In sports, a coach is a person involved in the direction, instruction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople. A coach may also be a teacher.
Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a "tie" or "draw", in which there is no single winner; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs.
A sports team is a group of individuals who play sports, usually team sports, on the same team. Historically, sports teams and the people who play sports have been amateurs. However, by the 20th century, some sports teams and their associated leagues became extremely valuable with net worth in the millions. The Dallas Cowboys are rated by Forbes as the world's most valuable sports team at $4.2 billion USD. Some individual sports have modified rules that allow them to be played by teams.
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.
The original sense of the word coach is that of a horse-drawn carriage, deriving ultimately from the Hungarian city of Kocs where such vehicles were first made. Students at the University of Oxford in the early nineteenth century used the slang word to refer to a private tutor who would drive a less able student through his examinations just like horse driving.[ citation needed ]
A coach is originally a large, usually closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman and/or one or more postilions. It had doors in the sides, with generally a front and a back seat inside and, for the driver, a small, usually elevated seat in front called a box, box seat or coach box. The term "coach" first came into use in the 15th century, and spread across Europe. There are a number of types of coaches, with differentiations based on use, location and size. Special breeds of horses, such as the now-extinct Yorkshire Coach Horse, were developed to pull the vehicles.
Kocs is a village in Komárom-Esztergom county, Hungary. It lies west of Tata and 65 km (40 mi) north-west of Budapest.
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two 'ancient universities' are frequently jointly referred to as 'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.
Britain took the lead in upgrading the status of sports in the 19th century. For sports to become professionalized, "coacher" had to become established. It gradually professionalized in the Victorian era and the role was well established by 1914. In the First World War, military units sought out the coaches to supervise physical conditioning and develop morale-building teams.
A coach, particularly in a professional league, is usually supported by one or more assistant coaches and specialist support staff. The staff may include coordinators, strength and fitness specialists, and trainers. In elite sport, the role of nutritionists, biomechanists and physiotherapists will all become critical to the overall long-term success of a coach and athlete. They work on the over all responsibility of their athletes.
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In association football, the duties of a coach can vary depending on the level they are coaching at and the country they are coaching in, amongst others. In youth football, the primary objective of a coach is to aid players in the development of their technical skills, with emphasis on the enjoyment and fair play of the game rather than physical or tactical development. [ when? ] efforts have been made by governing bodies in various countries to overhaul their coaching structures at youth level with the aim of encouraging coaches to put player development and enjoyment ahead of winning matches.In recent decades,
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.
In professional football, the role of the coach or trainer is limited to the training and development of a club's "first team" in most countries. The coach is aided by a number of assistant coaches, one of which carries the responsibility for the training and preparation of the goalkeepers. The coach is also assisted by medical staff and athletic trainers. The medium to long term strategy of a football club, with regard to transfer policies, youth development and other sporting matters, is not the business of a coach in most football countries.[ citation needed ] The presence of a sporting director is designed to give the medium term development of a club the full attention of one professional, allowing the coach to focus on improving and producing performances from the players under their charge. The system also provides a certain level of protection against overspending on players in search of instant success. In football, the director of a professional football team is more commonly awarded the position of manager, a role that combines the duties of coach and sporting director.
The goalkeeper, often shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport. The goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball. The special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates.
An athletic trainer is a certified and licensed health care professional who practices in the field of sports medicine. Athletic training has been recognized by the American Medical Association (AMA) as an allied health care profession since 1990.
The responsibilities of a European football manager tend to be divided up in North American professional sports, where the teams usually have a separate general manager and head coach, although occasionally a person may fill both roles of general manager and head coach. While the first team coach in football is usually an assistant to the manager who actually holds the real power, the American style general manager and head coach have clearly distinct areas of responsibilities. For example, a typical European football manager would have the final say on player lineups and contract negotiations, while in American sports these duties would be handled separately by the head coach and general manager, respectively.
In baseball, at least at the professional level in North America, the individual who heads the coaching staff does not use the title of "head coach", but is instead called the field manager. Baseball "coaches" at that level are members of the coaching staff under the overall supervision of the manager, with each coach having a specialized role. The baseball field manager is essentially equivalent a head coach in other American professional sports leagues; player transactions are handled by the general manager. The term manager used without qualification almost always refers to the field manager, while the general manager is often called the GM.
At amateur levels, the terminology is more similar to that of other sports. The person known as the "manager" in professional leagues is generally called the "head coach" in amateur leagues; this terminology is standard in U.S. college baseball.
In American football, like many other sports, there are many coaches and assistant coaches. American football includes a head coach, an assistant head coach, an offensive coordinator, a defensive coordinator, a special teams coordinator, offensive and defensive line coaches, coaches for every position, and a strength and conditioning coach, among other positions.
The Guardian describes the social conservatism that has defined American football coaches for decades:
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the enemies of football were civil rights, the campus protest movement, anti-war activism, beards, long hair, and other offenses against grooming. In August 1969 Sports Illustrated devoted a cover story to the plight of “the desperate coach,” adrift in a world unmoored from its old verities and tasked suddenly with managing a generation of hirsute, anti-authoritarian “free thinkers”. There was, judging by the evidence, no struggle to get coaches to go on the record. Dallas Cowboys coach Tom Landry lamented in the late 1960s that without football, “society would lose on the great strongholds – paying the price. There’s not much discipline left in this country.” Around the same time University of Southern California assistant coach Marv Goux, surveying the alarming growth of his charges’ hair, groused: “The bums eat the food our society produces, they wear the clothes our society produces and now they want to destroy our society. Like pigs, they have no pride or discipline.” Challenged in the early 1970s by a black power supporter over why he did not allow his players to participate in demonstrations, Southern University’s Al Taber replied, “Because I believe in America too strongly.”
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Sports coaching in the UK follows a highly structured pattern in principle, but is delivered by a workforce which is largely volunteer-based. Recognising the pivotal role played by coaches in increasing participation and performance in sport, each of the UK's Home Country Sports Councils has a coaching strategy aligned to their overall strategy.
In June 2008, the Sports Councils together with the national governing bodies of sport (NGBs) formally adopted the UK Coaching Framework at the UK Coaching Summit in Coventry.
More than thirty sports have their coach education programmes endorsed as meeting the standards of the UK Coaching Certificate (UKCC) as an indication of quality assurance. Typically, such programmes classify coaches within Levels 1–4, with Level 2 being the minimum standard for someone to coach unaccompanied. Coach education programmes are usually organised centrally by the NGBs but delivered locally to meet the needs of volunteer coaches. For anyone wanting to become a coach in a particular sport, the NGB website provides the first point of contact for further information.
Each of the counties in England has a County Sports Partnership (CSP) funded by Sport England which supports local coaching networks to bring coaches from different sports together to share best practice and gain further continuing professional development (CPD). Similar arrangements exist across Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
The safeguarding and protection of children in sport has been a major focus for sports coach UK and the NSPCC for many years. Short workshops on safeguarding are the most popular of all CPD sessions organised by sports coach UK and delivered across the CSP network.
The UK government, through DCMS, highlighted the need for detailed research into sports coaching patterns. As a result, major tracking studies have been completed. These confirm that three in every four coaches are volunteers, typically giving up three hours a week to coach their sport. Fewer than 5% of coaches in the UK are full-time professionals, in stark contrast to the USA.
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All major U.S. collegiate sports have associations for their coaches to engage in professional development activities, but some sports' professional coaches have less formal associations, without developing into a group resembling a union in the way that athletic players in many leagues have.
U.S. collegiate coaching contracts require termination without the payment of a settlement if the coach is found to be in serious violation of named rules, usually with regard to the recruiting or retention of players in violation of amateur status.
The NFL head coaches have an association, called NFL Coaches Association (NFLCA), which includes all the coaches in the NFL, except New England Patriots head coach Bill Belichick.
Many coaching contracts allow the termination of the coach with little notice and without specific cause, usually in the case of high-profile coaches with the payment of a financial settlement. Coaching is a very fickle profession, and a reversal of the team's fortune often finds last year's "Coach of the Year" to be seeking employment in the next. Many coaches are former players of the sport themselves, and coaches of professional sports teams are sometimes retired players.
On some teams, the principal coach (usually referred to as the head coach ) has little to do with the development of details such as techniques of play or placement of players on the playing surface, leaving this to assistants while concentrating on larger issues such as recruitment and organizational development.
Successful coaches often become as well or even better-known than the athletes they coach, and in recent years[ when? ] have come to command high salaries and have agents of their own to negotiate their contracts with the teams. Often the head coach of a well-known team has his or her own radio and television programs and becomes the primary "face" associated with the team.
Both the collegiate and professional-level coaches may have contracts for millions of dollars a year. The head coach at the professional level has more time to devote to tactics and playbooks, which are combed over by staff that are usually paid more than at the college level. The pro level head coaching, due to the extensive time on the road and long hours, is a very stressful job. Since the money is good at high levels, many coaches retire in their early fifties. Also, professional staffs are not limited in the number of assistants which can be hired, NCAA Division I FBS teams are limited to nine full-time assistant coaches.
Many factors are part of NFL coaches' contracts. These involve the NFL's $11 billion as the highest-revenue sport in North America, topping Major League Baseball's (MLB) $7 billion, while holding a non-taxpaying exemption that the MLB does not. The unusual distinction of being a tax-exempt multibillion-dollar corporation and a tax-exempt monopoly [ when? ] in the top spot for the second year in a row with no MLB or National Hockey League coaches making the list.that can move teams from one city to another, is combined with stadiums sometimes built through tax-free borrowing by the cities, which every American taxpayer pays for in public subsidies. The NFL's coaches are the highest-paid professional coaches with professional football topping the list in Forbes' highest-paid sports coaches. Bill Belichick was
Another major element of NFL coaches' contracts, negotiated between individual coaches and NFL "teams" and owners, are NFL-demanded provisions in the coaches' employment contracts, that authorize the employing NFL teams to withhold part of a coach's salary when league operations are suspended, such as during lockouts or television contract negotiations.
“Emotions can be considered complex interactive entities encompassing subjective and objective factors consisting of affective, cognitive, conative, and physiological components” (Communication Research Trends, 2005). Without emotion, communication would be inefficient. Emotions provide context and reason of the way individuals feel after a specific situation related to communication. “Emotions can play an important role in how we think and behave.”Decisions are made from emotions and emotions can directly reflect the communication within experiences. “Athletes’ expressions of dissent are largely unrecognized, which limits coaches’ abilities to manage their teams and athletes’ abilities to voice themselves effectively” . Coaching a sports team can be a highly emotional experience due to the high pressure of success. Fans rely on the athletes for success; however, the fans highly explain the absence of success on the coaching staff. When a team is unsuccessful, fans blame the coaching staff because they are the management of the team. Coaching is also highly emotional due to emotions of athletes. Coaching is a high demand profession in which focuses directly on communication. Coaching would be impossible without communication. Clear and concise communication is needed to effectively engage with athletes and express actions. Concise communication is needed in coaching sports’ teams to effectively discuss direction of tasks. This can be an emotional process because athletes correspond differently to different communication styles. Coaching is an emotional experience because you must worry about not only your own emotions but also the athletes’ emotions. Emotions can be segregated between positive and negative and those can subsequently have a positive or negative outcome on the coaching environment. Emotions are used every day and provide feelings as well as a form of communication. There are many forms of emotions within communication; however, coaches focus on positive and negative emotions, verbal and nonverbal emotions and communication to interact with athletes to promote success. Coaches express positive emotion to promote motivation among athletes. Many of the positive emotions expressed by athletes and coaches can be expressed but hard to define as a coach have to focus on limiting the negative emotions and showing up for his player positive emotions that will help him compete and not feel any lack of confidence & self esteem. While there are hundreds of positive emotions, positive emotions such as gratitude, interest, hope, pride, and inspiration are all emotions expressed by coaches and athletes.
“Gratitude is a feeling of appreciation felt by and/or similar positive response shown by the recipient of kindness, gifts, help, favors, or other types of generosity, towards the giver of such gifts”. Gratitude can be a positive emotion expressed by coaches by the act of generosity towards players. Ohio State University football team uses stickers on the players’ helmets as a form of success. According to ESPN, “Every team member, however, receives a buckeye for each OSU win, plus an additional sticker for Big Ten victories.” Ohio State University football coaches use the emotion, gratitude, by expressing generosity by giving stickers (gifts) and feelings of appreciation toward athletes.
Interest is an emotion that causes attention to focus on a specific object and generates curiosity. The curiosity imposed by interest not only is the state of attention; it is rather a state of attraction. Attention drawn to a something specific can be described as interest. An interest is curiosity or desire in something specific. For example, a coach of a sports team may have interest in his athletes by caring for them on and off the field. Coaches monitor athlete’s performance off the field in areas such as school and personal lives. The balance is important for a coach to maintain because the coaches being too involved would create conflict and interference with the athletes’ personal lives. Coaches express interest in athletes through recruiting as well. Expressing interest in an athlete at a college level involves the coaches reaching out to the athlete and expressing interest for the athlete to join their program.
Hope derives from human emotion and comes from comfort and security. The emotion of hope is when an individual believes in something in which is yet to be determined. For example, a coach may have hope in his athletes in that they perform to their best ability. “I hope he catches this ball to score the touchdown”. An athlete may also experience the emotion hope. An athlete may hope for success in relation to their future. Hope is an emotion in which describes the individual's aspirations for future endeavors. Coaches’ hope for the team can positively affect the direction and mentality of a team.
Pride is an emotion in which an individual may feel accomplished and happy. Pride usually comes after some sort of success. The feeling of pride comes from a sense of achievement. A coach may experience pride within himself or with his athletes after winning an important game. The emotion of pride is often frowned upon, regarding religion; however, pride is important in coaching because the athletes should feel appreciated and wanted from the coach therefore causing a sense of pride. Being prideful in coaching is more about the team being successful opposed to the coach himself. Pride as an emotion can be described as a key component to a successful coaching strategy.
Inspiration is an emotion that describes the feeling of wanting to be better. Inspiration usually comes after great success. For example, after a very successful season, a team may be inspired to be better than the previous season. A coach may be inspired by his athletes because they have challenged him to be better as well. Coaching is the primary responsibility and focus for the success of the team. For a coach to be highly successful, he or she must inspire his athletes to be great. Inspiration is an emotion in which you feel the desire to accomplish set goals.
Coaching courses and training seminars are increasingly available. One important role of coaches, especially youth coaches, is establishing safety for school-age athletes. This requires knowledge of CPR, prevention of dehydration, and following current concussion management guidelines.
Coaches also often create game plans, or instructions for what their players will do during the game. For every sport, there are different game plans.For example, in association football, the coach may choose to have a goalkeeper, four defenders, four midfielders, and two forwards. However, a coach may also choose to have a goalkeeper, four defenders, three midfielders, and three forwards. It is up to the coaches to decide how many players will play a certain position at a time, as long as they do not surpass the maximum number of players allowed on the playing field at one time. It is also up to the coaches to decide where and when a certain player is going to play.
Harry Peter "Bud" Grant Jr. is a former head coach and player of American football, Canadian football, and a former basketball player in the NBA. Grant served as the head coach of the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League (NFL) for eighteen seasons; he was the team's second (1967–83) and fourth (1985) head coach. Before coaching the Vikings, he was the head coach of the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League (CFL) for ten seasons, winning the Grey Cup four times. Grant is the most successful coach in Vikings history, and the third most successful professional football coach overall, with a combined 290 wins in the NFL and CFL. Grant was elected to the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1983 and to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1994. He was the first coach in the history of professional football to guide teams to the Grey Cup and the Super Bowl.
A head coach, senior coach, or manager is a professional at training and developing athletes. They typically hold a more public profile and are paid more than other coaches. In some sports, the head coach is instead called the "manager", as in association football and professional baseball. In other sports such as Australian rules football, the head coach is generally termed a senior coach.
A general manager is an executive who has overall responsibility for managing both the revenue and cost elements of a company's income statement, known as profit & loss (P&L) responsibility. A general manager usually oversees most or all of the firm's marketing and sales functions as well as the day-to-day operations of the business. Frequently, the general manager is responsible for effective planning, delegating, coordinating, staffing, organizing, and decision making to attain desirable profit making results for an organization.
In sports, a farm team, farm system, feeder team, practice squad, or nursery club, is generally a team or club whose role is to provide experience and training for young players, with an agreement that any successful players can move on to a higher level at a given point. This system can be implemented in many ways, both formally and informally.
An exhibition game is a sporting event whose prize money and impact on the player's or the team's rankings is either zero or otherwise greatly reduced. In team sports, matches of this type are often used to help coaches and managers select and condition players for the competitive matches of a league season or tournament. If the players usually play in different teams in other leagues, exhibition games offer an opportunity for the players to learn to work with each other. The games can be held between separate teams or between parts of the same team.
Kenneth Francis Jackett is a former professional footballer and manager of Portsmouth in League One.
John Rauch, also known by his nickname Johnny Rauch, was an American football player and coach. He was head coach of the Oakland Raiders in the team's loss to the Green Bay Packers in Super Bowl II in 1968.
Thomas Jesse Fears was an American football split end for the Los Angeles Rams in the National Football League (NFL), playing nine seasons from 1948 to 1956. He was later an NFL assistant coach and head coach of the New Orleans Saints, and is in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. He played college football for the UCLA Bruins football team and is a member of the College Football Hall of Fame.
A player-coach is a member of a sports team who simultaneously holds both playing and coaching duties. A player-coach may be a head coach or an assistant coach. They may make changes to the squad and also play on the team.
NFL Head Coach is a National Football League video game that was released on June 20, 2006 for the PlayStation 2, Xbox and PC. The game allows the player to control an NFL team and become the greatest coach in NFL history. It features then-Pittsburgh Steelers head coach Bill Cowher on the cover.
In association football, a manager is an occupation of head coach in the United Kingdom responsible for running a football club or a national team. Outside the British Isles and across most of Europe, a title of head coach or coach is predominant.
In college athletics in the United States, recruiting is the process in which college coaches add prospective student athletes to their roster each off-season. This process typically culminates in a coach extending an athletic scholarship offer to a player who is about to be a junior in high school or higher. There are instances, mostly at lower division universities, where no athletic scholarship can be awarded and where the player pays for tuition, housing, and textbook costs out of pocket or from financial aid. During this recruiting process, schools must comply with rules that define who may be involved in the recruiting process, when recruiting may occur and the conditions under which recruiting may be conducted. Recruiting rules seek, as much as possible, to control intrusions into the lives of prospective student-athletes. The NCAA defines recruiting as “any solicitation of prospective student-athletes or their parents by an institutional staff member or by a representative of the institution’s athletics interests for the purpose of securing a prospective student-athlete’s enrollment and ultimate participation in the institution’s intercollegiate athletics program."
Positive Coaching Alliance (PCA) is a national non-profit organization with the mission to transform the culture of youth sports so that youth athletes can have a positive, character-building experience. PCA achieves its goals primarily by providing training workshops to coaches, parents, and administrators of schools and youth sports organizations in the United States. Founded in 1998, PCA has conducted more than 10,000 workshops for more than 1,700 schools and youth sports organizations, affecting more than 4.5 million youth and high school athletes. PCA Founder and Chief Executive Officer Jim Thompson launched PCA in 1998 within the Stanford University Athletic Department after seeing a "win-at-all-cost" mentality in youth sports while coaching his son's baseball team. Positive Coaching Alliance was created with the mission to "transform youth sports so sports can transform youth." Its mission statement has since been modified to "Better Athletes, Better People."
The National Football League (NFL) was founded in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) with ten teams from four states, all of whom existed in some form as participants of regional leagues in their respective territories; it took on its current name in 1922. The NFL was the first professional football league to successfully establish a nationwide presence, after several decades of failed attempts. Only two teams currently in the NFL, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, are founding members. The Green Bay Acme Packers, founded in 1919 are the oldest NFL franchise within continuous operation in the same location.
Great Britain Academy 1998-2002 England Academy 2004 & 2006 England School Boys 2003 Welsh National Team for European Nations 2005 England Rugby League, Federation Shield winners 2006 France Rugby League Elite Coach Mentor 2010-2011 Rugby Football League National Player Develop Manager Head Coach Russian Rugby League 2012
Sports communication is an aspect of communication studies which specializes in the study of communication in a sports setting. It can encompass the study of interpersonal and organizational communication between participants within a particular sport ; communication between sports participants, fans, and the media; and the way that sports are represented and communicated in the media. Sports communication is something that happens at all levels of ranging from kindergarten to the college level and is not restricted to professionals. It happens on a constant basis and works best with people that are willing to work collectively as a team. If everyone is on board with positive thoughts and communication, it becomes very dismantling to the person receiving the message. It is not only for positive talk, though, because negative sports communication happens all the time.
Gerard Anthony Palmieri is an American football strength and conditioning coach. Palmieri most recently served on Tom Coughlin’s staff for the New York Giants, a position he served in for 12 seasons. During those years, the Giants won Super Bowl XLII and Super Bowl XLVI. Palmieri was also on Tom Coughlin’s staff with the Jacksonville Jaguars from 1995 to 2002 when their teams competed in two AFC Championship Games. Palmieri spent 2003 as an assistant strength & conditioning coach for the New Orleans Saints. Prior to his NFL career he held head strength coach positions at Boston College from 1993 to 1994, where he served under Tom Coughlin and Dan Henning respectively, and at Kansas State from 1987 to 1992 where he was a part of the Bill Snyder transformation of the team. Palmieri began his strength & conditioning career as a part-time strength coach while he earned his master's degree at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1982 to 1983, and then an assistant strength & conditioning coach at Oklahoma State University from 1984 to 1986.
Athlete Ally is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization that believes sport will change the world when it welcomes and empowers all people. As a leading national nonprofit working at the intersection of sport and LGBTQ equality, Athlete Ally works to end the structural and systemic oppression that isolates, excludes and endangers LGBTQ people in sport. The organization educates individuals and institutions to understand obstacles to inclusion for LGBTQ people and how they can build an inclusive culture within their athletic communities. Athlete Ally works to ensure sport governing bodies, teams and leagues’ adopt policies that reflect the diversity of their constituents. Athlete Ally incubates athlete activism to advance LGBTQ equality in and through sport.
Western Pride Football Club is a soccer club based in Ipswich, Queensland. They participate in the Men and Women's NPL Queensland competitions, the 2nd tier of Australian football.
The Alliance of American Football (AAF) is a professional American football league founded by Charlie Ebersol and Bill Polian. It opened play on February 9, 2019, one week following the National Football League's Super Bowl LIII championship game. The AAF consists of eight centrally owned and operated teams. All teams except Salt Lake are located in cities on or south of the 35th parallel and all teams except Birmingham are located in metropolitan areas that have at least one major professional sports franchise. Of the eight teams in the league, all but Arizona and Atlanta are located in markets lacking an NFL team.