In cricket, the batting order is the sequence in which batters play through their team's innings, there always being two batters taking part at any one time. All eleven players in a team are required to bat if the innings is completed (i.e., if the innings does not close early due to a declaration or other factor).
The batting order is colloquially subdivided into:[ citation needed ]
The order in which the eleven players will bat is usually established before the start of a cricket match, but may be altered during play. The decision is based on factors such as each player's specialities; the position each batter is most comfortable with; each player's skills and attributes as a batter; possible combinations with other batters; and the match situation whereby, for example, the team may require a more defensive or attacking player at that point in the innings. Also, a middle order batter in Tests may open for ODIs and Twenty20 due to their aggressive approach to the game.
The captain of the team can change the batting order during the game at his or her discretion. They can even change the batting line-up from one game to another in a tournament or series. There are no rules about the nature or number of changes made and, if more than one innings is played, the order used in each need not be the same. It has even been known for a captain to completely reverse his batting order for the second innings after following on. This has made it possible for a bowler to take a hat-trick across three consecutive overs of a match, including the same batsman twice.
There are various reasons why the captain might make a change from the established order. Usually, however, captains and coaches prefer not to adjust the batting order unless necessary, as for example when South Africa moved Imran Tahir up the order against India because the South African top 7 batsmen were poor against spin bowlers, a plan which backfired spectacularly.In 2017, Faf du Plessis, who returned to the side as Test Captain after paternity leave, decided to make many changes to the batting lineup before the second test against England after being handed a heavy defeat. Du Plessis replaced JP Duminy at no. 5, and moved Quinton de Kock from 5 to 4 (de Kock already moved from no. 7 to 5 between the 1st and 2nd innings of the first Test), and due to the suspension of Kagiso Rabada due to demerit points, so Duanne Olivier replaced him, Philander moved up a spot to no. 7, while Theunis de Bruyn was replaced by Chris Morris at no. 8.
If the state of the game requires runs to be scored quickly, a captain will often promote a batter who is known to score quickly up the order. This is usually a lower-order batter, as their wicket is not regarded as being so valuable. A batter who is promoted up the order with the intention of scoring quick runs is called a pinch hitter or slogger. Some examples of pinch hitters include David Miller, Mitchell Starc, Shahid Afridi & Thisara Perera.[ citation needed ]
When a wicket falls near the end of the day, a lower order (less capable) batter might be sent in to bat with the intention that the more capable players will be held in reserve until the next morning. The more capable players are then not exposed to the risk of dismissal while tired or in low-light conditions. The batter who is sent in is known as the nightwatchman. This tactic is also used because players are typically nervous and unsettled at the start of the innings before settling into their rhythm and becoming "set". Sending a specialist batter in late in the day means that he or she will have to survive one such period in the afternoon, before doing the same again after the resumption of play the next day, increasing the chance of a dismissal, so a less valuable batter is sent in instead.
However, some nightwatchmen do go on to make big scores, most notably Jason Gillespie's 201*at number three (he usually batted at nine or ten) against Bangladesh in 2006.
The opening batsmen or openers are the batters who bat first in the innings (no. 1 and 2). This position is important as the openers need to get the innings off to a good start. The early fall of wickets can have a psychological impact on the rest of the team, affecting their performance with the bat. The opening batters also get the first experience of the pitch and conditions, and must be able to adjust to them quickly.
Most importantly, the opening batters must face a new ball, which is hard and has a pronounced seam. This makes it more liable to travel fast, bounce high, seam around (i.e., bounce unpredictably off the seam) and swing (i.e., deviate sideways when travelling through the air). These early conditions favour the bowling team, so the opening batters must have considerable patience, a sound technique and be good defensively. As the ball gets older, its condition starts to favour the batting team. Therefore, the openers will ideally stay at the crease long enough to protect the batters further down the order.
In first-class cricket, the rate at which the openers score runs is not as important as "taking the shine off" the new ball. This is the process of softening and roughening the cricket ball, whose condition tends to degrade the longer it is in play. By occupying the crease for a long time and taking the shine off the ball, the openers themselves are able to score more freely later on. This also makes batting easier for the rest of the order. Because of the defensive technique required early on, openers are sometimes less fluent stroke-players than the specialist batters who follow.
In limited overs cricket, the role of opening batter is slightly different. In this type of cricket a high run rate is a necessity. Also, in the early 1990s, fielding restrictions were introduced in the early overs of the game, limiting the fielding side to only two players on the boundary. To start the innings effectively and take advantage of the fielding restrictions, it became beneficial to have an aggressive batsman opening the innings.
If an opening batter remains not out at the end of the team's innings, after all 10 other batters have been dismissed, he or she is said to have carried the bat.
The top order is defined as the batsmen batting at positions 1, 2, and 3. The batsmen who bat at positions 3, 4 and 5 in the order are sometimes the most technically proficient batsmen with the best stroke play. As they are likely to face an older ball that is easier to score runs against, they must aim to make a large number of runs. They may be exposed to the new ball if an opener loses his wicket early on and so must be equipped to deal with this scenario as well. Top and middle order batsmen must also be adaptable as they may be required to attack, consolidate or defend according to the needs of the team as the match situation develops. The world's most prolific and best recognised batsmen are generally found in the top order.
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The middle order is typically defined as the batsmen batting at positions 4, 5, 6 and 7. It usually consists of versatile batters who must continue to build an innings. The middle order batter is likely to be facing a much older ball bowled by a spin bowler and defensive technique is necessary to overcome this type of attack, but they are often also fleet-footed players who attack slow bowling by charging down the pitch. The middle order players must also be adept at making runs when playing with the poor quality batters in the lower order. This requires the ability to manipulate the strike so that the tail-enders are shielded from the more potent bowlers.
Players who are designated as an all-rounder often bat in the middle order (e.g. Garfield Sobers usually batted at number 6;by contrast, W. G. Grace always opened the innings ). wicket-keepers generally bat in the middle order as well, often at number 6 or 7 (e.g. Adam Gilchrist throughout his Test career usually batted at number 7; however he predominantly opened the batting in limited-overs cricket ). One reason for placing all-rounders and wicket-keepers in the middle-order even though they may be more skilled than those who batted above them was because such players would be tired after bowling or keeping wicket during the preceding innings. Another reason, with the trend of wicket-keepers opening the innings in limited-over cricket, batsmen at positions 6, 7 and 8 tend to be at the crease when the second new ball is due, so they can function just like an opener and know how to wear out the new ball, or play aggressively to score quick runs to chase victory or to build the innings quickly towards a declaration. It is also plausible to see substitute wicket-keepers batting at number 5 or 6.
In One Day International cricket, middle order batters are generally able to change their game depending on the conditions. If their team loses wickets early, they must be able to play a long careful innings. Conversely, if they are not required to bat until later in the game, they must be able to attempt to score quickly, often attempting to hit many fours or sixes, and if they only have a short period to bat, they are expected to be innovative and able to settle after a short period. In run-chases they are required to be good at calculating and minimising the risks needed to reach the target, by scoring at close to the rate required. If they score more quickly than is required, they run the risk of getting out and exposing the weaker, lower-order batsmen to the pressure situation, but if they score too slowly, then they fall behind schedule and the pressure again increases.
The lower order is defined as the batsmen batting at positions 8, 9, 10 and 11. It is usually made up of players who have average or poor batting skills, commonly known as tailenders (tail ender or tail-ender). These players are the team's specialist bowlers and sometimes the wicketkeeper, or even players on debut if their batting abilities are unproven because bowlers with better batting abilities, aspiring all-rounders or wicketkeepers do have a chance to move up the order over the course of their careers (notably Steve Smith moved from 7 to 3 or 4,and Ashton Agar moved from 11 to 7 in first-class cricket). However, some bowlers do establish themselves as competent lower order batters, especially at no. 8 where many bowlers become bowling all-rounders, as in the case of fast bowlers Wasim Akram and Jason Holder, both of whom have a Test double century each to their names. By the same token, opening batters could move down the order due to poor form, having a top-heavy line-up or being better suited to play against spin bowling (notably Moeen Ali moving down from an opener to no. 7, or even 8, since the 2015 Ashes series, but has since also played at 3 in 2018). Therefore, the start of the lower order may vary in position depending on the balance of the side in terms of overall batting capability. Also, given that batters in ODIs and Twenty20 need to score quickly and aggressively, an opener in limited-overs forms of the game may bat down the order in Tests.
It is likely that these batters will be dismissed for low scores. However, as expectations of these players are low when they are batting, they often play aggressive, carefree shots in the hope of scoring as many runs as possible. On occasion, the scores posted by the lower order have made a difference to the outcome of a match. If a significant contribution has come from the tail-enders, it is often said that "the tail wagged".
On occasions in which the batting team is a long way behind its opponents, the lower-order batters may attempt to salvage a draw by playing defensively until the end of the match. An example of this would be the first test in the 2009 Ashes series, in which England bowlers James Anderson and Monty Panesar were able to remain at the crease for 11.3 overs, denying Australia the chance to win the match.
The last batter in the order (at position 11) is sometimes referred to as Last Man Jack, a term that has passed into everyday parlance. This is because if the batting order were arranged as a pack of cards numbers 9 and 10 would be followed by Jack. Those batters who bat at positions 7, 8, and 9 are also known as middle–lower order batters.
Nitschke's score of 81 and Smith's 42 in the 2005 Women's Ashes in a partnership of 139 is the highest last wicket partnership in women's test cricket.
Fielding in the sport of cricket is the action of fielders in collecting the ball after it is struck by the batsman, to limit the number of runs that the batsman scores and/or to get the batsman out by catching the ball in flight or by running the batsman out. There are a number of recognised fielding positions, and they can be categorised into the offside and leg side of the field. Fielding generally involves preventing the ball from going to or over the edge of the field, and getting the ball to either wicket as quickly as possible.
In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings:
This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are also defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding (cricket).
An all-rounder is a cricketer who regularly performs well at both batting and bowling. Although all bowlers must bat and quite a handful of batsmen do bowl occasionally, most players are skilled in only one of the two disciplines and are considered specialists. Some wicket-keepers have the skills of a specialist batsman and have been referred to as all-rounders, but the term wicket-keeper-batsman is more commonly applied to them, even if they are substitute wicket keepers who also bowl.
Cricket is a sport that generates a variety of statistics.
In cricket, batting is the act or skill of hitting the ball with a bat to score runs and prevent the loss of one's wicket. Any player who is currently batting is denoted as a batsman, batswoman, or batter, regardless of whether batting is their particular area of expertise. Batting players have to adapt to various conditions when playing on different cricket pitches, especially in different countries - therefore, as well as having outstanding physical batting skills, top-level batters will have lightning reflexes, excellent decision-making and be good strategists.
In cricket, a dismissal occurs when a batsman's period of batting is brought to an end by the opposing team. It is also known as the batsman being out, the batting side losing a wicket, and the fielding side taking a wicket. The ball becomes dead, and the dismissed batsman must leave the field of play permanently for the rest of their team's innings, and is replaced by a teammate. A team's innings ends if 10 of the 11 team members are dismissed—as players bat in pairs, when only one person is undismissed it is not possible for the team to bat any longer. This is known as bowling out the batting team, who are said to be all out.
Cricket and Baseball are the best-known members of a family of related bat-and-ball games. Both have fields that are 400 feet (120 m) or more in diameter, offensive players who can hit a thrown ball out of the field and run between safe areas to score runs (points), and have a major game format lasting about 3 hours.
In the sport of cricket, two batsmen always bat in partnership, although only one is a striker at any time. The partnership between two batsmen will come to an end when one of them is dismissed or retires, or the innings comes to a close. Various statistics may be used to describe a partnership, most notably the number of runs scored during it, the duration of the partnership both in time and number of deliveries (balls) faced. Partnerships are often described as being for a particular wicket. This has the anomalous result that a partnership may be between more than two batsmen, if one of the original batsmen is retired not out, since the particular numbered wicket will not have fallen yet.
The Australian cricket team in England in 1948 was captained by Don Bradman, who was making his fourth and final tour of England. The team is famous for being the only Test match side to play an entire tour of England without losing a match. This feat earned them the nickname of "The Invincibles", and they are regarded as one of the greatest cricket teams of all time. According to the Australian federal government the team "is one of Australia's most cherished sporting legends".
Kamran Akmal is a Pakistani international cricketer, who plays for Pakistan as a right-handed batsmen & wicketkeeper. He started his international career in November 2002 with a Test match at Harare Sports Club.
The Australian cricket team toured England in 1993 aiming to retain The Ashes for a second consecutive occasion, having successfully defended them on home turf in the 1990/91 season.
Bat-and-ball games are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the action starts when the defending team throws a ball at a dedicated player of the attacking team, who tries to hit it with a bat and run between various safe areas in the field to score points, while the defending team can use the ball in various ways against the attacking team's players to prevent them from scoring when they are not in safe zones. The best known modern bat-and-ball games are cricket and baseball, with common roots in the 18th-century games played in England.
Ray Lindwall was a key member of Donald Bradman's famous Australian cricket team, which toured England in 1948. The Australians went undefeated in their 34 matches; this unprecedented feat by a Test side touring England earned them the sobriquet The Invincibles.
Ron Hamence was a member of Donald Bradman's famous Australian cricket team of 1948, which toured England and was undefeated in its 34 matches. As a result of this unprecedented feat by a Test side touring England, the team earned the nickname The Invincibles.
The First Test of the 1948 Ashes series was one of five Tests in the Ashes cricket series between Australia and England. The match was played at Trent Bridge in Nottingham from 10 to 15 June with a rest day on 13 June 1948. Australia won the match by eight wickets to take a 1–0 series lead.
Ian Johnson was a member of Donald Bradman's famous Australian cricket team, which toured England in 1948. Bradman's men went undefeated in their 34 matches; this unprecedented feat by a Test side touring England earned them the sobriquet The Invincibles.
Sam Loxton was a member of Donald Bradman's famous Australian cricket team, which toured England in 1948. Bradman's men went undefeated in their 34 matches; this unprecedented feat by a Test side touring England earned them the sobriquet The Invincibles.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of which is a 22-yard (20-metre) pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each batter. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, and by the fielding side either catching the ball after it is hit by the bat and before it hits the ground, or hitting a wicket with the ball before a batter can cross the crease in front of the wicket. When ten batters have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches.
The 2015 Ashes was a series of Test cricket matches played between England and Australia for The Ashes. The venues were Sophia Gardens (Cardiff), Lord's (London), Edgbaston (Birmingham), Trent Bridge (Nottingham), and The Oval (London). Australia were the defending holders of the Ashes going into the series, having won in 2013–14. England won the series 3–2, regaining the Ashes after taking an unassailable lead with victory in the fourth Test.