A player-coach (also playing coach, captain-coach, or player-manager) is a member of a sports team who simultaneously holds both playing and coaching duties. A player-coach may be a head coach or an assistant coach. They may make changes to the squad and also play on the team.
Very few current major professional sports teams have head coaches who are also players, though it is common for senior players to take a role in managing more junior athletes. Historically, when professional sports had less money to pay players and coaches or managers, player-coaches were more common. Likewise, where player-coaches exist today, they are more common at, but not exclusive to, the lower levels where money is less available.
The player-coach was, for many decades, a long-time fixture in professional basketball. Many notable coaches in the NBA served as player-coaches, including Bill Russell and Lenny Wilkens. This was especially true up through the 1970s, when the league was not as financially successful as it is today, and player-coaches were often used to save money. The practice fell out of favor in the 1980s (though Mike Dunleavy Sr., while an assistant coach with the Milwaukee Bucks, once came out of retirement and played several games when a rash of injuries decimated the team). Today, the collective bargaining agreement between the NBA and the players' union prohibits the use of player-coaches, in order to avoid circumventing the league's salary cap, as coaches' salaries are not counted under the cap. Therefore, if a player is to serve as a coach, he would have to receive commission from his contract as a player. The player, then, is not technically an official coach of his team but instead simply a coach in name. One example of a player in recent years who was groomed for eventual official coaching duties using this practice was Avery Johnson.
In the early days of professional American football, player-coaches were a necessity, as coaching from the sidelines at the time was not allowed under the rules of most leagues. The National Football League eventually allowed sideline coaches in the late 1920s, and they quickly became the norm. During the 1920s, legendary player-coaches in the NFL include Curly Lambeau (who played for the Green Bay Packers from 1919–1929, and served as their head coach from 1919–1949) and George Halas who held similar roles for the Chicago Bears, a team for which he was also part-owner and business manager. Jimmy Conzelman was player-coach for four teams during the 1920s. In the mid-1950s Tom Landry played defensive back while serving as defensive coordinator for the New York Giants. In the early 1970s, when Landry was coach of the Dallas Cowboys, he made running back Dan Reeves a player-coach.
In the television era, pro football evolved into a higher-impact two-platoon game, so players serving as head coaches became impractical.
More modern players have acted as player-assistant coaches in an unofficial capacity, such as journeyman quarterback Steve DeBerg, who served as an unofficial mentor for younger, more skilled arms while also serving as their backup.
With on-field playcalling a function usually assumed by the coaching staff by the dawn of the 21st century, quarterbacks such as Peyton Manning, Brett Favre and Tom Brady essentially assumed roles as on-field offensive coordinators by taking leading roles in playcalling and gameplanning.
Player-coaches in cricket are almost unheard of, although professional coaches are a relatively recent innovation and a similar role was generally filled by the team captain; this may still be the case in amateur competition. Internationally, Shane Deitz was appointed non-playing coach of Vanuatu in 2014 and, after meeting the necessary residency qualifications, made his international playing debut in 2018, at the age of 42.Similarly, former Australian international Ryan Campbell was appointed as a non-playing batting coach of Hong Kong in 2013, and after meeting the residency qualifications made his playing debut for Hong Kong in 2016, at the age of 44.
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In association football, this situation usually arises when a manager leaves a team suddenly, and the chairman has to make a quick decision to appoint someone new as a caretaker manager. The chairman will usually either ask a coach to take temporary charge or turn to one of the club's most senior players. If this particular player gains good results for the team during his time in charge, he may be appointed full-time manager, which leaves him a player–manager. However, there are instances when a free agent is appointed by a new team as a manager and offers his playing abilities.
Notable football player–managers include Kenny Dalglish (Liverpool), Graeme Souness (Rangers), Glenn Hoddle (Swindon Town and Chelsea), Bryan Robson (Middlesbrough), Peter Reid (Manchester City), Ruud Gullit (Chelsea) and Gianluca Vialli (Chelsea).Dalglish won a double of the league title and FA Cup in his first season as player-manager, and continued to win two more league titles and an FA Cup before retiring from playing completely five years after becoming manager. Souness won three Scottish league titles and several cup competitions when he was player-manager of Rangers. He then succeeded Dalglish as Liverpool manager just before Rangers won another Scottish league title, but at the age of 38 he did not register himself as a player for Liverpool. In 1997, Ruud Gullit won the FA Cup with Chelsea in his first season as player-manager, also making history by being the first foreign and non-white manager to win a major trophy in English football. He was sacked nine months later, and Chelsea appointed another player-manager (Gianluca Vialli) in his place. Within weeks of taking over, Vialli guided Chelsea to victory in the League Cup, and two months after that, they won the European Cup Winners' Cup.
A number of bigger clubs have appointed player-managers on a temporary basis but not given them permanent contracts. Notable cases include Ossie Ardiles (Tottenham Hotspur) in 1987 and Dave Watson (Everton) a decade later, although Ardiles later returned to Tottenham as manager in 1993 after managing three other clubs. During the first decade of the 21st century, however, the concept gradually fell into almost total disuse and was normally only practiced by smaller clubs.In March 2013, a BBC Sport article suggested that the concept of having a player-manager had gone out of fashion, with only two clubs in the English professional leagues using player-managers at that time.
The chief executive of the League Managers Association stated his belief that the increased workload for managers made combining the two roles difficult. The last permanent player-manager in the top flight of English football was Gianluca Vialli, who retired from playing in 1999 when he was the manager of Chelsea.The governing bodies have also imposed requirements for managers to hold professional coaching qualifications, which few players obtain before retiring.
There have been four player-managers in the Premier League since 2000: Stuart McCall, who managed two Bradford City games on an interim basis in late 2000, Garry Monk, who was appointed interim player-manager of Swansea City in February 2014, after their manager, Michael Laudrup, was sacked, and Leon Britton who also became player-manager of Swansea City after the sacking of Paul Clement.Ryan Giggs was appointed player-coach at Manchester United by David Moyes on 4 July 2013 and Giggs served as interim player-manager until the appointment of Louis van Gaal on 9 May 2014 as manager following Moyes' dismissal. On the 6 May 2014, in what turned out to be his final game as a player, Ryan Giggs substituted himself on against Hull in the closing minutes at the age of 40.
As of 2019, Vincent Kompany serves as player-manager for RSC Anderlecht.
While no Major League Baseball (MLB) team has been led by a player-manager since 1986, they were once common. Cap Anson, Connie Mack, John McGraw, Ty Cobb, Tris Speaker, Joe Cronin, Mickey Cochrane, Solly Hemus, Lou Boudreau, Joe Torre, and Frank Robinson are among those who spent time as player-managers. In this capacity, Robinson became the first African-American manager in MLB history when he was named the Cleveland Indians' player-manager in 1975. Fred Clarke spent the longest time as a major league player-manager, serving as such for the Louisville Colonels from 1897 to 1899 and the Pittsburgh Pirates from 1900 to 1915.
The most recent player-manager in MLB was Pete Rose, who, upon being traded from the Montreal Expos to the Cincinnati Reds in August 1984, was immediately named the Reds' manager.Rose managed and served as a backup infielder until the end of the 1986 season, when he retired as a player. (He continued to manage the Reds until 1989 when he was suspended indefinitely by MLB for gambling on baseball.)
In 2011, Chicago White Sox general manager Kenny Williams said that he considered hiring veteran first baseman Paul Konerko as a player-manager to replace departing manager Ozzie Guillén. Williams instead hired retired player Robin Ventura for the position.
In their final game of the 2016 season, the Miami Marlins allowed Martin Prado to serve as player-manager. Prado started the game at third base and played for three innings before taking himself out of the game.
MLB rules are different for trips to the mound by the manager if he is a player-manager (this is with regard to being required to change pitchers after two visits). A player-manager places himself into or out of the lineup just as he would any other player.
Sir Kenneth Mathieson Dalglish is a Scottish former football player and manager. During his career, he made 322 appearances for Celtic and 502 for Liverpool and earned a record 102 full caps for the Scotland national team scoring 30 goals, also a joint-record. Dalglish won the Ballon d'Or Silver Award in 1983, the PFA Players' Player of the Year in 1983, and the FWA Footballer of the Year in 1979 and 1983. In 2009, FourFourTwo named Dalglish the greatest striker in post-war British football, and in 2006, he topped a Liverpool fans' poll of "100 Players Who Shook the Kop". He has been inducted into both the Scottish and English Football Halls of Fame.
In association footballing terms, a caretaker manager is somebody who takes temporary charge of the management of a football club, usually when the regular manager is dismissed, or leaves for a different club. However, a caretaker may also be appointed if the regular manager is suspended, ill or unable to attend to their usual duties. Caretaker managers are normally appointed at short notice from within the club, usually the assistant manager, a senior coach, or an experienced player.
Ryan Joseph Giggs is a Welsh football coach and former player. He is the manager of the Wales national team and a co-owner of Salford City. Giggs played his entire professional career for Manchester United and briefly served as the club's interim manager after the sacking of David Moyes in April 2014.
Gianluca Vialli is an Italian former football manager and player who played as a striker. Since retiring, he has gone into management, punditry and worked previously as a commentator for Sky Sport Italia.
The 1997–98 FA Premier League was the sixth season of the FA Premier League. It saw Arsenal lift their first league title since 1991 and, in so doing, became only the second team to win 'The Double' for the second time.
Raymond Colin Wilkins, was an English football player and coach.
Stephen Clarke is a Scottish professional football manager and former player who is the manager of the Scotland national team.
Vincent Jean Mpoy Kompany is a retired Belgian professional footballer who played as a centre back and is currently the manager of Belgian club RSC Anderlecht. He also played for the Belgium national team.
Thomas Burns was a Scottish professional football player and manager. He is best known for his long association with Celtic, where he was a player, manager and coach.
Raymond Lewington is an English retired footballer and current assistant manager of Crystal Palace FC. Previously he was the assistant manager of the England national football team. His son, Dean, is a professional footballer playing for Milton Keynes Dons.
Graham Cyril Rix is an English former professional footballer player who later became a manager.
Nicholas Vincent "Nick" Colgan is an Irish former professional footballer who played as a goalkeeper. He is currently the goalkeeping coach at Wigan Athletic.
Jody Steven Morris is an English football coach and former player. As a midfielder he played for Chelsea, Leeds United, Rotherham United, Millwall, St Johnstone and Bristol City. He is currently the assistant manager of Premier League club Chelsea.
Edward John Ikem Newton is an English former professional footballer who currently manages Turkish side Trabzonspor. He was assistant head coach at Premier League side Chelsea to manager Roberto Di Matteo before the latter was replaced by Rafael Benítez. In December 2015 he was reappointed as assistant manager to interim manager Guus Hiddink.
Earl Mark Sean Stein, more commonly known as Mark Stein, is an English former footballer. Born in South Africa, he moved to England with his family as a child.
Kevin Hitchcock is an English former professional footballer and coach.
Dmitri Viktorovich Kharine (Russian: Дмитрий Викторович Харин, is a Russian former professional footballer and goalkeeping coach of National League South side Hemel Hempstead Town.
Gabriele Ambrosetti is an Italian football manager and former player, who played as a winger.
Simon Ithel Davies is a former professional footballer who played as a midfielder. He is currently part of the coaching set-up at Anderlecht, briefly managing the club in 2019.
Terry Byrne is an English businessman and a director of various companies connected to football that are active in the United Kingdom and the United States. Since 2010, he has been the vice-chairman of the revived New York Cosmos, the soccer club hoping to gain entry into Major League Soccer during the next expansion window.