Video assistant referee

Last updated

The symbol of VAR appearing on the screens during the review process VAR System Logo.svg
The symbol of VAR appearing on the screens during the review process

The video assistant referee (VAR) is an assistant referee in association football who reviews decisions made by the head referee with the use of video footage and a headset for communication. In 2018, VARs were written into the Laws of the Game by the International Football Association Board (IFAB) following trials in a number of major competitions. [1]

Assistant referee (association football) official in association football

In association football, an assistant referee is an official empowered with assisting the referee in enforcing the Laws of the Game during a match. Although assistants are not required under the Laws, at most organised levels of football the match officiating crew consists of the referee and at least two assistant referees. The responsibilities of the various assistant referees are listed in Law 6, "The Other Match Officials". In the current Laws the term "assistant referee" technically refers only to the two officials who generally patrol the touchlines, with the wider range of assistants to the referee given other titles.

Association football Team field sport

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the match. He or she is the final decision-making authority on all facts connected with play, and is the only official on the pitch with the authority to start and stop play and impose disciplinary action against players during a match. At most levels of play the referee is assisted by two assistant referees, who are empowered to advise the referee in certain situations such as the ball leaving play or infringements of the Laws of the Game occurring out of the view of the referee; however, the assistant referees' decisions are not binding and the referee has authority to overrule an assistant referee. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by a fourth official who supervises the teams' technical areas and assists the referee with administrative tasks, and, at the very highest levels, additional assistant referees and/or video assistant referees.



A Major League Soccer referee reviewing a play using a sideline monitor Baldomero Toledo checks VAR - Seattle Sounders vs. Sporting Kansas City.jpg
A Major League Soccer referee reviewing a play using a sideline monitor

There are 4 types of calls that can be reviewed. [2]

Scoring in association football

In games of association football teams compete to score the most goals during the match. A goal is scored when the ball passes completely over a goal line at each end of the field of play between two centrally positioned upright goal posts 24 feet (7.32 m) apart and underneath a horizontal crossbar at a height of 8 feet (2.44 m) — this frame is also referred to as a goal. Each team aims to score at one end of the pitch, while also preventing their opponents scoring at the other. Nets are usually attached to the goal frame to catch goalscoring balls, but the ball is not required to touch the net.

Offside (association football) law in association football

Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that a player is in an offside position if any of their body parts, except the hands and arms, are in the opponents' half of the pitch, and closer to the opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent.

Penalty kick (association football) type of direct free kick in association football

A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, in which a player is allowed to take a single shot on the goal while it is defended only by the opposing team's goalkeeper. It is awarded when a foul punishable by a direct free kick is committed by a player in their own penalty area. The shot is taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards (11 m) from the goal line and centred between the touch lines.

The standard for overturning the referee's original decision is that there has been a "clear error," sometimes expanded to "clear and obvious error." [3]

The process begins with the video assistant referee(s) and the assistant video assistant referee (AVAR) reviewing the play in question on a bank of monitors in the video operation room (VOR) with the assistance of the replay operator. This can be triggered by the referee requesting the review or by the VAR conducting a "check" to see if a review should be recommended to the referee. If the VAR finds nothing during the check, then communication with the referee is unnecessary, which is called a "silent check". If the VAR believes there has been a potential clear error, the referee will be contacted with that judgment. The referee can then either (a) change the call on the advice of the VAR or (b) conduct an on-field review (OFR) by going to a designated spot on the sideline, called the referee review area, to review the video with the help of the review assistant or (c) decide that he/she is confident in the original call and not conduct an OFR. The referee is allowed to stop play to reverse a call or conduct an OFR at his own request without advice from the VAR, but is not to do so when either team is engaged in good attacking possibility. [2] [ additional citation(s) needed ]

The official signal for a video review is the referee making the outline of a rectangle with his index fingers (indicating a video screen). This precedes both any OFR as well as any change in the original call. Players who demand a video review by making the rectangle motion excessively are to be cautioned with a yellow card. Players who enter the area where the referee conducts an OFR are also to be cautioned with a yellow card, and team officials who do so are to be dismissed. [2]

There are guidelines the referee and the VAR should follow in conducting a video review. For example, slow motion should only be used for "point of contact" offences, such as physical offences and handballs. Regular speed should be used to determine the intensity of an offence and whether a handball was deliberate. [4] Reviews for goals, penalty kick decisions, and red cards for denial of an obvious goal scoring opportunity cover the period back to the beginning of the "attacking possession phase", when the attacking team first gained possession of the ball or restarted play. [5] Other reviews only cover the incident itself. [4]

The VAR will be a current or former referee. [2]

Assistant video assistant referee

The assistant video assistant referee (AVAR) is a current or former referee appointed to assist the VAR in the video operation room. The responsibilities of the AVAR include watching the live action on the field while the VAR is undertaking a "check" or a "review", to keep notes of incidents, and to communicate the outcome of a review to broadcasters. [2]


VAR was conceived by the Refereeing 2.0 project in the early 2010s, under the direction of the Royal Netherlands Football Association (KNVB). [6] The system was tested through mock trials during the 2012–13 season of the Eredivisie, the country's top football league. In 2014, the KNVB petitioned the International Football Association Board (IFAB) to amend its laws of the games to allow the system to be used during more extensive trials. The IFAB approved trials and a pathway to full implementation during its 2016 general meeting. [6] [7] Lukas Brud, IFAB secretary, said "With all the 4G and Wi-Fi in stadia today...we knew we had to protect referees from making mistakes that everyone can see immediately", such as Thierry Henry’s handball that eliminated Ireland from qualifying for the 2010 FIFA World Cup where the on-field referees were not in a position to view the infraction. Then-FIFA president Sepp Blatter, who was strongly against introducing new technology in football, was forced out of his post due to a corruption scandal in 2015, and the VAR proposal received a warm reception under his successor Gianni Infantino. [6]

A live trial of the VAR system began in August 2016 with a United Soccer League match between two Major League Soccer reserve sides. [8] Match referee Ismail Elfath reviewed two fouls during the match and, after consultation with video assistant referee Allen Chapman, decided to issue a red card and a yellow card in the respective incidents. [9] Video reviews were introduced the following month during an international friendly between France and Italy. [10] A "pitchside monitor" was introduced at the 2016 FIFA Club World Cup, allowing referees to review footage from the field. [11]

The A-League in Australia became the first to use a VAR system in a top flight professional club competition on 7 April 2017, when Melbourne City played Adelaide United [12] though this game was completed without the VAR being called upon. [13] The first intervention by a VAR in a professional league game was seen on 8 April when Wellington Phoenix hosted Sydney FC. The VAR identified an illegal handball in the penalty area and awarded Sydney FC a penalty. The game finished in a 1–1 draw. [14] [15] Major League Soccer in the United States introduced VARs in competitive matches during its 2017 season after the 2017 MLS All-Star Game on 2 August 2017. [16] [17] Its first official use came during a match between the Philadelphia Union and FC Dallas, invalidating a goal from the latter over contact made between a Dallas player and Philadelphia's goalkeeper. [18] VAR was used at an international level in the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup in June, where it was praised but its usefulness was questioned after a referee decision in the final match. [19] [20]

The VAR system was introduced in top flight European football by Bundesliga and the Serie A at the beginning of the 2017–18 season [21] and by La Liga at the beginning of the 2018–19 season [22] . The system was also used at the 2017 FIFA U-20 World Cup in October. [23] On 8 January 2018, VAR was trialled for the first time in England in the 2017–18 FA Cup game between Brighton & Hove Albion and Crystal Palace., [24] and the following day it was trialled for the first time in France in the Côte d'Azur derby game in the 2017–18 French League Cup. It was said to have worked well. [25]

Italy opened the world's first VAR training centre in Coverciano in January 2018. [26]

On 3 March 2018, the IFAB wrote the VARs into the Laws of the Game on a permanent basis. [27] Their use remains optional for competitions, and the English Premier League and the UEFA Champions League were not expected to implement VAR for their 2018–19 season. [28] However Premier League executive chairman Richard Scudamore has described it as "inevitable" that VAR will be introduced to the Premier League. [29] On 27 September 2018, UEFA announced that from the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League season, VARs will be used in the competition. [30] Although VAR was not implemented in the group stages of the 2018–19 season, UEFA announced on 3 December 2018, that VAR would be used in the knockout stages, which commenced in February 2019. [31]

On 15 November 2018, Premier League teams voted in principle to bring Video Assistant Referees to the Premier League from the 2019–20 season onwards pending approval of IFAB and FIFA; this comes after a controversial decision from referee Simon Hooper to disallow a goal scored by Southampton Football Club striker Charlie Austin. [32]

2018 FIFA World Cup

FIFA officially approved the use of VAR for the 2018 FIFA World Cup during the FIFA Council meeting on 16 March 2018 in Bogotá. [33] [28] [34] [35] This tournament became the first competition to use VAR in full (at all matches and in all venues). [36]

Cristiano Ronaldo (Portugal) being shown a yellow card after a challenge with Iranian player that was reviewed by referee Enrique Caceres as a potential red card incident Ronaldo yellow card.jpg
Cristiano Ronaldo (Portugal) being shown a yellow card after a challenge with Iranian player that was reviewed by referee Enrique Cáceres as a potential red card incident

The 2018 World Cup marked the system's World Cup debut. A total of 335 incidents were checked by the VAR over the course of the group stage, averaging seven per match, and fourteen calls made by referees were changed or overruled after being reviewed by the VAR. According to FIFA, the VAR system had a success rate of 99.3 percent, up from the 95 percent of correct calls by referees without VAR. [37] The first VAR decision at the World Cup came on 16 June in a group stage match between France and Australia, where referee Andres Cunha awarded a penalty to France after consulting with the VAR. [38] [39] In the final, referee Néstor Pitana used the VAR to review a defensive foul for handling in the penalty area, awarding France a penalty, which gave them a 2–1 lead over Croatia; the final eventually ended with France prevailing 4–2. [40]

The use of VAR has been credited with assisting the 2018 edition's status as the cleanest World Cup since 1986, after no red cards are issued in the opening 11 games and only four players were sent off in the entire tournament which was the fewest since 1978. [41] 22 goals were scored from 29 awarded penalty spot kicks, beating the previous record of 17 penalty kick goals set in the 1998 tournament; the dramatic increase in the number of penalties awarded at the 2018 World Cup has been attributed to VAR catching fouls which would otherwise have remained unpunished. [42] International Football Association Board technical director David Elleray stated a belief that the presence of VAR meant that players would know that they would not be able to get away with anything under the new system. [43]


The use of video technology at the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup was criticised after several contentious moments involving VAR at the tournament. It was accused of "creating as much confusion as clarity". [44] [45]

Further criticism was leveled at VAR after it suffered issues preventing its use, for example in a Portuguese match where a supporter's flag had been obscuring the VAR camera, [46] [47] or in the 2018 A-League Grand Final between Newcastle Jets and Melbourne Victory where the VAR software suffered a technical malfunction which prevented the assistant referee from viewing the replay. [48] [49]

After the introduction of VAR in the 2018 World Cup, FIFA deemed it a success. Nevertheless, the use (or lack of use) of VAR has been criticised. [50] [51] Independent assessments note that while most decisions were made correctly as a result of VAR, some were wrong despite VAR review and some decisions which were called incorrectly were not even reviewed. [52] [50] The Guardian concludes that VAR has been most effective for factual decisions such as offsides and mistaken identities, while subjective decisions such as penalties or the disciplining of players have fared much worse. Lack of clarity and consistency are two main areas of weakness. [53]

A problem in consistency at the 2018 World Cup was for example the different rulings in similar game situations, which could be explained by unclear interpretation of VAR rules. For instance, in the game between Portugal and Iran in the group stage, Iran got a penalty kick after a handball by Cedric Soares, while in the game between Nigeria and Argentina, Nigeria did not get this chance after Marcos Rojo headed the ball onto his own arm. [54]

Another line of criticism has been targeted at the effectiveness of the system in achieving its goal. In the opinion of Scott Stinson from the National Post, VAR, like any other replay system, fails to correct human error and instead only adds to the controversies because human judgment is still necessary. [55] Lack of transparency is another contentious point, as teams have no way to know which incidents were reviewed by the VAR team. [56] At a press conference held after the group stage, FIFA referees committee chairman Pierluigi Collina showed footage of the decision-making process accompanied with audio of the conversations between VAR officials and the referees. Asked if this audio could be made publicly available, as it is in rugby and cricket, Collina answered enthusiastically but cautioned that it might still be too early. [57] [58]

Others have pointed to the game-changing nature of VAR. Initial fears that using the system would lengthen the game considerably have not been confirmed, with every VAR review taking up an average of only 80 seconds. [59] The dramatic increase in the number of penalties awarded at the 2018 World Cup has been attributed to VAR catching fouls which would otherwise have remained unpunished. Of the 169 goals scored in the tournament, 22 were from the spot (with 29 being awarded in total), beating the previous record of 17 set in the 1998 FIFA World Cup. [42] Jonathan Liew of The Independent compares the situation to the introduction of the Decision Review System in cricket and notes the changes it had on that sport, and suggests that it might lead to changes of a similar nature in football. [60]

In February 2019, UEFA issued guidance which stated that players who made a 'TV-screen' hand gesture should result in a yellow card. [61]

Competitions using VAR

Competitions which include VAR confirmed matches are "live" matches, i.e. where the VARs have contact with the referee on the field of play and therefore may have an impact on the decision making. [62]

(*)Not all matches



See also

Related Research Articles

A penalty shoot-out is a method of determining which team is awarded victory in an association football match that cannot end in a draw, when the score is tied after the regulation playing time as well as extra time have expired. In a penalty shoot-out, each team takes turns shooting at goal from the penalty mark, with the goal only defended by the opposing team's goalkeeper. Each team has five shots which must be taken by different kickers; the team that makes more successful kicks is declared the victor. Shoot-outs finish as soon as one team has an insurmountable lead. If scores are level after five pairs of shots, the shootout progresses into additional "sudden-death" rounds. Balls successfully kicked into the goal during a shoot-out do not count as goals for the individual kickers or the team, and are tallied separately from the goals scored during normal play. Although the procedure for each individual kick in the shoot-out resembles that of a penalty kick, there are some differences. Most notably, neither the kicker nor any player other than the goalkeeper may play the ball again once it has been kicked.

Instant replay or action replay is a video reproduction of something that recently occurred which was both shot and broadcast live. The video, having already been shown live, is replayed in order for viewers to see again and analyze what had just taken place. Some sports allow officiating calls to be overturned after the review of a play. Instant replay is most commonly used in sports, but is also used in other fields of live TV. While the first near-instant replay system was developed and used in Canada, the first instant replay was developed and deployed in the United States.

Fouls and misconduct (association football) unfair act by a player in association football

In the sport of association football, fouls and misconduct are acts committed by players which are deemed by the referee to be unfair and are subsequently penalized. An offense may be a foul, misconduct or both depending on the nature of the offence and the circumstances in which it occurs. Fouls and misconduct are addressed in Law 12 of the Laws of the Game.

David Roland Elleray,, is an English former football referee who officiated in the Football League, Premier League and for FIFA. As of May 2016 he held the position of Technical Director at the IFAB.

Massimo Busacca Football referee

Massimo Busacca is a Swiss former football referee. He lives in Monte Carasso, Ticino, near Bellinzona, and he is Head of FIFA Refereeing.

Viktor Kassai is a Hungarian football referee. He participated in the 2010 FIFA World Cup and refereed the 2011 UEFA Champions League Final. He has been a full international referee for FIFA since 2003.

Goal-line technology electronic aid to determine if a goal has been scored or not

In association football, goal-line technology is the use of electronic aid to determine if a goal has been scored or not. In detail, it is a method used to determine when the ball has completely crossed the goal line in between the goal-posts and underneath the crossbar with the assistance of electronic devices and at the same time assisting the referee in awarding a goal or not. The objective of goal-line technology (GLT) is not to replace the role of the officials, but rather to support them in their decision-making. The GLT must provide a clear indication as to whether the ball has fully crossed the line, and this information will serve to assist the referee in making his final decision.

Felix Brych German football referee

Felix Brych is a German football referee who is based in Munich. He referees for SV Am Hart München of the Bavarian Football Association. He is a FIFA referee, and is ranked as a UEFA Elite group referee.

Republic of Ireland vs France was a two-legged football play-off held on 14 and 18 November 2009 between the national teams of the Republic of Ireland and France as part of the UEFA second round of qualification for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The first match was held on 14 November in Croke Park, Dublin, Ireland, and ended in a 1–0 victory for France with Nicolas Anelka scoring. The second leg, played on 18 November in the Stade de France outside Paris, France, finished 1-0 to the Republic of Ireland. The tie went to extra time and a controversial William Gallas goal made the score 2-1 on aggregate and France progressed to the World Cup at Ireland's expense.

Néstor Pitana football referee, actor

Néstor Fabián Pitana is an Argentine football referee and former actor who refereed at the 2014 FIFA World Cup, 2015 Copa América and 2018 FIFA World Cup. He oversaw the opening match of the 2018 FIFA World Cup between Russia and Saudi Arabia. Pitana was appointed to take charge of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Final between France and Croatia at Moscow on 15 July 2018. He became the second Argentine referee to take charge of a World Cup Final.

2017 UEFA Womens Under-19 Championship

The 2017 UEFA Women's Under-19 Championship was the 16th edition of the UEFA Women's Under-19 Championship, the annual international youth football championship organised by UEFA for the women's under-19 national teams of Europe. Northern Ireland was selected by UEFA on 26 January 2015 as the host country for the tournament.

Mauro Vigliano is an Argentine professional football referee. He has been a full international for FIFA since 2013. He refereed some matches in Copa Libertadores and a game between Ecuador and Peru in the 2018 Russia World Cup Qualifiers.

2016 FIFA Club World Cup Final association football match

The 2016 FIFA Club World Cup Final was the final match of the 2016 FIFA Club World Cup, a football tournament hosted by Japan. It was the 13th final of the FIFA Club World Cup, a FIFA-organised tournament between the winner clubs from each of the six continental confederations, as well as the league winner from the host nation.

Comparison of association football and futsal

Futsal began in the 1930s in South America as a version of association football, taking elements of its parent game into an indoor format so players could still play during inclement weather. Over the years, both sports have developed, creating a situation where the two sports share common traits while also hosting various differences.

2018 FA Cup Final

The 2018 FA Cup Final was the final match of the 2017–18 FA Cup and the 137th final of the FA Cup, the world's oldest football cup competition. It was played at Wembley Stadium in London, England on 19 May 2018 between Manchester United and Chelsea. It was the second successive final for Chelsea following their defeat by Arsenal the previous year.

Massimiliano Irrati is an Italian football referee.


  1. "Historic step for greater fairness in football". International Football Association Board. 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "Video Assistant Referees (VARs) Experiment – Protocol (Summary)" (PDF). International Football Association Board. 26 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  3. Podcast, Planet Futbol. "Howard Webb on video replay and its future in soccer". Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  4. 1 2 "VIDEO ASSISTANT REFEREES (VARs) – Implementation handbook for Competitions". IFAB. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  5. Rumsby, Ben (7 January 2018). "Video technology will not make football a mistake-free sport, warns referee chief Mike Riley". The Telegraph. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  6. 1 2 3 Medeiros, João (23 June 2018). "The inside story of how FIFA's controversial VAR system was born". Wired . Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  7. "Minutes of the 130th Annual General Meeting of the International Football Association Board". IFAB. pp. 13–17. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  8. Alvarez, Liana (19 August 2016). "MLS makes soccer history with debut of video assistant referees". Sports Illustrated . Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  9. Williams, Bob (13 August 2016). "Video assistant referees edge closer after successful trial in United States". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  10. Rumsby, Ben (2 September 2016). "Video replays used for first time during France's 3–1 friendly win over Italy as 'football history' made". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  11. "Video replays: Referees to use pitch-side monitors at Fifa's Club World Cup". BBC Sport. 7 December 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  12. "Hyundai A-League first to use Video Assistant Referees". Hyundai A-League. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  13. "Video Assistant Referee: Australia's A-League uses system during trial". BBC Sport. 8 April 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  14. "Wellington Phoenix v Sydney FC video, highlights: Sky Blues concede late after VAR call". Fox Sports. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  15. "World first as video assistant referee called into action in Wellington and Sydney FC stalemate". The Guardian. 8 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  16. Borg, Simon (10 December 2016). "MLS will seek to introduce Video Assistant Referees (VAR) during 2017". Major League Soccer . Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  17. Goldberg, Jamie (14 March 2017). "MLS leads the way among soccer leagues worldwide as it prepares to roll out video replay". The Oregonian . Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  18. "Video review debuts in MLS, rules out goal in Dallas' first-ever loss to Union". ESPN FC. 5 August 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  19. Ogden, Mark (2 July 2017). "VAR creates as much confusion as clarity in Confederations Cup final". ESPN . Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  20. "Russia 2017, VAR praised at closing press conference" (Press release). FIFA. 1 July 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  21. Kohli, Siddharth (17 August 2017). "VAR: The good, the bad and the ugly". CNN . Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  22. "LaLiga Santander: Tebas: With VAR, there will be more fairness in football - MARCA in English". MARCA in English. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  23. "Football poised to change forever with the introduction of Video Assistant Referee system". The Independent . Independent Print Limited. 9 March 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  24. "FA Cup trial for Video Assistant Referee".
  25. "Nice-Monaco: la vidéo "a très bien fonctionné"". 10 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  26. "Italy host first VAR training centre". Football Italia. 19 December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  27. "Historic step for greater fairness in football". The IFAB. IFAB. 3 March 2018. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  28. 1 2 Conway, Richard (3 March 2018). "VAR: Video assistant referees set to be used at 2018 World Cup in Russia". BBC . Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  29. "VAR in Premier League is inevitable, says Richard Scudamore". BBC Sport. 6 May 2018.
  30. "Champions League: VAR to be introduced in 2019-20 season". 27 September 2018 via
  31. "VAR to be used in UEFA Champions League knockout phase". 3 December 2018.
  32. "VAR: Video assistant referees set to be used in Premier League next season". 15 November 2018 via
  33. "IFAB comes to landmark decision about VAR". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  34. "VAR discussed at IFAB media briefing". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  35. "FIFA finally approves video review to use at World Cup". The Washington Post. 16 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  36. Medeiros, João. "The inside story of how FIFA's controversial VAR system was born" . Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  37. "World Cup 2018: VAR system 'fine-tuned' after criticism". BBC Sport. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  38. Grez, Matias (16 June 2018). "History made as VAR used for first time in World Cup match". . Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  39. Johnson, Dale (16 June 2018). "How VAR made history with penalty for France". ESPN. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  40. Taylor, Daniel (15 July 2018). "France seal second World Cup triumph with 4–2 win over brave Croatia". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  41. "World Cup by the numbers - 169 goals, 29 penalties, 10 late winners, 4 red cards". ESPN. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  42. 1 2 Kirk, Ashley; Scott, Patrick (29 June 2018). "13 intriguing stats from World Cup 2018 so far". The Telegraph . Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  43. "VAR effect results in cleanest World Cup since 1986 after no red cards are issued in opening 11 games". The Telegraph. 17 June 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  44. "Confederations Cup: Video assistant referee system 'a shambles'". BBC . 2 July 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  45. "VAR creates as much confusion as clarity in Confederations Cup final". ESPN . 2 July 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  46. Browne, PJ (7 February 2018). "Watch: Flag Waving Fan Causes VAR Chaos In Portugal". Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  47. "VAR and the giant flag: how a match in Portugal became the scene of farce". The Guardian . 7 February 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  48. "A-League grand final: Victory's offside goal inaction due to VAR glitch, says FFA – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  49. "Wrongly awarded goal decides Aussie title after VAR failure". Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  50. 1 2 Belam, Martin (22 June 2018). "VAR at the World Cup: the big decisions, game by game". The Guardian . Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  51. "So VAR, so good? Fifa praises review system in helping referees get '99.3% decisions correct'". ITV News. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  52. Johnson, Dale. "VAR at the World Cup: A timeline of the tournament". Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  53. Nakrani, Sachin (26 June 2018). "VAR: the World Cup verdict so far – some success but more clarity needed". The Guardian . Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  54. "First time use of VAR during a World Cup - Analysis of the group stage". Chuck No Risk . Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  55. Stinson, Scott (26 June 2018). "'VAR is bulls—t': Video review's honeymoon phase comes to sudden, spectacular end at World Cup". National Post. Retrieved 4 July 2018. All of a sudden, VAR had been revealed to be just like any other replay system: a process meant to reduce the number of controversies by correcting human error was now only adding to the controversies because there was still human judgment involved. And no replay could render that judgment infallible.
  56. "Brazil questions VAR procedures after 'clear errors by referee' in Swiss match". CBC . Associated Press. 18 June 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2018. The confederation says it wants to know whether the plays were reviewed in any way, saying "transparency is of essence."
  57. Wood, Martyn (29 June 2018). "FIFA referees chief pleased but not surprised by VAR success at World Cup". IOL. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  58. "RELIVE: Referee media briefing held after group stage". 28 June 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  59. Sengupta, Ayon (2 July 2018). "Mixed response for VAR". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  60. Liew, Jonathan (29 June 2018). "VAR is going to change football as we know it – but we have no idea if that's a good thing or not". The Independent . Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  61. "Video assistant referee: Uefa says 'TV gesture' a bookable offence". 6 February 2019 via