The captain of a cricket team, often referred to as the skipper,is the appointed leader, having several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of the other players. As in other sports, the captain is usually experienced and has good communication skills, and is likely to be one of the most regular members of the team, as the captain is responsible for the team selection. Before the game the captains toss for innings. During the match the captain decides the team's batting order, who will bowl each over, and where each fielder will be positioned. While the captain has the final say, decisions are often collaborative. A captain's knowledge of the complexities of cricket strategy and tactics, and shrewdness in the field, may contribute significantly to the team's success.
Due to the smaller coaching/management role played out by support staff, as well as the need for greater on-field decision-making, the captain of a cricket team typically shoulders more responsibility for results than team captains in other sports.
Starting from team selection and then toss Before the start of a match the home captain tosses a coin and the away captain calls heads or tails. The captain who wins the toss is given the choice of whether to bat or bowl first.The decision usually depends on the condition of the pitch and whether it is likely to deteriorate, the weather conditions and the weather forecast.
The decision also depends on the relative strengths of the team's batting and bowling. For instance in Test cricket, a side with only fast bowlers may choose to bowl first to try to take advantage of any early moisture in the pitch, knowing that it will be harder to take wickets later in the match. Similarly a side with a weak opening batting pair may choose to bowl first in order to protect their batsmen.
The captain decides where the fielders will stand, in consultation with the bowler and sometimes other senior players. The fielding positions will usually be dictated by the type of bowler, the batsman's batting style, and the captain's assessment of the state of the match (and hence whether to set an attacking or a defensive field).
The captain decides when each bowler will bowl. If a batsman is seeking to dominate the current bowler, the captain may ask someone else to bowl; alternatively, keeping the bowler on may be deemed the best chance of getting the batsman out or restricting the scoring rate. If the regular bowlers are not achieving the desired results, the captain may decide to use non-regular bowlers to attempt to unsettle the batsmen. The captain may also change the bowlers around to introduce variation, and to prevent the batsmen getting "set".
In limited overs cricket the captain additionally has to make certain that bowlers bowl no more than their allotted maximum number of overs, and that experienced bowlers are available at the end of the batting side's innings, when the batsmen are usually looking to take risks to attack and score quickly.
In the longer forms of cricket, when a new ball becomes available the captain decides whether to use it.
When the team bats, the captain decides the batting order. In professional cricket the captain usually changes the established batting order only for exceptional reasons, because batsmen tend to specialise in batting at certain positions. However, in certain circumstances it may be in the team's interest to change the batting order. If quick runs are needed, a naturally attacking batsman may be promoted up the order. A player who is 'in form' may be promoted to a higher batting position, at the expense of a player who is 'out of form'.
If a wicket falls near the end of a day's play, especially if the light is failing, or if the bowlers seem particularly confident, the captain may choose to send in a non-specialist batsman, referred to as a nightwatchman. If the nightwatchman does not get out before the end of that day's play then the specialist batsman will have been protected, and will not need to bat until the following day when conditions are likely to have improved. If the nightwatchman does get out, the cost of losing a late wicket will have been minimised, because the specialist batsman is still available to bat.
The captain may declare the team's innings closed at any time, but usually only does so as an attacking ploy, for instance if the captain thinks the team has enough runs to win the match, or if a sudden change in conditions has made it advantageous to bowl rather than bat.
In a two-innings match, if the situation arises the captain decides whether to impose the follow-on.
The captain is also consulted on whether an injured batsman from the opposing team may use a runner when batting. Permission is usually given if the batsman has become injured during the course of the match, but if the batsman was carrying the injury at the start of the match then the captain may refuse. (As of 2012, runners are not allowed in Test cricket and injured batsmen are required to continue batting with the injury or retire hurt.)
As well as decisions taken either immediately before or during a match, captains also often have some responsibility for the good running of the cricket club. For instance, they may decide when the team is to practise, and for how long. In professional cricket the captain often has some say in who will form the squad from which teams are selected, and may also decide how young up-and-coming players are to be encouraged and improved, and how members of the squad who are not regularly selected for first-team matches are to gain match practice.
Prior to July 2015, the captain was responsible for deciding when to take batting and bowling powerplays in limited overs matches.
The captain may be assisted by a vice-captain or in some instances joint vice-captains. This is particularly useful if the captain is forced to leave the field of play during fielding. Some teams also allocate the vice-captain a more or less formal role in assisting with team selection, discipline, field-setting and so on. Sometimes the role of vice-captain is seen as preparation for the player(s) becoming the captain of the side in future.
|Afghanistan||Test||Hashmatullah Shahidi||Rahmat Shah|
|T20I||Mohammad Nabi||Najibullah Zadran|
|Australia||Test||Pat Cummins||Steve Smith|
|ODI||Aaron Finch||Pat Cummins|
|Bangladesh||Test||Mominul Haque||Litton Das|
|ODI||Eoin Morgan||Jos Buttler|
|India||Test||Rohit Sharma||KL Rahul|
|Ireland||Test||Andrew Balbirnie||Paul Stirling|
|New Zealand||Test||Kane Williamson||Tom Latham|
|Pakistan||Test||Babar Azam||Mohammad Rizwan|
|South Africa||Test||Dean Elgar||Temba Bavuma|
|ODI||Temba Bavuma||Keshav Maharaj|
|Sri Lanka||Test||Dimuth Karunaratne||Dhananjaya de Silva|
|West Indies||Test||Kraigg Brathwaite||Jermaine Blackwood|
|ODI||Nicholas Pooran||Shai Hope|
|Zimbabwe||Test||Sean Williams||Regis Chakabva|
|Bahrain||Al Amin Shehzad|
|Belgium||Shaheryar Butt||Nemish Mehta|
|Cayman Islands||Ronald Ebanks|
|Costa Rica||Christopher Prasad|
|Czech Republic||Arun Ashokan|
|Hong Kong||Aizaz Khan||Kinchit Shah|
|Isle of Man||Matthew Ansell|
|Malaysia||Ahmed Faiz||Virandeep Singh|
|Namibia||Gerhard Erasmus||David Wiese|
|Netherlands||Pieter Seelaar||Ben Cooper|
|Nigeria||Joshua Ayannaike||Dotun Olatunji|
|Papua New Guinea||Assad Vala|
|Qatar||Iqbal Hussain||Mohammed Rizlan|
|Saudi Arabia||Shoaib Ali|
|Scotland||Kyle Coetzer||Richie Berrington|
|Sierra Leone||Lansana Lamin|
|Singapore||Amjad Mahboob||Tim David|
|South Korea||Kyungsik Kim|
|United Arab Emirates||Mohammad Naveed|
|United States||Monank Patel||Steven Taylor|
|Australia||Test||Meg Lanning||Rachael Haynes|
|Bangladesh||Test||Nigar Sultana||Rumana Ahmed|
|England||Test||Heather Knight||Nat Sciver|
|India||Test||Mithali Raj||Harmanpreet Kaur|
|T20I||Harmanpreet Kaur||Smriti Mandhana|
|Ireland||Test||Laura Delany||Mary Waldron|
|New Zealand||Test||Sophie Devine||Amy Satterthwaite|
|Pakistan||Test||Bismah Maroof||Javeria Khan|
|South Africa||Test||Suné Luus||Chloe Tryon|
|Sri Lanka||Test||Chamari Athapaththu||Harshitha Madavi|
|West Indies||Test||Stafanie Taylor||Hayley Matthews|
|Zimbabwe||Test||Mary-Anne Musonda||Josephine Nkomo|
|Brazil||Roberta Moretti Avery|
|Hong Kong||Kary Chan|
|Namibia||Irene van Zyl|
|Nepal||Rubina Chhetri||Sita Rana Magar|
|Papua New Guinea||Kaia Arua|
|Western Samoa||Regina Lili'i|
|Sierra Leone||Linda Bull|
|South Korea||Inyeong Oh|
|Thailand||Naruemol Chaiwai||Nannapat Koncharoenkai|
|United Arab Emirates||Chaya Mughal|
|United States||Sindhu Sriharsha|
In the game of cricket, the cricket pitch consists of the central strip of the cricket field between the wickets. It is 22 yd (20.12 m) long and 10 ft (3.05 m) wide. The surface is flat and is normally covered with extremely short grass, but can be completely dry or dusty soil with barely any grass or, in some circumstances, made from an artificial material. Over the course of a cricket match, the pitch is not repaired or altered other than in special circumstances - meaning that it will change condition. Any grass on the pitch in the game's first over, for example, may have disappeared by the twentieth over due to wear.
This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are also defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding (cricket).
An all-rounder is a cricketer who regularly performs well at both batting and bowling. Although all bowlers must bat and quite a handful of batsmen do bowl occasionally, most players are skilled in only one of the two disciplines and are considered specialists. Some wicket-keepers have the skills of a specialist batsman and have been referred to as all-rounders, but the term wicket-keeper-batsman is more commonly applied to them, even if they are substitute wicket keepers who also bowl.
Cricket is a sport that generates a variety of statistics.
In cricket, an extra is a run scored by, or awarded to, a batting team which is not credited to any individual batsman. They are the runs scored by methods other than striking the ball with the bat.
In cricket, a dismissal occurs when a batsman's period of batting is brought to an end by the opposing team. It is also known as the batsman being out, the batting side losing a wicket, and the fielding side taking a wicket. The ball becomes dead, and the dismissed batsman must leave the field of play permanently for the rest of their team's innings, and is replaced by a teammate. A team's innings ends if 10 of the 11 team members are dismissed—as players bat in pairs, when only one player is not out it is not possible for the team to bat any longer. This is known as bowling out the batting team, who are said to be all out.
In the sport of cricket, a nightwatchman is a lower-order batsman who comes in to bat higher up the order than usual near the end of the day's play. The nightwatchman's job is to maintain most of the strike until the close of play and so protect other, more capable batsmen from being out cheaply in what may be a period of tiredness or in poor light at the end of the day, and then again the following morning when the batsmen have not yet ‘got their eye in', or when the early-morning conditions may favour the bowlers. The theory is that losing two top-order batsmen in quick succession would be worse than losing one top-order batsman and a tailender.
In 1984 the West Indies cricket team toured England, playing three One Day Internationals and five Tests. West Indies beat England 2–1 in the ODI series, then whitewashed England 5–0 in the Test series, and as of 2021 remain the only touring side ever to have achieved this feat. The West Indies team was captained by Clive Lloyd throughout, and England by David Gower.
The Indian cricket team toured England in the 1974 English domestic cricket season. After matches against many of county cricket and other minor teams, in April and May, the Indian team played three Test matches and two One-day Internationals against the England cricket team. The tour was a total disaster for the Indian cricket team with England winning all five of the matches.
The West Indies cricket team toured England in the 2000 cricket season. West Indies played five Tests against England - two in June and three in August - with a triangular One Day International (ODI) series involving Zimbabwe in July.
The Indian cricket team toured Zimbabwe between 15–25 October 1992. The series was played as a prelude for India's tour of South Africa, and included just one Test match and one One Day International (ODI).
The Sri Lankan cricket team toured South Africa from 9 December 2011 to 22 January 2012. The tour included three Tests and five One Day Internationals (ODIs) between Sri Lanka and South Africa.
The South African national cricket team toured Zimbabwe in November 1999 and played a single Test match against the Zimbabwean national cricket team. The tour took place immediately after Zimbabwe had visited South Africa to play their first Test match in the country with only a fortnight separating the matches. South Africa had previously played one Test match in Zimbabwe in 1995 and had visited the country to play a single One Day International in 1992 soon after the end of the apartheid era sporting boycott of South Africa, although sides from Zimbabwe and Rhodesia had previously played in South African domestic cricket competitions, including during the apartheid era.
The Pakistan national cricket team toured Bangladesh from 29 November to 21 December 2011. The tour consisted of one Twenty20 International (T20I), three One Day Internationals (ODIs) and two Test matches, all of which were won by Pakistan.
The Australia national cricket team toured India between 10 October to 2 November 2013, playing a Twenty20 International match and seven-match One Day International series against India. Due to an ongoing back injury, Australian captain Michael Clarke was replaced by Callum Ferguson and George Bailey captained the side. During the second ODI match, all of the first five Australian batsmen made a score of fifty or more, a feat which no side had previously done. In the second match, India chased down the target of 360 runs to win, making this the second highest run-chase to win an ODI game. Two weeks later in the sixth match, India again chased down the Australian total of 350 runs to record the third highest run-chase to win a game. Coincidentally, all three highest run chases had come against Australia. In the seventh and final match, Indian batsman Rohit Sharma became the third man to make a double-century in ODI cricket, when he scored 209 from 158 balls. His innings included 16 sixes, the most in an ODI innings beating the previous record of 15 held by Australian cricketer Shane Watson. The record was later broken by England's Eoin Morgan who hit 17 sixes against Afghanistan in 2019.
In the 1982–83 cricket season, the Sri Lankan national cricket team toured to India to play the Indian national cricket team. The tour included one Test match. That match was drawn. Three players scored centuries; Duleep Mendis scored 105 in both Sri Lankan innings, and Sunil Gavaskar and Sandeep Patil scored 155 and 144 respectively, both in India's first innings. Three players took a five-wicket haul in the game; Dilip Doshi took five wickets for 85 runs in Sri Lanka's first innings, Kapil Dev took five wickets for 110 runs and Ashantha de Mel took five wickets for 68 runs.
The South African cricket team toured India from 29 September to 7 December 2015. The tour consisted of four Test matches, five One Day International (ODI) and three Twenty20 International (T20I) matches. This was the first time a four-match Test series between the two nations has been played in India and the first time that South Africa played a T20I against India in India. India won the Test series while South Africa won both the ODI and T20I series.
In cricket, a session is a period of play during which overs are played continuously until a break in play is called.
This article contains information, results and statistics regarding the Australian national cricket team in the 2016 and 2016–17 cricket seasons. Statisticians class the 2016–17 season as matches played between May 2016 and April 2017.