The 61st FIFA Congress was held between 31 May and 1 June 2011 at the Hallenstadion in Zurich, Switzerland.FIFA is the governing body of world association football, and the congress is the annual meeting of FIFA's supreme legislative body. This is the eighth congress to be held in Zurich, and the first since 2007. After an opening ceremony and a reminder of FIFA events and activities in 2010, the second day witnessed decisions taken, and the unveiling of the 2010 financial results. The opening ceremony was presented by Melanie Winiger, and featured singer Grace Jones, hammered dulcimer player Nicolas Senn, and juggler Alan Šulc.
The FIFA Congress is the supreme legislative body of the International Federation of Association Football, commonly known by the acronym FIFA. FIFA is the international governing body of association football, futsal and beach soccer. The congress may be ordinary or extraordinary.
The Hallenstadion is a multi-purpose facility located in the quarter of Oerlikon in northern Zürich. It is home to the ZSC Lions of the National League (NL) and has a capacity of 11,200 spectators. Designed by Bruno Giacometti, it opened on November 4, 1939, and was renovated in 2004–05.
Melanie Winiger is a Swiss actress, model and beauty pageant titleholder who won Miss Switzerland 1996.
The congress agenda was released on 5 May.
Following the allegations of corruption Blatter announced changes to FIFA's internal processes. Future FIFA World Cups will be selected by the whole FIFA Congress rather than the FIFA Executive Committee, an internal committee will examine FIFA's corporate governance, and the FIFA Ethics Committee will be strengthened.
Corporate governance is the collection of mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and operated. Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation and include the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs. Corporate governance is necessary because of the possibility of conflicts of interests between stakeholders, primarily between shareholders and upper management or among shareholders.
The FIFA Ethics Committee is one of FIFA's three judicial bodies. It is organized in two chambers, the Investigatory Chamber and the Adjudicatory Chamber. Its duties are regulated by several official documents, most importantly the FIFA Code of Ethics. FIFA's other judicial bodies are the Disciplinary Committee and the Appeal Committee.
A motion bought by the United Arab Emirates Football Association to relax eligibility rules for foreign-born players was rejected by 153 to 42, with 11 abstentions. The motion argued that players 18 or older could switch countries after three years' residence instead of five.The president of the UAE football association Mohamed al-Rumaithi argued that the proposed change was good for countries trying to qualify for the FIFA World Cup. The motion was also supported by the UAE Football League and Srečko Katanec, the head coach of the United Arab Emirates national football team. The proposal was interpreted as a way for rich countries to attract foreign players with offers of citizenship.
The United Arab Emirates Football Association is the governing body of football in the United Arab Emirates. The senior football national team made one World Cup appearance, in 1990 in Italy, won the Gulf Cup in 2007 and the Gulf Cup in 2013, the youth national team claimed the AFC U-19 Cup in 2008.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War. The current champion is France, which won its second title at the 2018 tournament in Russia.
Srečko Katanec[ˈsretʃkɔ kaˈtanɛts](
The election for the presidency of FIFA was held on the second day of the congress. The incumbent, Sepp Blatter of Switzerland, was elected in 1998. Blatter won two previous presidential elections in 2002 and 2007. Blatter was the sole candidate for the presidency,after the only other candidate, Qatari Mohammed bin Hammam withdrew from the presidential race on 28 May.
Joseph "Sepp" Blatter is a Swiss football administrator who was the eighth President of the FIFA from 1998 to 2015. He is currently serving a six-year ban from participating in FIFA activities.
Mohamed bin Hammam is a Qatari who was a football administrator and president of the Asian Football Confederation from 1 August 2002 to 14 June 2011, and a member of FIFA's 24-man executive committee from 1996 to 2011 for more than 15 years. On 23 July 2011, Bin Hammam was banned for life from all FIFA and football related activities by an action of the FIFA Ethics Committee. Bin Hammam challenged this sanction in the Court of Arbitration for Sport and the ban was subsequently annulled on 19 July 2012 due to lack of sufficient evidence. However, just 5 months later in December 2012, FIFA handed bin Hammam a second life ban from football after "conflicts of interest" were identified in his role as president of the AFC.
The English Football Association (FA) vowed not to take part in the presidential vote citing a "well-reported range of issues...which made it difficult to support either candidate".On 31 May the FA and the Scottish Football Association called for the presidential election to be postponed. The FA also called for the appointment of an "independent external party to make recommendations regarding improved governance and compliance procedures and structures throughout the FIFA decision making processes for consideration by the full membership". The FA's stance was supported by the President of the FA, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge. The chairman of the FA, David Bernstein put a proposal to congress to delay the presidential vote, this was opposed by 172 of 206 voters. The FA's proposal was later criticized by members from the Congolese Association Football Federation, Benin Football Federation, Haitian Football Federation, Fiji Football Association and the Cyprus Football Association. The senior vice-president of FIFA and president of the Argentine Football Association, Julio Grondona, retorted "We always have attacks from England which are mostly lies with the support of journalism which is more busy lying than telling the truth...It looks like England is always complaining...I say will you leave the FIFA family alone, and when you speak, speak with truth."
The Football Association (FA) is the governing body of association football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory.
The Scottish Football Association is the governing body of football in Scotland and has the ultimate responsibility for the control and development of football in Scotland. Members of the SFA include clubs in Scotland, affiliated national associations as well as local associations. It was formed in 1873, making it the second oldest national football association in the world. It is not to be confused with the Scottish Football Union, which is the name that the SRU was known by until the 1920s.
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line of succession to the British throne.
The President of the Malian Football Federation, Hammadoun Kolado Cisse, announced his desire for FIFA's General Assembly rather than the FIFA Executive Committee to make the final decision on which countries host the World Cup. Cisse said that "If every country can vote on who hosts the event, that will cut down on corruption because you can't corrupt 203 federations."
The Malian Football Federation is the governing body of football in Mali. Founded in 1960, it joined the Confederation of African Football in 1962 and has been affiliated with FIFA since 1964. Its first general secretary was Garan Fabou Kouyate. Famous leaders are Amadou Diakite and Tidiane Niambele.
On 1 June Blatter was re-elected president for a fourth term unopposed, with 186 of the 203 votes in his favour.
The head of the Asian Football Confederation (AFC), Mohammed bin Hammam of Qatar, announced his candidacy in March 2011. Bin Hammam said that if elected he would establish a transparency committee. Bin Hammam said that Blatter was "an experienced person, he has made significant contribution to football worldwide but I believe there is a time limit for everything. There is now a time for a new face and a new heir."Bin Hammam had supported Blatter's 1998 and 2002 presidential campaigns but admitted that he had fallen out with Blatter over issues within the FIFA Executive Committee. In August 2010 Bin Hammam had vowed not to run against Blatter saying that "I will be backing him to remain in office for a new mandate. He is my very good friend".
Bin Hammam said that FIFA should make voting for World Cups an open process where it was made public which bid executive members had voted for. If such a vote was public Bin Hammam said it would "cut the doubts in FIFA back to zero...I don't see any reason why we should not vote openly." He also vowed to limit the President of FIFA to a maximum of eight years in office.
On 25 May, following allegations by FIFA Executive Committee (ExCo) member Chuck Blazer, Bin Hammam was charged with offering bribes for votes and appeared before FIFA's ethics committee on 29 May. Bin Hammam withdrew from the presidential race the day before the ethics committee stating that "It saddens me that standing up for the causes that I believed in has come at a great price...I cannot allow the game that I love to be dragged more and more in the mud because of competition between two individuals. The game itself and the people who love it around the world must come first."
The incumbent President of FIFA, Sepp Blatter ran for a fourth consecutive term, having been elected in 1998, and reelected in 2002 and 2007.
On 13 May Blatter warned that FIFA would be plunged into "a black hole" if Bin Hammam won the election.Of the vote Blatter said that "The ballot could lead to a seismic shift with irreversible damage...Quite simply, the survival of FIFA is at stake."
Before the election it was announced that the executive committee of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) had held a secret ballot at which they had passed a motion to support Blatter in the presidential election.However, the individual national federations that make up CAF are not obliged to follow the motion.
Blatter vowed that only "the FIFA family" could prevent his re-election as president on 1 June,and said that the congress of national federations will "decide if I am a valid or a non-valid candidate, or if I am a valid or non-valid president." Opening the congress Blatter said "I thought that we were living in a world of fair play, mutual respect and discipline...this is not the case any longer...because our pyramid of FIFA is suddenly unstable on its basis and there's a danger."
|61st FIFA Congress |
June 1, 2011 – Zurich, Switzerland
Allegations of vote buying in the 2011 FIFA presidential election were included in the 2015 FIFA corruption case, which led to the arrests of fourteen FIFA and FIFA-related officials on 27 May 2015. These incitements were brought by the U.S. Department of Justice, as U.S. banks are alleged to have been used for money laundering and bribery.
An ethics committee took place on 29 May following allegations against FIFA vice-president Jack Warner, FIFA Executive Committee member Mohammed bin Hammam, as well as Caribbean Football Union (CFU) officials Debbie Minguell and Jason Sylvester.
The inquiry was launched after FIFA Executive Committee member Chuck Blazer reported to FIFA secretary general Jérôme Valcke that Bin Hammam had offered $40,000 of bribes to members of the Caribbean Football Union at a meeting organised by Warner from 10 to 11 May CFU officials Minguell and Sylvester were alleged to have witnessed the transaction. The vice-president of the Bahamas Football Association later produced photographic evidence of the alleged $40,000 bribe.In a submission Hammam admitted that he had borne the costs of travel and accommodation for the 25 members of the CFU, at a cost of $350,000.
Bin Hammam said of the allegations that "It is quite obvious that, following previous failed attempts, this is part of a final effort to prevent...(Bin Hammam) from running for the FIFA presidency."Bin Hammam also said that Blatter should be investigated on grounds that he knew of alleged bribe attempts and did nothing about it. It was announced by the committee that Blatter will not face an investigation due to lack of evidence.
Announcing the outcome of the bribery inquiry, deputy chairman of the committee Petrus Damaseb said that FIFA will open a "full-blown" investigation into allegations that Bin Hammam and Warner offered financial incentives to members of the CFU and provisionally suspended them from all football activity.
The committee also announced that the FA had cleared FIFA members Ricardo Teixeira and Worawi Makudi of allegations of bribery made by Lord Triesman relating to England's failed 2018 World Cup bid.The FA report into the allegations was published online on 30 May.
Reacting to the committees decision, Bin Hammam said that he would appeal against their decision to provisionally ban him from football related activity, saying that "The way these proceedings have been conducted is not compliant with any principles of justice."He also issued a statement calling for his reinstatement as well as responding to the claims in detail. Because of his suspension Bin Hammam was temporarily replaced as AFC by his deputy Zhang Jilong. Bin Hammam was later denied entry to the congress after being unable to file an appeal against his suspension in time.
As part of his suspension from football related activity Warner was suspended from the presidency of CONCACAF. Warner had warned on 28 May that FIFA faced a "football tsunami" in the next couple of days, "that will hit FIFA and the world that will shock you...The time has come when I must stop playing dead so you'll see it, it's coming, trust me. You'll see it by now and Monday...I have been here for 29 consecutive years and if the worst happens, the worst happens." He also said that he was not guilty of a "single iota of wrongdoing".On the 30th Warner disclosed the contents of an email that he had been sent by Jérôme Valcke in which Valcke discussed Bin Hammam's presidential campaign and appeared to accuse Qatar of "buying" the World Cup. Qatar were successful in their bid to host the 2022 World Cup. Valcke wrote "For MBH (Bin Hammam), I never understood why he was running...If really he thought he had a chance or just being an extreme way to express how much he does not like anymore JSB (Blatter). Or he thought you can buy FIFA as they (Qatar) bought the WC (World Cup)." Valcke confirmed the email and said that it had been selectively quoted. Valcke later commented that "When I refer to the 2022 World Cup in that email, what I wanted to say is that the winning bid used their financial strength to lobby for support...I have at no time made, or was intending to make, any reference to any purchase of votes or similar unethical behaviour." Qatar denied any wrongdoing and said that they were taking legal advice to consider their options. Bin Hammam responded to Valcke's allegations by saying "I don't know why he has said that...If I was paying money for Qatar you also have to ask the 13 people who voted for Qatar."
In the email Valcke added that it would be the 'coup de grace' if Warner were to announce his support for Blatter in the election. Warner refused to offer his support as president of CONCACAF.Warner also accused Blatter of recently using FIFA funds for political gain. Warner stated that at the Miami CONCACAF congress on 3 May Blatter made a gift of $1m to CONCACAF to "spend as it deems fit". Warner claimed this annoyed the President of UEFA Michel Platini who then approached Valcke complaining that Blatter had no permission from the finance committee to make this gift. Valcke replied that he would find the money for Blatter. Warner later urged the members of CONCACAF to support Blatter, as they had previously agreed to do. He also asked CONCACAF members not to protest the election on 1 June. Warner was reported by Blazer to Valcke for these activities on 31 May, as they violate the terms of his suspension by the ethics committee.
The President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), Jacques Rogge said that the IOC had gone through similar problems during the 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal. Rogge said that "The IOC ultimately emerged a stronger organisation...Our past calls for humility, and I will definitely not point the finger or lecture you. I'm sure Fifa can emerge stronger, and from within."
FIFA's sponsors voiced their concern at the corruption allegations. Coca-Cola described the allegations as "distressing and bad for the sport", Adidas said the "negative tenor of the public debate around FIFA at the moment is neither good for football nor for FIFA and its partners".Emirates said they were "disappointed" and Visa Inc. said that the "current situation is not good for the game"
Australian senator Nick Xenophon demanded that FIFA "refunds" the money the country spent on their unsuccessful bid for the 2022 World Cup, following the corruption allegations. Xenophon said that "It appears corrupt and highly questionable behavior goes to the core of FIFA...Australia spent almost $46 million on a bid we were never in the running for because bribes were being taken for votes. Now we hear that bribes may have been made to fix the result for who will head up FIFA."
The President of the German Football Association, Theo Zwanziger called for an investigation into the Qatar 2022 FIFA World Cup bid. Zwanziger said that "There is a considerable degree of suspicion that one cannot sweep aside...If FIFA behaves the way people expect, that is by clearly taking action against this cancerous tumour of bribery, then there is no need for these concerns...There is no end to the suspicions falling on members of the FIFA executive".
Prince Ali bin Hussein is the third son of King Hussein of Jordan, and the second child of the king by his third wife, Queen Alia. He is also the half brother of King Abdullah II. He is a member of the Hashemite family, which has ruled Jordan since 1921 and claims to be descended from the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
FIFA is the international governing body of association football, futsal and beach soccer. It is one of the world's oldest and largest NGOs, being founded on 21 May 1904. It has since expanded to include 211 member associations.
The bidding process for the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cups was the process by which the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) selected locations for the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cups. The process began officially in March 2009; eleven bids from thirteen countries were received, including one which was withdrawn and one that was rejected before FIFA's executive committee voted in November 2010. Two of the remaining nine bids applied only to the 2022 World Cup, while the rest were initially applications for both. Over the course of the bidding, all non-European bids for the 2018 event were withdrawn, resulting in the exclusion of all European bids from consideration for the 2022 edition. By the time of the decision, bids for the 2018 World Cup included England, Russia, a joint bid from Belgium and Netherlands, and a joint bid from Portugal and Spain. Bids for the 2022 World Cup came from Australia, Japan, Qatar, South Korea, and the United States. Indonesia's bid was disqualified due to lack of governmental support, and Mexico withdrew its bid for financial reasons.
Austin "Jack" Warner is a Trinidad and Tobago politician, businessman, and former football executive. Warner was Vice President of FIFA and President of CONCACAF until his suspension and eventual resignation from these roles in 2011. He is also the former Minister of National Security of Trinidad and Tobago and was an elected member of the country's parliament from 2007 to 2015. A former history teacher, he is the owner of Joe Public F.C., a professional football club in Tunapuna, Trinidad and Tobago.
David Alan Gill is British football executive, formerly chief executive of Manchester United and a vice-chairman of The Football Association. He served as vice-chairman of the G-14 management committee until the G-14 was disbanded. He sits on the UEFA Executive Committee as of 2013. Gill was elected as a FIFA Vice-President sitting on the FIFA Council in 2015; rejecting this position in protest at Sepp Blatter until Blatter announced his resignation as FIFA President, following the 2015 FIFA corruption case.
The 2022 FIFA World Cup is scheduled to be the 22nd edition of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international men's association football championship contested by the national teams of the member associations of FIFA. It is scheduled to take place in Qatar in 2022. This will be the first World Cup ever to be held in the Arab world and the first in a Muslim-majority country. This will be the second World Cup held entirely in Asia after the 2002 tournament in South Korea and Japan. In addition, the tournament will be the last to involve 32 teams, with an increase to 48 teams scheduled for the 2026 tournament. The reigning World Cup champions are France.
The FIFA Council is an institution of FIFA. It is the main decision-making body of the organization in the intervals of FIFA Congress. Its members are elected by the FIFA Congress. The council is a non-executive, supervisory and strategic body that sets the vision for FIFA and global football.
The Qatar 2022 FIFA World Cup bid was a bid by Qatar to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup. With a population of 2 million people, Qatar will be the first Arab state to host the World Cup. Sheikh Mohammed bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, son of Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani the then Emir of Qatar, was the chairman of the bid committee. Qatar promoted their hosting of the tournament as representing the Arab World, and has drawn support from across the member states of the Arab League. They also positioned their bid as an opportunity to bridge the gap between the Arab World and the West.
Jérôme Valcke is a French football administrator, best known as the former Secretary General of FIFA. He was fired on 13 January 2016 as a result of allegations arising from the ongoing 2015 FIFA corruption case.
ChangeFIFA was a campaign organisation, established in 2010 with the stated aim of making FIFA, the ruling body of world soccer, more "fair and accountable".
Zhang Jilong is a Chinese football administrator who is the current senior vice president of Asian Football Confederation. He previously served as a Vice President of AFC from 2002 to 2011 and as Senior Vice President from 11 January 2007 to 1 August 2011. He had been the Acting President of the Asian Football Confederation from 14 June 2011 until 1 May 2013 after the resignation of Mohammed Bin Hammam. He was also a member of the FIFA Executive Committee.
The Caribbean Football Union corruption scandal involved attempted bribery used to win the votes of national football associations from the Caribbean Football Union in the 2011 FIFA presidential election.
The awarding of the 2022 FIFA World Cup to Qatar created a number of concerns and controversies regarding both Qatar's suitability as a host country and the fairness of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) bidding process. Criticism from a number of media outlets, sporting experts, and human rights groups highlighted problems such as Qatar's limited football history, the high expected cost, the local climate, and Qatar's human rights record. There have been numerous allegations of bribery between the Qatar bid committee and FIFA members and executives. Several FIFA members have since gone on record saying that the decision to award the tournament to Qatar was a "mistake" which includes Theo Zwanziger and ex-president Sepp Blatter.
The Garcia Report was an investigation produced by Michael J. Garcia into allegations of corruption in world association football. Garcia was appointed in July 2012 to investigate ethical breaches at the FIFA, football's world governing body. A month later he announced an investigation into persistent public accusations of bribery and corruption in the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup bids, which had been won in 2010 by Russia and Qatar respectively.
The 65th FIFA Congress was held at the Hallenstadion in Zürich, Switzerland, from 28 to 29 May 2015.
In 2015, U.S. federal prosecutors disclosed cases of corruption by officials and associates connected with the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the governing body of association football, futsal and beach soccer.
The 2016 FIFA Extraordinary Congress was held at the Hallenstadion in Zürich, Switzerland, on 26 February 2016. This special session of the FIFA Congress, called as a result of the 2015 FIFA corruption case, included the passage of a major statutory reforms proposal as well as the election of Gianni Infantino to replace Sepp Blatter as the President of FIFA.