Substitute (association football)

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The substitute bench of the national team of Argentina. Argentina substitute bench - Portugal vs. Argentina, 9th February 2011 (1).jpg
The substitute bench of the national team of Argentina.

In association football, a substitute is a player who is brought on to the pitch during a match in exchange for an existing player. Substitutions are generally made to replace a player who has become tired or injured, or who is performing poorly, or for tactical reasons (such as bringing a striker on in place of a defender). Unlike some sports (such as American football, ice hockey or kabaddi), but like in baseball, a player who has been substituted during a match may take no further part in it.

Association football Team field sport played between two teams of eleven players with spherical ball

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals.

American football Team field sport

American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, which is the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, which is the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, and otherwise they turn over the football to the defense; if the offense succeeds in advancing ten yards or more, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.

Contents

Most competitions only allow each team to make a maximum of three substitutions during a game and a fourth substitute during extra time, although more substitutions are often permitted in non-competitive fixtures such as friendlies. A fourth substitution in extra time was first implemented in recent tournaments, including the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 2017 CONCACAF Gold Cup final. [1] [2] [3] [4] A fourth substitute in extra time has been approved for use in the elimination rounds at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League. [5] [6] Each team nominates a number of players (typically between five and seven, depending on the competition) who may be used as substitutes; these players typically sit in the technical area with the coaches, and are said to be "on the bench". When the substitute enters the field of play it is said they have come on or have been brought on, while the player they are substituting for is coming off, or being brought off or substituted.

Exhibition game sporting event wherein the result has no external impact

An exhibition game is a sporting event whose prize money and impact on the player's or the team's rankings is either zero or otherwise greatly reduced. In team sports, matches of this type are often used to help coaches and managers select and condition players for the competitive matches of a league season or tournament. If the players usually play in different teams in other leagues, exhibition games offer an opportunity for the players to learn to work with each other. The games can be held between separate teams or between parts of the same team.

Football at the 2016 Summer Olympics association football played during the 2016 Olympic Summer Games

The association football tournament at the 2016 Summer Olympics was held from 3 to 20 August in Brazil.

2017 FIFA Confederations Cup 10th FIFA Confederations Cup, held in Russia

The 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup was the 10th and final FIFA Confederations Cup, a quadrennial international men's football tournament organised by FIFA. It was held in Russia, from 17 June to 2 July 2017, as a prelude to the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

A player who is noted for frequently making appearances, or scoring important goals, as a substitute is often informally known as a "super sub".

History

The origin of football substitutes goes back to at least the early 1860s as part of English public school football games. The original use of the term "substitute" in football was to describe the replacement of players who failed to turn up for matches. For example, in 1863, a match reports states: "The Charterhouse eleven played a match in cloisters against some old Carthusians but in consequence of the non-appearance of some of those who were expected it was necessary to provide three substitutes. [7] " The substitution of absent players happened as early as the 1850s, for example from Eton College where the term "emergencies" is used. [8] Numerous references to players acting as a "substitute" occur in matches in the mid-1860s [9] where it is not indicated whether these were replacements of absent players or of players injured during the match.

During the early modern era pupils, former pupils and teachers at English public schools developed and wrote down the first codes of football, most notably the Eton College (1815) and Aldenham school (1825) football rules. The most well-known of these is rugby football (1845). British public school football also directly influenced the rules of Association football.

Charterhouse School English collegiate independent boarding school

Charterhouse is a boarding school in Godalming, Surrey. Originally founded by Thomas Sutton in 1611 on the site of the old Carthusian monastery in Charterhouse Square, Smithfield, London, it educates over 800 pupils, aged 13 to 18 years, and is one of the original Great Nine English public schools. Today pupils are still referred to as Carthusians, and ex-pupils as Old Carthusians.

Old Carthusians F.C. Association football club

Old Carthusians Football Club is an association football club whose players are former pupils of Charterhouse School in Godalming, Surrey, England. The club was established in 1876 and won the FA Cup in 1881, as well as the FA Amateur Cup in 1894 and 1897. The club currently plays in the Arthurian League and won league and Arthur Dunn Cup doubles in 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2013 2014, 2015, 2017 and 2019.

The first use of a substitute in international football was on 15 April 1889, in the match between Wales and Scotland at Wrexham. Wales's original goalkeeper, Jim Trainer, failed to arrive; local amateur player Alf Pugh started the match and played for some 20 minutes until the arrival of Sam Gillam, who took over from him. [10]

Wales national football team mens association football team representing Wales

The Wales national football team represents Wales in international football. It is controlled by the Football Association of Wales (FAW), the governing body for football in Wales and the third-oldest national football association in the world.

Scotland national football team Mens association football team representing Scotland

The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. It competes in the three major professional tournaments, the FIFA World Cup, UEFA Nations League and the UEFA European Championship. Scotland, as a country of the United Kingdom, is not a member of the International Olympic Committee and therefore the national team does not compete in the Olympic Games. The majority of Scotland's home matches are played at the national stadium, Hampden Park.

Wrexham Town in Wales

Wrexham is the largest town in the north of Wales and an administrative, commercial, retail and educational centre. Wrexham is situated between the Welsh mountains and the lower Dee Valley alongside the border with England. Historically part of Denbighshire, the town became part of Clwyd in 1974 and since 1996 has been the centre of the Wrexham County Borough.

Substitution during games was first permitted in 1958. [11] (Although as early as the qualifying phase for the 1954 World Cup, Horst Eckel of Germany is recorded as having been replaced by Richard Gottinger in their match with the Saarland on 11 October 1953.) [12] The use of substitutes in World Cup Finals matches was not allowed until the 1970 tournament. [13]

A total of 37 teams entered the 1954 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds, competing for a total of 16 spots in the final tournament. Switzerland, as the hosts, and Uruguay, as the defending champions, qualified automatically, leaving 14 spots open for competition.

Horst Eckel German footballer

Horst Eckel is a former German footballer who was part of the West German team that won the 1954 FIFA World Cup. Since the death of Hans Schäfer in 2017, Eckel is the only player still alive from the team.

Germany national football team mens national association football team representing Germany

The Germany national football team is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908. It is governed by the German Football Association, founded in 1900. Ever since the DFB was reinaugurated in 1949 the team has represented the Federal Republic of Germany. Under Allied occupation and division, two other separate national teams were also recognised by FIFA: the Saarland team representing the Saarland (1950–1956) and the East German team representing the German Democratic Republic (1952–1990). Both have been absorbed along with their records by the current national team. The official name and code "Germany FR (FRG)" was shortened to "Germany (GER)" following the reunification in 1990.

The number of substitutes usable in a competitive match has increased from zero—meaning teams were reduced if players' injuries could not allow them to play on—to one (plus another for an injured goalkeeper) in 1958; to two out of a possible five in 1988. With the later increases in substitutions allowed, the number of potential substitute players increased to seven. [14] The number of substitutes increased to two plus one (injured goalkeeper) in 1994, [15] to three in 1995; [16] [17] and most recently to a fourth substitute in certain competitions in extra time. [18]

English and Scottish leagues

Substitutions during matches in the English Football League were first permitted in the 1965–66 season. During the first two seasons after the law was introduced, each side was permitted only one substitution during a game. Moreover, the substitute could only replace an injured player. From the 1967–68 season, this rule was relaxed to allow substitutions for tactical reasons. [19]

On 21 August 1965, Keith Peacock of Charlton Athletic became the first substitute used in the Football League when he replaced injured goalkeeper Mike Rose eleven minutes into their away match against Bolton Wanderers. [20] On the same day, Bobby Knox became the first ever substitute to score a goal when he scored for Barrow against Wrexham. [21]

Archie Gemmill of St Mirren was the first substitute to come on in a Scottish first-class match, on 13 August 1966 in a League Cup tie against Clyde when he replaced Jim Clunie after 23 minutes. [19]

The first official substitute in a Scottish League match was Paul Conn for Queen's Park vs Albion Rovers in a Division 2 match on 24 August 1966. Previously, on 20 January 1917, a player called Morgan came on for the injured Morrison of Partick Thistle after 5 minutes against Rangers at Firhill, but this was an isolated case and the Scottish League did not authorise substitutes until 1966. [19]

In later years, the number of substitutes permitted in Football League matches has gradually increased; at present each team is permitted to name either five or seven substitutes depending on the country and competition, of which a maximum of three may be used. In England, the Premier League increased the number of players on the bench to five in 1996, and to seven for the 2008–09 season. [22]

Relevant laws

The assistant referee indicating a substitution Senal de Cambio de Jugador cropped.JPG
The assistant referee indicating a substitution
Fourth official notifying the referee of the details of the substitution Tomasz Zelazowski Krystian Kanarski KSZO.jpg
Fourth official notifying the referee of the details of the substitution

Substitutions are governed under Law 3 of the Laws of the Game in the (3) Substitution Procedure section. [23]

A player may only be substituted during a stoppage in play and with the permission of the referee. The player to be substituted (outgoing player) must have left the field of play before the substitute (incoming player) may enter the field of play; at that point the substitute becomes a player and the person substituted ceases to be a player. The incoming player may only enter the field at the half-way line. Failure to comply with these provisions may be punished by a caution (yellow card).

A player who has been substituted may take no further part in a match.

Unused substitutes still on the bench, as well as players who have been already substituted, remain under the authority of the referee. These are liable for misconduct, though cannot be said to have committed a foul. For example, in the 2002 FIFA World Cup, Claudio Caniggia was shown the red card for cursing at the referee from the bench.

Under the Laws of the Game, the referee has no specific power to force a player to be substituted, even if the team manager or captain has ordered their player to be substituted. As Law 3 (3) Substitution Procedure simply states that: "if a player who is to be replaced refuses to leave, play continues." However, in some situations players may still be liable to punishment with a caution (yellow card) if they are perceived to be time wasting or unsporting behaviour by refusing to leave the field of play.

A player who has been sent off (red card) may not be substituted; the team will have to make do with the remaining players. In the case of a goalkeeper who is sent off, such as in the 2006 UEFA Champions League Final, when Arsenal midfielder Robert Pires was replaced by second-choice goalkeeper Manuel Almunia to replace Jens Lehmann, who received a red card less than 20 minutes into the match, the coach will usually (but is not required to) substitute an outfield player so that the backup goalkeeper can enter the game. If all substitutions have been used, or if no goalkeeper is available, an outfield player will take up the role of the goalkeeper. A famous example of this is when Chelsea goalkeepers Petr Čech and Carlo Cudicini were both injured in the same game, which led to defender John Terry spending the remainder of the match in goal wearing third-choice goalkeeper Hilário's shirt. [24]

According to the Laws of the Game, "up to a maximum of three substitutes may be used in any match played in an official competition organised under the auspices of FIFA, the confederations or the member associations." Also:

Super-sub

The term "super-sub" refers to a substitution made by the manager that subsequently saves the game, generally by scoring a late equalising or winning goal. Players regarded as "super-subs" include Tupãzinho and Dinei for Corinthians, Azar Karadas for Brann, Santiago Solari for Real Madrid, Jon Dahl Tomasson for A.C. Milan, Nwankwo Kanu for Arsenal, David Fairclough for Liverpool, [25] Adam Le Fondre for Reading, [26] Ole Gunnar Solskjær and Javier Hernández for Manchester United, [27] [28] Mikael Forssell for Chelsea, [29] Leon Clarke for Wigan Athletic, [30] Brendon Santalab for Western Sydney Wanderers, [31] Henrique for Brisbane Roar, [32] Stevie Kirk for Motherwell, [33] Archie Thompson, Joshua Kennedy and Tim Cahill for Australia, [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] and Abby Wambach and Carli Lloyd for the United States women's national soccer team. [40] [41]

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