forth minimum requirements for being a high school umpire in Florida. [10] Many statewide high school athletic associations contract with multiple local umpire associations throughout their state in which the local associations agree to train and provide umpires for high school games in each association's geographic area of the state in return for a "booking fee" being paid to the local associations by either the statewide high school association or by individual high schools. The local associations also promise to train their umpires to meet the state high school association's minimum requirements for umpires. For example, in Florida the Jacksonville Umpires Association trains and provides umpires for high school games in the Jacksonville area. [11]

The specific requirements for becoming a high school umpire vary from state-to-state. However, generally all states share the same basic minimum requirements. First, a person trying to become an umpire must usually register with both the state high school athletic association and their local umpire association. Upon registering, most states provide their umpires with a high school rulebook, casebook, and umpires' manual. Second, most states require all umpires to attend clinics and meetings. These clinics may focus on rules, umpire mechanics, or a combination of both. Third, most states also require an umpire to pass a rules exam. Finally, most states also require umpires to work a certain number of pre-season scrimmages prior to working regular season games. As an example of these requirements, Georgia has an "officials accountability program" which sets forth the specific requirements for its interscholastic officials (including the attendance at clinics and camps and the passing of an examination) which can be reviewed here. [12]

Although high school baseball is administered at the state level, the various state high school athletic associations have voluntarily formed the National Federation of State High School Associations. [13] Through the federation, most state athletic associations have agreed to use its rulebook. Thus, while high school baseball is administered on a state level, almost all state associations use the same unique baseball rulebook (and the associated casebook and umpire manual) written specifically for the high school level. [14] As a result, if an individual umpire moves from one state to another state (s)he would likely be using the same rule set in his/her new state as was used in his/her former state. However, there are significant rule differences between the federation's rulebook compared to Major League Baseball (MLB) and NCAA rules. [15] Thus, individuals wanting to umpire on the high school level will have to learn a different set of rules than those they may be familiar with had they previously umpired in a youth league using the MLB or NCAA rulebooks.

Almost exclusively, high school umpires are paid on a per game basis. As they are not salaried, they are not paid if they do not actually umpire a game, although some states require the home school to pay the umpires' travel expenses if they show up to the game site and the game is called, regardless of whether or not it starts. The amount paid differs, often significantly, from state to state. Most high school games are officiated by a two-umpire crew. [16] However, many states use three-umpire and four-umpire crews to officiate playoff games.

Professional umpire training and career development

Becoming a Major League Baseball umpire requires rigorous training, and very few succeed. Provided the individual makes satisfactory progress throughout, it typically takes from 7–10 years to achieve MLB status. First, a person desiring to become a professional umpire must attend one of two umpiring schools authorized by Major League Baseball: Minor League Baseball Umpire Training Academy or The Harry Wendelstedt Umpire School. [17] The former is owned and operated by Minor League Baseball while the latter is run by former and current Major League and Minor League umpires. Both are located in Florida. There are no prerequisites for attending these schools; however, there is an Umpire Camp, run by Major League Baseball, that is generally considered a "tool for success" at either of these schools. These camps, offered as two separate one-week sessions, are held in November in Southern California. Top students at these camps are eligible to earn scholarships to either of the professional umpire schools in Florida. [18]

After five weeks of training, each school sends its top students to the Minor League Baseball Umpire Development (MiLBUD) evaluation course also held in Florida. [19] Minor League Baseball Umpire Development, "is the entity which is responsible for the training, evaluation, and recommendation for promotion, retention, or release of all umpires in the Minor League Baseball system throughout the United States and Canada." [20] The actual number of students sent on to the evaluation course is determined by MiLBUD using input from the umpire schools. [19] Generally, the top 10 to 20 percent of each school's graduating class will advance to the evaluation course. The evaluation course is conducted by MiLBUD staff, some of whom are also instructors at the Minor League Baseball Umpire Training Academy. [19] The evaluation course generally lasts around 10 days. Depending on the number of available positions in the various minor leagues, some (but not all) of the evaluation course attendees will be assigned to a low level minor league. Out of approximately 300 original umpire school students, about 30-35 will ultimately be offered jobs in Minor League Baseball after the evaluation course.

Professional umpires begin their careers in one of the Rookie or Class "A" Short-Season leagues, with Class-A being divided into three levels (Short-Season, Long-Season and Advanced "A"). [19] Top umpiring prospects will often begin their careers in a short-season "A" league (for example, the New York–Penn League), but most will begin in a rookie league (for example, the Gulf Coast League). Since 2008, some umpires who attend the evaluation course, but are not offered jobs in professional baseball may be offered jobs in the Coastal Plain League (a summer wood bat league for collegiate players). [21] During the season, umpires in the Coastal Plain League are evaluated by MiLBUD and they may earn a promotion to a Rookie professional league as a result of injuries or resignations by umpires at higher levels. [21]

Umpire David Rackley working a Double-A Texas League game in 2006 David Rackley 2006.jpg
Umpire David Rackley working a Double-A Texas League game in 2006

Throughout the season, all minor league umpires in Rookie leagues, Class-A, and Class-AA are evaluated by members of the MiLBUD staff. [22] All umpires receive a detailed written evaluation of their performance after every season. [22] In addition, all umpires (except those in the rookie or Short Season Class-A leagues) receive written mid-season evaluations. [22]

Generally, an umpire is regarded as making adequate progress "up the ranks" if he advances up one level of Class "A" ball each year (thus earning promotion to Class AA after three to four years) and promotion to Class AAA after two to three years on the Class AA level. However, this is a very rough estimate and other factors not discussed (such as the number of retirements at higher levels) may dramatically affect these estimates. For example, many umpires saw rapid advancement in 1999 due to the mass resignation of many Major League umpires as a collective bargaining ploy.

When promoted to the Class AAA level, an umpire's evaluation will also be conducted by the umpiring supervisory staff of Major League Baseball. In recent years, top AAA prospects, in addition to umpiring and being evaluated during the regular season (in either the International or Pacific Coast League), have been required to umpire in the Arizona Fall League where they receive extensive training and evaluation by Major League Baseball staff. Additionally, top minor league prospects will also be sent to umpire in winter leagues (during Major League and Minor League baseball's off-season) usually located in the Caribbean, Central America or South America. [23]

In addition, top AAA prospects may also be rewarded with umpiring only Major League preseason games during spring training (in lieu of Class AAA games). Additionally, the very top prospects may umpire Major League regular season games on a limited basis as "fill-in" umpires (where the Class AAA umpire replaces a sick, injured or vacationing Major League umpire). [24]

Finally, upon the retirement (or firing) of a Major League umpire, a top Class AAA umpire will be promoted to Major League Baseball's permanent umpire staff. During this entire process, if an umpire is evaluated as no longer being a major-league prospect, he will be released, ending his professional career. In all, MiLBUD estimates that it will take an umpire seven to eight years of professional umpiring before he will be considered for a major league position. [19]

As of 2018, major league umpires earn $150,000 to $450,000 per year depending on their experience, with a $340 per diem for hotel and meals, plus first-class commercial airline tickets. [25] Minor league umpires earn from $2,000 to $3,900 per month during the season. [25] Amounts vary based on the umpire's classification and experience.

As of March 2018, there are 19 four-man crews in MLB, for a total of 76 full-time umpires; they are augmented by 16 Class AAA umpires eligible to umpire regular season games, yielding a total roster of 92 MLB umpires. [26]

Umpire Tom Connolly shown with the outside chest protector worn by AL home plate umpires for much of the 20th century Tom Connolly 1916.jpg
Umpire Tom Connolly shown with the outside chest protector worn by AL home plate umpires for much of the 20th century

Uniform

Umpires are often referred as "Blue" because of the color of their uniforms. In the early days of baseball, umpire uniforms resembled suits (usually to keep them inconspicuous when in public) with the only difference being National League umpires wore an inside chest protector while American League umpires wore an outside (or "balloon") protector when calling balls and strikes.

In the 1960s, umpires were allowed to wear dress shirts that were light blue, and the American League umpires wore grey slacks with their blue coats, while National League umpires wore all blue coats and slacks. In 1970, the National League added a large patch on their coat and uniform with the league logo and a number on their left sleeve, along with a short-sleeved light blue shirt for hot summer games. The American League followed suit with short sleeves in 1972, then in 1973 they wore a maroon blazer along with blue pants until 1979. In 1975, the American League umpire hats included the abbreviation "AL" (previous to that they included a shield for the AL). To celebrate the National League's 100th anniversary in 1976, the umpire blazers/light blue shirts included the league's centennial patch and the hats were designed in the "pillbox" style with the year "'76" included on them. In 1977, the use of the outside (balloon) protector was outlawed for new umpires but grandfathered for existing umpires, with the last umpire that used the outside protector, Jerry Neudecker, retiring in 1985. The use of ties with the blazers were gradually phased out; the last time they were worn in the World Series was in 1975 and overall was in the 1979 Major League Baseball All-Star Game by George Maloney, Terry Cooney, and Nick Bremigan. In World Series games starting in 1976, the umpires wore turtleneck sweaters (light blue for National League umpires and off-white for American League umpires) instead of ties.

In 1980, Major League Baseball mandated that the umpires' uniforms be standardized, and they went to the American League pre-1973 style of blue blazers, grey slacks, and short sleeved light blue shirts; the American League began adding numbers to their umpire uniforms, with "AL" on their caps and National League umpires had "NL" on their caps. This style was pretty much the same (except for the use of windbreakers and sweaters later in the 1980s) through 1995. The league initials on the caps changed towards the late 1980s when the "N" and "L" were combined into a single letter, while the "A" and the "L" were interlocked.

In 1996, the button-down light blue shirt was replaced with a navy blue polo shirt with red and white trim on the collar and sleeve cuffs. The numbers were changed to red on the shirts, an "N" with the National League logo and an "A" with the American League logo on the hats. The American League used an optional red short-sleeved shirt (possibly a homage to the 1973-79 red blazers) that wasn't used by many umpires (the notable exceptions were Derryl Cousins and Dale Scott, who frequently wore the red shirts while working home plate, even as their colleagues on the bases wore navy blue shirts). The National League added a light blue shirt in 1997, which became much more popular than the red shirts in the AL.

Beginning in 2000, after the individual leagues' umpires were consolidated into a single staff, the 1996-99 uniform styles were carried over with "MLB" on the caps instead of the league designations. In 2001 the uniforms switched to black polo shirts with grey slacks, with the hats now including the MLB logo, with the blazer, also now black, optional. Other outerwear options, including black pullover windbreakers with removable half sleeves and dugout jackets, were introduced. The light blue shirt was reintroduced after a brief experiment with gray. For the 2017 season, the umpires' jacket was black with light blue trim over the shoulders. Long-sleeved shirts for use behind home plate were introduced in the early 2000s as an alternative to the blazer and jacket.

Famous umpires

Longtime umpire Bill Klem, a member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Billklem.jpg
Longtime umpire Bill Klem, a member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame

Hall of Fame

The following ten umpires have been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame: [27]

Conlan and O'Day played in 128 and 232 major league games, respectively, prior to becoming professional umpires. [28] [29]

Several player inductees to the Hall of Fame served as substitute umpires for a small number of games during the early years of baseball; these include Hughie Jennings, Willie Keeler, King Kelly, and Chuck Klein. [30] Additionally, Hall of Fame player inductees Tim Keefe and Ed Walsh umpired professionally in the major leagues after their playing careers ended. [31] [32]

Numbers retired by the National and American Leagues

Like players, umpires are identified by numbers on their uniforms. National League umpires began wearing numbers in 1970 (though they were assigned numbers in the 1960s) and American League umpires were assigned and began wearing uniform numbers in 1980. The National League umpires' numbers were initially assigned in alphabetical order (Al Barlick wearing number 1, Ken Burkhart number 2, etc.) from 1970 to 1978, which meant that an umpire's number could change each year depending on retirements and other staff changes. In 1979, the National League changed the numbering system and thereafter an umpire's number did not change from year to year. At first, as new umpires, they would be assigned higher numbers (for example, in 1979, Dave Pallone, Steve Fields, Fred Brocklander, and Lanny Harris were assigned numbers 26 to 29 instead of available numbers between 1 and 25). The National League numbering practice changed again in the mid-1980s, when new umpires were assigned previously used numbers (for example, in 1982 Gerry Davis was assigned number 12, previously worn by Andy Olsen, and in 1985 Tom Hallion was assigned number 20, previously worn by Ed Vargo.)

The American League's number assignments were largely random. Bill Haller, the senior American League umpire in 1980, wore number 1 until his retirement following the 1982 World Series, but the number was never reassigned.

In 2000, the American League and National League umpiring staffs were merged into a unified staff under the auspices of Major League Baseball, and all numbers were made available, including the numbers that had been retired by one of the leagues. (For example, the American League had retired Lou DiMuro's number 16 after his death, but it was made available to his son Mike after the staffs were unified.) In the event of duplications, the more senior umpire was given the first choice. (For example, Al Clark in the AL and Jerry Layne in the NL both wore the number 24, but because Clark had more seniority he was assigned 24 and Layne number 26. When Clark was relieved of his duties in 2001, Layne was able to obtain number 24. By comparison, Bruce Froemming was given #6 upon unification of the umpiring staffs since he had worn it longer in the NL than Jim Joyce had worn it in the AL; Joyce subsequently chose #66, unused by any previous umpire. When Froemming retired following the 2007 season, Joyce opted to keep #66, and #6 is now worn by Mark Carlson.)

From time to time, Major League Baseball retires those numbers for umpires who have given outstanding service to the game, or in honor of umpires who have died. [33]

Since unified umpiring crews were established in 2000, all numbers are available to Major League Baseball umpires, as each retired number was reserved per league. Only one umpire number has been retired since the current format was established, 42, because of the Major League Baseball policy instituted in 1997.

Longest major league careers

Joe West has umpired over 5,000 MLB games. Joe West 2011.jpg
Joe West has umpired over 5,000 MLB games.

Most games

Regular-season major league games umpired

Most seasons

Careers beginning prior to 1920:

A home plate umpire wearing his mask, c.1945 1945 Baseball Umpire.jpg
A home plate umpire wearing his mask, c.1945

Careers beginning from 1920 to 1960:

Careers beginning since 1960:

  • 43 – Joe West (NL, 1976–99; MLB 2002–2021), recognized by MLB as having the longest tenure of any umpire in MLB history in terms of number of seasons umpired, and has umpired more games than any other MLB umpire [40]
  • 40 – Gerry Davis (NL, 1982–1999, MLB 2000–2021), owner of officials equipment store; has umpired more postseason games than any other umpire (151)
  • 37 – Bruce Froemming (NL, 1971–99; MLB, 2000–07), ejected New York Yankees manager Billy Martin from Game 4 of the 1976 World Series, made controversial ball four call which prevented Milt Pappas' perfect game in 1972
  • 35 – Jerry Crawford (NL, 1976–99; MLB, 2000–2010), son of NL umpire Shag Crawford (1951–75) and brother of National Basketball Association official Joey Crawford (1977–2016)
  • 35 – Joe Brinkman (AL, 1972–99; MLB, 2000–06) last active umpire to have used the balloon chest protector (Brinkman switched to the inside protector in 1980); former owner of umpire school; last active AL umpire to work prior to implementation of DH. Ejected Cleveland Indians manager Mike Hargrove from Game 2 of the 1998 American League Division Series after three pitches for arguing balls and strikes
  • 35 – Ed Montague (NL, 1974, 1976–99; MLB, 2000–09) One of three umpires (Bill Klem and Bill Summers were the others) to serve as World Series crew chief four times
  • 35 – Dana DeMuth (NL, 1985–99, MLB 2000–2019), made (with Jim Joyce) game-ending obstruction call in Game 3 of the 2013 World Series
  • 34 – John Hirschbeck (AL, 1983–99, MLB 2000–2016), involved in infamous "spitting" incident with Roberto Alomar
  • 34 – Derryl Cousins (AL 1979–99; MLB 2000–2012) last remaining replacement called up during the 1979 umpire strike and last AL umpire to have worn the red blazer (1973–79)
  • 34 – Mike Reilly (AL, 1977–99, MLB 2000–2010)
Baseball Hall of Fame inductee Doug Harvey Doug Harvey 2011.jpg
Baseball Hall of Fame inductee Doug Harvey

Others

Veteran MLB umpire Ted Barrett Ted Barrett 2012.jpg
Veteran MLB umpire Ted Barrett

Other noteworthy umpires have included:

Third-generation MLB umpire Brian Runge Brian Runge.jpg
Third-generation MLB umpire Brian Runge

Current MLB umpiring crews

Below are the crews of umpires for the 2022 MLB season. [46] Crews frequently change over the course of the year as umpires are sometimes detached from their crew (so they do not work in their home city with some exceptions, such as the opening of a new stadium), are on vacation, or are injured. The #2 umpire in each crew listed serves as acting crew chief if the crew chief is on vacation.

Major League Baseball – Umpiring Crews 2022
CrewCrew ChiefUmpire 2Umpire 3Umpire 4
Crew 1 3 Bill Welke 49 Andy Fletcher 47 Gabe Morales 96 Chris Segal
Crew 2 6 Mark Carlson 68 Chris Guccione 71 Jordan Baker 67 Ryan Additon
Crew 351 Marvin Hudson 80 Adrian Johnson 74 John Tumpane 36 Ryan Blakney
Crew 414 Mark Wegner 64 Alan Porter 81 Quinn Wolcott 35 Jeremie Rehak
Crew 550 Paul Emmel 92 James Hoye  1 Bruce Dreckman 31 Pat Hoberg
Crew 634 Sam Holbrook  5 Ángel Hernández 28 Jim Wolf 17 D. J. Reyburn
Crew 758 Dan Iassogna 11 Tony Randazzo 87 Scott Barry 97 Ben May
Crew 865 Ted Barrett 23 Lance Barksdale 83 Mike Estabrook 59 Nic Lentz
Crew 927 Larry Vanover  2 Dan Bellino 86 David Rackley 29 Sean Barber
Crew 1045 Jeff Nelson 54 C. B. Bucknor 79 Manny Gonzalez 85 Stu Scheurwater
Crew 1163 Laz Diaz  7 Brian O'Nora  4 Chad Fairchild 73 Tripp Gibson
Crew 1277 Jim Reynolds 13 Todd Tichenor 76 Mike Muchlinski 84 John Libka
Crew 1372 Alfonso Márquez 95 Tim Timmons 16 Lance Barrett 18 Ramon De Jesus
Crew 1441 Jerry Meals 15 Ed Hickox 19 Vic Carapazza 52 Jansen Visconti
Crew 1520 Tom Hallion 10 Phil Cuzzi 89 Cory Blaser 90 Mark Ripperger
Crew 1646 Ron Kulpa 60 Marty Foster 98 Chris Conroy 37 Carlos Torres
Crew 1724 Jerry Layne 21 Hunter Wendelstedt 78 Adam Hamari 62 Chad Whitson
Crew 1826 Bill Miller 88 Doug Eddings 91 Brian Knight 40 Roberto Ortiz
Crew 1953 Greg Gibson 39 Paul Nauert 30 Rob Drake 93 Will Little

Etymology

According to the Middle English dictionary entry for noumpere, the predecessor of umpire came from the Old French nonper (from non, "not" and per, "equal"), meaning "one who is requested to act as arbiter of a dispute between two people", or that the arbiter is not paired with anyone in the dispute. [47]

In Middle English, the earliest form of this shows up as noumper around 1350, and the earliest version without the n shows up as owmpere, a variant spelling in Middle English, circa 1440.

The n was lost after it was written (in 1426–1427) as a noounpier with the a being the indefinite article. The leading n became attached to the article, changing it to an Oumper around 1475; this sort of linguistic shift is called false splitting. Thus today one says "an umpire" instead of "a numpire".

The word was applied to the officials of many sports other than baseball, including association football (where it has been superseded by referee) and cricket (which still uses it).

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bill Klem</span> American baseball umpire (1874-1951)

William Joseph Klem, born William Joseph Klimm, known as the "Old Arbitrator" and the "father of baseball umpires", was a National League (NL) umpire in Major League Baseball from 1905 to 1941. He worked 18 World Series, which is a major league record. Klem was posthumously inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1953.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Al Barlick</span> American baseball umpire (1915-1995)

Albert Joseph Barlick was an American umpire in Major League Baseball who worked in the National League for 28 seasons. Barlick missed two seasons (1944–45) due to service in the United States Coast Guard and two seasons (1956–57) due to heart problems. He umpired seven World Series and seven All-Star Games.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Doug Harvey (umpire)</span> American baseball umpire (1930–2018)

Harold Douglas Harvey was an umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB), who worked in the National League (NL) from 1962 through 1992.

Bruce Neal Froemming is Major League Baseball Special Assistant to the Vice President on Umpiring, after having served as an umpire in Major League Baseball. He first umpired in the National League in 1971, and from 2000 to 2007 worked throughout both major leagues. Early in the 2007 season, Froemming tied Bill Klem for the most seasons umpired. Previously, on August 16, 2006, Froemming umpired his 5,000th game between the Detroit Tigers and Boston Red Sox at Fenway Park, making him the second umpire to reach that milestone; Klem retired after 5,374 games. Froemming now stands third on the all-time list of games umpired, having been passed when Joe West officiated his 5,164th Major League Baseball game on August 14, 2019. On April 20, 2007, he umpired at first base in the Cleveland Indians-Tampa Bay Devil Rays game, passing Klem to become – at age 67 years 204 days – the man then believed to be the oldest umpire in major league history; Hank O'Day holds the record, retiring at 68 years, 2 months. He worked his final regular-season game at age 68 years 2 days on September 30, 2007, when Froemming received a standing ovation before umpiring his last regular-season game, manning the third base position as the Milwaukee Brewers hosted the San Diego Padres at Miller Park in his native Milwaukee, with much of his family in attendance. Because Froemming was then over age 65, he became eligible for election to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2010 instead of having to wait the customary five years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gary Darling</span> American baseball umpire (born 1957)

Gary Richard Darling is a former umpire in Major League Baseball. After beginning his career in the National League from 1986 to 1999, he worked throughout both major leagues from 2002 until his retirement in 2014. He wore uniform number 37.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jeff Nelson (umpire)</span> American baseball umpire (born 1965)

Jeffrey Brian Nelson is an American professional baseball umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB), who was named to the National League (NL) staff prior to the 1999 season, and has worked throughout both major leagues since 2000.

Harry Hunter Wendelstedt Jr. was an umpire in Major League Baseball who worked in the National League from 1966 to 1998. He was born in Baltimore, Maryland. He umpired in the World Series in 1973, 1980, 1986, 1991 and 1995, serving as crew chief in 1980 and 1995. He also officiated in seven National League Championship Series and four All-Star games, calling balls and strikes in 1976. He umpired in the National League Division Series in 1995, 1996 and 1997. He wore uniform number 21.

Joseph Norbert Brinkman is an American former umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB) who worked in the American League (AL) from 1972 to 1999 and throughout both major leagues from 2000 until his retirement during the 2006 season.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joe West (umpire)</span> American baseball umpire (born 1952)

Joseph Henry West, nicknamed "Cowboy Joe" or "Country Joe", is an American former Major League Baseball umpire. Born in Asheville, North Carolina, he grew up in Greenville and played football at East Carolina University (ECU) and Elon College. West entered the National League as an umpire in 1976; he joined the NL staff full-time in 1978. West wore uniform number 22 throughout his career. As a young umpire, West worked Nolan Ryan's fifth career no-hitter, was on the field for Willie McCovey's 500th home run, and was involved in a 1983 pushing incident with manager Joe Torre. On May 25, 2021, West broke Bill Klem's all-time record by umpiring his 5,376th game.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Derryl Cousins</span> American baseball umpire (1946–2020)

Derryl Cousins was an American umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB), who worked in the American League (AL) from 1979 to 1999, and umpired throughout both leagues from 2000 until his retirement following the 2012 season, ending his career as a crew chief.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dusty Boggess</span> American baseball umpire (1904-1968)

Lynton Ross "Dusty" Boggess was an American umpire in Major League Baseball who worked in the National League from 1944 to 1962. He umpired in four World Series and in four All-Star Games.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ed Montague (umpire)</span> American baseball umpire (born 1948)

Edward Michael Montague is an American former umpire in Major League Baseball. He worked in the National League in 1974 and from 1976 to 1999, and officiated throughout both leagues between 2000 and 2009. The most senior active umpire in the major leagues at the time of his retirement, he wore uniform number 11 throughout his career. His 4,369 total games ranked eighth in major league history when he retired, and he is one of only three umpires to serve as crew chief for the World Series four times.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ted Barrett</span> American baseball umpire (born 1965)

Edward George Barrett is an American umpire in Major League Baseball. He joined the American League's staff in 1994, and has worked throughout both major leagues since 2000. He has worked in twenty three play-off series, including five World Series.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alfonso Márquez</span> Mexican baseball umpire (born 1972)

Alfonso Márquez is a Mexican umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB) who worked in the National League in 1999 and has worked throughout both major leagues since 2000. He was promoted to crew chief for the 2020 season, becoming the first full time Latino-born crew chief. Márquez wears uniform number 72, a number he shared with friend and National Hockey League linesman Stéphane Provost.

Richard Raul Garcia is a former umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB) who worked in the American League (AL) from 1975 to 1999. Garcia wore uniform number 19 when the AL adopted numbers for its umpires in 1980.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phil Cuzzi</span> American baseball umpire (born 1955)

Philip Cuzzi is an American professional baseball umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB). He worked as a reserve umpire in the National League (NL) from 1991 to 1993 and returned to the NL in 1999. Since 2000, he has worked in both major leagues. Cuzzi wore number 99 when his career started; he now wears number 10.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fieldin Culbreth</span> American baseball umpire (born 1963)

Fieldin Henry Culbreth III is an American former umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB). He worked in the American League from 1993 to 1999 and in both major leagues from 2000 until his retirement in 2021. Culbreth was promoted to crew chief prior to the 2013 season. Culbreth wore number 42 while he was an American League umpire, then changed to 25 in 2000 after the MLB umpires were unified into one crew.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bill Miller (umpire)</span> American baseball umpire (born 1967)

William Scott Miller is an American Major League Baseball umpire who began his career in the American League in 1997. Miller wears number 26. He has been a crew chief since the 2014 season.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tom Hallion</span> American baseball umpire (born 1956)

Thomas Francis Hallion is an American umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB) who has worked in the National League (NL) from 1985 to 1999 and throughout both major leagues since 2005, serving as crew chief since 2010. Hallion has worn number 20 during his MLB career. He resigned from the NL in 1999 as part of a failed mass bargaining strategy, but he was rehired by MLB before the 2005 season.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brian Knight</span> American baseball umpire (born 1974)

Brian Michael Knight is an American professional baseball umpire. He has worked as a full-time Major League Baseball (MLB) umpire since 2011. He wears uniform number 91.

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Further reading