Cannes

Last updated

Cannes
Cannes - panoramio (4).jpg
Blason ville fr Cannes (Alpes-Maritimes).svg
Coat of arms
Location of Cannes
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Cannes
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'azur region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Cannes
Coordinates: 43°33′05″N7°00′46″E / 43.5513°N 7.0128°E / 43.5513; 7.0128 Coordinates: 43°33′05″N7°00′46″E / 43.5513°N 7.0128°E / 43.5513; 7.0128
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Alpes-Maritimes
Arrondissement Grasse
Canton Cannes-1 and 2
Intercommunality CA Cannes Pays de Lérins
Government
  Mayor (2014–2020) David Lisnard (LR)
Area
1
19.62 km2 (7.58 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01) [1]
75,046
  Density3,800/km2 (9,900/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
06029 /06400
Elevation0–260 m (0–853 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Cannes ( /kæn,kɑːn/ ; French:  [kan] ; Occitan : Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, and host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, and Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity. The city is known for its association with the rich and famous, its luxury hotels and restaurants, and for several conferences. On 3 November 2011 it hosted the 2011 G20 summit.

Contents

History

By the 2nd century BC, the Ligurian Oxybii established a settlement here known as Aegitna (Ancient Greek : Αἴγιτνα). [2] Historians are unsure what the name means. The area was a fishing village used as a port of call between the Lérins Islands.

Cannes seen from Spot Satellite Cannes SPOT 1160.jpg
Cannes seen from Spot Satellite

In 69 AD, it became the scene of violent conflict between the troops of Otho and Vitellius. [3]

In the 10th century, the town was known as Canua. [4] The name may derive from "canna", a reed. Canua was probably the site of a small Ligurian port, and later a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower, which overlooked swamps where the city now stands. Most of the ancient activity, especially protection, was on the Lérins Islands, and the history of Cannes is closely tied to the history of the islands.

An attack by the Saracens in 891, who remained until the end of the 10th century, devastated the country around Canua. The insecurity of the Lérins islands forced the monks to settle on the mainland, at the Suquet. Construction of a castle in 1035 fortified the city by then known as Cannes, and at the end of the 11th century construction was started on two towers on the Lérins islands. One took a century to build.

Around 1530, Cannes detached from the monks who had controlled the city for hundreds of years and became independent.

During the 18th century, both the Spanish and British tried to gain control of the Lérins Islands but were chased away by the French. The islands were later controlled by many, such as Jean-Honoré Alziary and the Bishop of Fréjus. They had many different purposes: at the end of the 19th century, one served as hospital for soldiers wounded in the Crimean War.

Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux bought land at the Croix des Gardes and constructed the villa Eleonore-Louise. His work to improve living conditions attracted the English aristocracy, who also built winter residences.

At the end of the 19th century, several railways were completed, which prompted the arrival of streetcars. In Cannes, projects such as the Boulevard Carnot and the rue d'Antibes were carried out. After the closure of the Casino des Fleurs (hôtel Gallia), a luxury establishment was built for the rich winter clientele, the Casino Municipal next to the pier Albert-Edouard. This casino was demolished and replaced by the new Palace in 1979.

In the 20th century, new luxury hotels such as the Carlton, Majestic, Martinez, and JW Marriott Cannes were built. The city was modernised with a sports centre, a post office, and schools. There were fewer British and German tourists after the First World War, but more Americans. Winter tourism gave way to summer tourism, and the summer casino at the Palm Beach was constructed.

The city council had the idea of starting an international film festival shortly before World War II. The first opened on 20 September 1946, held in the Casino Municipal.

Climate

Cannes has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa) and the city enjoys 11 hours of sunshine per day during summer (July), while in winter (December to February) the weather is mild. Both seasons see a relatively low rainfall and most rain occurs during October and November, when 110 mm (4.3 in) falls.

Cannes summers are long and warm, with summer daytime temperatures regularly hitting 30 °C (86 °F), while average temperatures are about 25 °C (77 °F). Temperatures remain high from June to September, the busiest time of the year.

Mean temperatures drop below 10 °C (50 °F) for only three months of the year (December to February). The spring and autumn are also warm, although more suited to those who prefer slightly cooler weather.

Climate data for Cannes (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.9
(73.2)
26.0
(78.8)
24.8
(76.6)
27.6
(81.7)
31.6
(88.9)
34.7
(94.5)
38.0
(100.4)
37.0
(98.6)
35.0
(95.0)
31.0
(87.8)
25.7
(78.3)
23.4
(74.1)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F)13.1
(55.6)
13.5
(56.3)
15.7
(60.3)
17.3
(63.1)
21.0
(69.8)
24.5
(76.1)
27.5
(81.5)
27.8
(82.0)
24.8
(76.6)
20.9
(69.6)
16.7
(62.1)
13.9
(57.0)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)8.4
(47.1)
8.7
(47.7)
10.8
(51.4)
13.0
(55.4)
16.9
(62.4)
20.5
(68.9)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
20.2
(68.4)
16.6
(61.9)
12.3
(54.1)
9.2
(48.6)
15.3
(59.5)
Average low °C (°F)3.6
(38.5)
3.9
(39.0)
6.2
(43.2)
8.7
(47.7)
12.8
(55.0)
16.4
(61.5)
18.8
(65.8)
18.8
(65.8)
15.5
(59.9)
12.3
(54.1)
7.8
(46.0)
4.6
(40.3)
10.8
(51.4)
Record low °C (°F)−12
(10)
−8.6
(16.5)
−9.9
(14.2)
−0.5
(31.1)
2.3
(36.1)
7.4
(45.3)
8.8
(47.8)
10.5
(50.9)
5.3
(41.5)
0.9
(33.6)
−3
(27)
−5.6
(21.9)
−12
(10)
Average precipitation mm (inches)76.7
(3.02)
41.9
(1.65)
41.9
(1.65)
72.5
(2.85)
49.4
(1.94)
30.9
(1.22)
16.0
(0.63)
24.6
(0.97)
79.6
(3.13)
120.1
(4.73)
107.0
(4.21)
95.6
(3.76)
756
(29.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)5.804.804.976.535.173.731.832.774.437.037.206.5060.8
Average relative humidity (%)72707070737472727475747272.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 152.3175.3225.4225.3265.3311.5343.2316.0254.6193.5148.3133.82,750
Source #1: Meteo climat [5] [6]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity 1961–1990) [7] [8]
Panorama of the waterfront Cannes Vieux Port 01.jpg
Panorama of the waterfront
Boulevard de la Croisette along the waterfront. Cannes promenade.jpg
Boulevard de la Croisette along the waterfront.

Economy

The Cannes Mandelieu aero centre Aero cannes.jpg
The Cannes Mandelieu aero centre

The area around Cannes has developed into a high-tech cluster. The technopolis of Sophia Antipolis lies in the hills beyond Cannes. The Film Festival is a major event for the industry which takes place every year during the month of May. In addition, Cannes hosts other major annual events such as the MIPIM, MIPTV, MIDEM, Cannes Lions, and the NRJ Music Awards. [9] There is an annual television festival in the last week in September.

The economic environment is based on tourism, business fairs, trade and aviation. Cannes has 6,500 companies, of which 3,000 are traders, artisans and service providers. In 2006, 421 new companies were registered.

Cannes hosts the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, headquarters of Thales Alenia Space, the first European satellite manufacturer.

Sport

Cannes is home to football side AS Cannes.

Landmarks

The Promenade de la Croisette is the waterfront avenue with palm trees. La Croisette is known for picturesque beaches, restaurants, cafés and boutiques. Le Suquet, the old town, provides a good view of La Croisette. The fortified tower and Chapel of St Anne house the Musée de la Castre. A distinctive building in Cannes is the Russian Orthodox church.

Museums

The Musée d'Art et d'Histoire de Provence houses artifacts from prehistoric to present, in an 18th-century mansion. The Musée de la Castre has objects from the Pacific Atolls, Peruvian relics and Mayan pottery. Other venues include the Musée de la Marine, Musée de la Mer, Musée de la Photographie and Musée International de la Parfumerie.

Villas

"Cannes Cinema" mural on Place Cornut-Gentille "Cannes Cinema" mural on Place Cornut-Gentille.jpg
“Cannes Cinema” mural on Place Cornut-Gentille

Cannes of the 19th century can still be seen in its grand villas, built to reflect the wealth and standing of their owners and inspired by anything from medieval castles to Roman villas. They are not open to the public. Lord Brougham's Italianate Villa Eléonore Louise (one of the first in Cannes) was built between 1835 and 1839. Also known as the Quartier des Anglais, this is the oldest residential area in Cannes. Another landmark is the Villa Fiésole (known today as the Villa Domergue) designed by Jean-Gabriel Domergue in the style of Fiesole, near Florence, which may be visited on appointment.

Île Sainte-Marguerite

Last refuge of the man in the iron mask in Cannes, France Cannes hombre de la mascara de hierro.jpg
Last refuge of the man in the iron mask in Cannes, France

It took the Man in the Iron Mask 11 years to leave the tiny, forested St Marguerite Island. The mysterious individual was believed to be of noble blood, but his identity has never been proven. His cell can be visited in the Fort of St Marguerite, now renamed the Musée de la Mer (Museum of the Sea). This museum also houses discoveries from shipwrecks off the island, including Roman (1st century BC) and Saracen (10th century AD) ceramics.

Île Saint-Honorat

Cistercian monks are the only inhabitants of the smaller, southern St Honorat Island. Monks have inhabited the island since AD 410 and, at the height of their powers, owned Cannes, Mougins, and Vallauris. Medieval vestiges remain in the stark church, which is open to the public, and in the ruins of the 11th-century monastery on the sea shore. The monks inhabit the Lérins Abbey and divide their time between prayer and producing red and white wines.

Theatre and music

Cannes is not renowned for traditional theatre. However, small venues stage productions and host short sketches during the annual International Actors' Performance Festival. Popular theaters include the Espace Miramar and the Alexandre III. Popular pop punk band "Fallen Resonance"'s place of origin.

Festivals and show events

Transport

Nice Côte d'Azur Airport

Located 24 km (15 mi) from Cannes, Nice Côte d'Azur Airport has close to 10 million passengers a year. Marseille Provence Airport is also 150 km (93 mi) away. The smaller Cannes – Mandelieu Airport is nearby. CannesExpress operate a regular door-to-door airport shuttle service between Nice Airport and hotels/accommodations in Cannes. Price per seat is 20 Euros.

Rail

There are several rail services including: TGVs from Paris Gare de Lyon to Nice, a TER from Marsellie St Charles to Nice, a TER service from Cannes to Les Arcs, a TER service from Grasse/Cannes to Ventimiliga (Italy), and an occasional Thello (Italian train) from Marsellie St Charles to Milan.

Bus

Coach services arrive at the Gare Routière de Cannes, in the centre of the city, near the Town Hall. Companies from abroad include Eurolines and Agence Phoceens. Regional services are by Rapides Côte d'Azur and CTM, with services from Nice and Grasse/Mandelieu respectively. Local bus services are provided by Bus Azur.

Ferry

Ferries are available in Nice harbour from Bastia and Calvi in Corsica, with services provided by SNCM Ferryterranée and Corsica Ferries. From Bastia, the journey is 4 hours, 45 minutes on conventional ferries and 3 hours, 40 minutes on express ferries, while from Calvi, conventional vessels take 3 hours, 45 minutes and express vessels take 2 hours, 45 minutes. An average of four ferries a day sail on these routes, with more during summer.

Panorama of Cannes Hoarbour.jpg
Panorama of Cannes waterfront, from which many ferries can be caught.

International relations

Cannes is twinned with:

Cannes has friendship pacts with:

Personalities

See also

Related Research Articles

Nice Prefecture and commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Nice is the seventh most populous urban area in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes department. The metropolitan area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits, with a population of about 1 million on an area of 721 km2 (278 sq mi). Located in the French Riviera, on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of the Alps, Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast and the second-largest city in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region after Marseille. Nice is approximately 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) from the principality of Monaco and 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the French-Italian border. Nice's airport serves as a gateway to the region.

Alpes-Maritimes Department of France in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur

Alpes-Maritimes is a department of France located in the extreme southeast corner of the country, on the border with Italy and on the Mediterranean coast. Part of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, it had a population of 1,803,704 in 2016.

Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department Wikimedia list article

The following is a list of the 163 communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department of France.

Tourism in France

Tourism in France directly contributed 77.7 billion euros to gross domestic product, 30% of which comes from international visitors and 70% from domestic tourism spending. The total contribution of travel and tourism represents 9.7% of GDP and supports 2.9 million jobs in the country. Tourism contributes significantly to the balance of payments.

Lérins Islands archipelago in Cannes, France

The Lérins Islands are a group of four Mediterranean islands off the French Riviera, in Cannes. The two largest islands in this group are the Île Sainte-Marguerite and the Île Saint-Honorat. The smaller Îlot Saint-Ferréol and Îlot de la Tradelière are uninhabited. Administratively, the islands belong to the commune of Cannes.

Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Administrative region of France

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur is one of the 18 administrative regions of France, the far southeastern on the mainland. Its capital is Marseille. The region is roughly coterminous with the former French province of Provence, with the addition of the following adjacent areas: the former papal territory of Avignon, known as Comtat Venaissin; the former Sardinian-Piedmontese county of Nice, whose coastline is known in English as the French Riviera, and in French as the Côte d'Azur; and the southeastern part of the former French province of Dauphiné, in the French Alps. Previously known by the acronym PACA, the region adopted the name Région Sud as a commercial name or nickname in December 2017. 4,935,576 people live in the region according to the 2012 census.

French Riviera Riviera

The French Riviera is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France. There is no official boundary, but it is usually considered to extend from Cassis, Toulon or Saint-Tropez on the west to Menton at the France–Italy border in the east, where the Italian Riviera joins. The coast is entirely within the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA) region of France. The Principality of Monaco is a semi-enclave within the region, surrounded on three sides by France and fronting the Mediterranean.

Hyères Commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Hyères, Provençal Occitan: Ieras in classical norm, or Iero in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

Saint-Raphaël, Var Commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Saint-Raphaël is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

Mandelieu-la-Napoule Commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Mandelieu-la-Napoule is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France, located on the French Riviera just to the southwest of Cannes and northeast of Théoule-sur-Mer.

Trams in Cannes was a tram public transit system in the French city of Cannes. The tramway operated in 1900 and ended operation in 1933.

Sainte-Maxime Commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Sainte-Maxime is a commune and city in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region on the French Riviera in southeastern France 90 km (56 mi) west from Nice and 130 km (81 mi) east from Marseille.

Bus Azur

Bus Azur is a brand of bus services serving the Southern French city of Cannes, France. The operator, Veolia Transport Cannes is responsible for operating the Bus Azur buses for SITP, grouping the communes of Cannes, le Cannet et Mandelieu-la-Napoule.

Palais des Festivals et des Congrès building in Cannes, France

The Palais des Festivals et des Congrès is a convention center in Cannes, France, the venue for the Cannes Film Festival and the Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity. The building opened in 1982.

Cannes – Mandelieu Airport airport

Cannes – Mandelieu Airport or Aéroport de Cannes - Mandelieu is an airport serving the city of Cannes. It is located 5 km west of Cannes and east of Mandelieu-la-Napoule, both communes of the Alpes-Maritimes département in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur région of France.

Hotel Barrière Le Majestic Cannes

The Hotel Barrière Le Majestic Cannes is a historic luxury hotel on the Croisette in Cannes, built in 1926. It belongs to the Lucien Barrière group. It is a traditional hotel for film stars attending the Cannes Festival.

Hôtel Martinez

The Hôtel Martinez is a famous art deco style Grand Hotel on the Croisette at Cannes. It was opened on 20 February 1929 by its founder-owner Emmanuel Michele Martinez, son of the Baron Giovanni Martinez and Giuseppa Labiso Costanza, from Palermo Sicily, Italy, a noble ancient Italian family of Spanish origins.

Villa La Californie

Villa La Californie, also known as Villa Fénelon, Villa Picasso, and now known as Pavillon de Flore, is a villa in Cannes, France. The house overlooks the bay of Cannes from Le Suquet. In the background are the hills of the district of California, which gave its name to the villa. It is located 22 Costebelle Avenue.

The French Riviera Marathon is a marathon held annually along the south east coast of France, between the cities of Nice and Cannes. The event was first held in 2008, when the race achieved its full capacity of 10,000 runners, setting a new world record attendance for an event on its debut. Although the race has only been competed since 2008, it trails only the Paris Marathon in terms of participation within France. In 2013, it was listed as an IAAF Bronze Label Road Race for the first time, a status it retained in 2014.

Communauté d'agglomération Cannes Pays de Lérins is the communauté d'agglomération, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Cannes. It is located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, southeastern France. It was created in January 2014. Its population was 160,806 in 2014, of which 74,673 in Cannes proper.

References

  1. "Populations légales 2016". INSEE . Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  2. "Aegitna". Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (in German). I. 1893. p. 477.
  3. Reported in Polybius, Histories, 33.10.
  4. Meeks, Jacqueline Monsigny, Edward (2007). Le roman du festival de Cannes (in French). Monaco: Rocher. p. 19. ISBN   2268061930.
  5. "Moyennes 1981/2010: Région Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  6. "STATION Cannes" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  7. "Normes et records 1961-1990: Cannes - Mandelieu (06) - altitude 2m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  8. http://www.eldoradocountyweather.com/climate/world-extremes/world-temp-rainfall-extremes.php?extremes=Eur
  9. "Major events in Cannes (French Riviera) - Program & Information". www.cannes-destination.com. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  10. "British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com]". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
  11. "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  12. Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs - Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-06.

Further reading

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century