Hildesheim

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Hildesheim
Hildesheim, Dom 20171201 001.jpg
Hildesheim Knochenhauer-HD.jpg
BruhlNr.31.jpg
Roemer und Pelizaeus Museum.JPG
Kirchturm der St.-Mauritius-Kirche (Hildesheim) 2.jpg
Hildesheim-St. Andreas002.JPG
Kloster Marienrode.jpg
Hildesheim St MIchael von Andreas.jpg
Clockwise from top: St. Mary's Cathedral (UNESCO World Heritage Site), half-timbered houses at the Brühl street, St. Maurice Church on the Moritzberg, Marienrode Priory, St. Michael's Church (UNESCO World Heritage Site), St. Andrews Church, Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum and the Historic Market Place
Flagge Hildesheim.svg
Flag
Wappen Hildesheim.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Hildesheim within Hildesheim district
Hildesheim in HI.svg
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Hildesheim
Lower Saxony location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Hildesheim
Coordinates: 52°09′N09°57′E / 52.150°N 9.950°E / 52.150; 9.950 Coordinates: 52°09′N09°57′E / 52.150°N 9.950°E / 52.150; 9.950
Country Germany
State Lower Saxony
District Hildesheim
Government
   Mayor Ingo Meyer
Area
  Total92.18 km2 (35.59 sq mi)
Elevation
81 m (266 ft)
Population
 (2019-12-31) [1]
  Total101,693
  Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
31134–31141
Dialling codes 05121
Vehicle registration HI, ALF
Website www.hildesheim.de
St Mary's Cathedral and St Michael's Church at Hildesheim
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Hildesheim Michaeliskirche 03.jpg
Ottonian architecture in St. Michael's Church
Criteria Cultural: i, ii, iii
Reference 187
Inscription1987 (11th session)
Area0.58 ha
Buffer zone157.68 ha

Hildesheim [ˈhɪldəsˌhaɪ̯m] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany with 101,693 inhabitants. [2] It is in the district of Hildesheim, about 30 km (19 mi) southeast of Hanover on the banks of the Innerste River, a small tributary of the Leine River.

Contents

The Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious founded the Bishopric of Hildesheim in 815 and created the first settlement with a chapel on the so called Domhügel.

Hildesheim is situated on autobahn route 7, and hence is at the connection point of the North (Hamburg and beyond) with the South of Europe.

With the Hildesheim Cathedral and the St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim became a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985.

In 2015 the city and the diocese celebrated their 1200th anniversary.

History

Early years

The historic market square at night Hildesheim night.jpg
The historic market square at night

Hildesheim, one of the oldest cities in Northern Germany, became the seat of the Bishopric of Hildesheim in 815 and may have been founded when the bishop moved from Elze to the ford across the River Innerste, which was an important market on the Hellweg trade route. The settlement around the cathedral very quickly developed into a town and was granted market rights by King Otto III in 983. [3] Originally the market was held in a street called Alter Markt (Old Market) which still exists today. The first marketplace was laid out around the church St. Andreas. When the city grew further, a larger market place became necessary. The present market place of Hildesheim was laid out at the beginning of the 13th century when the city had about 5,000 inhabitants.

Middle ages

When Hildesheim obtained city status in 1249, it was one of the biggest cities in Northern Germany. [4] For four centuries the clergy ruled Hildesheim, before a town Hall was built and the citizens gained some influence and independence. Construction of the present Town Hall started in 1268. [5] In 1367 Hildesheim became a member of the Hanseatic League. A war between the citizens and their bishop cost dearly in 1519–23 when they engaged in a feud.

Reformation

Hildesheim became Lutheran in 1542, and only the cathedral and a few other buildings remained in Imperial (Roman Catholic) hands. Several villages around the city remained Roman Catholic as well.

19th century

In 1813, after the Napoleonic Wars, the town became part of the Kingdom of Hanover, which was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia as a province after the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. In 1868 a highly valuable trove of about 70 Roman silver vessels for eating and drinking, the so-called Hildesheim Treasure, was unearthed by Prussian soldiers.

Early 20th century and World War II

In the beginning of WWII, roundups of the Jewish population began, with hundreds of Hildesheim's Jews being deported to concentration camps. One of the town's own was Guy Stern. The city was heavily damaged by air raids in 1945, especially on 22 March. Although it had little military significance, two months before the end of the war in Europe the historic city was bombed as part of the Area Bombing Directive in order to undermine the morale of the German people. 28.5% of the houses were completely destroyed and 44.7% damaged. 26.8% of the houses remained undamaged. The centre, which had retained its medieval character until then, was almost levelled. The city as a whole was destroyed by 20 - 30%. [6] As in many cities, priority was given to rapid building of badly needed housing, and concrete structures took the place of the destroyed buildings. Most of the major churches, two of them now UNESCO World Heritage Sites, were rebuilt in the original style soon after the war. During the war, valuable world heritage materials had been hidden in the basement of the city wall.

Late 20th century and present

In 1978, the University of Hildesheim was founded. In the 1980s a reconstruction of the historic centre began. Some of the unattractive concrete buildings around the market place were torn down and replaced by replicas of the original buildings. In the autumn of 2007, a decision was made to reconstruct the Umgestülpter Zuckerhut (Upended Sugarloaf), an iconic half-timbered house famous for its unusual shape. In 2015 the city and the diocese celebrates their 1200 anniversary with the Day of Lower Saxony.

Religions

In 1542 most of the inhabitants became Lutherans. Today, 28.5% of the inhabitants identify themselves as Roman Catholics (Hildesheim Diocese) and 38.3% as Protestants (Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover). 33.0% of the inhabitants are adherents of other religions or do not have a religion at all. The Serbian Orthodox Bishop of Frankfurt and all of Germany has his seat in Himmelsthür (a locality of Hildesheim).

Main sights

St. Michael's Church, UNESCO World Heritage St Michaels Church Hildesheim.jpg
St. Michael's Church, UNESCO World Heritage
Bakers' Guild Hall and Butchers' Guild Hall in the Market Place Casa Gremial.jpg
Bakers' Guild Hall and Butchers' Guild Hall in the Market Place
Historic Market Place with City Hall and market fountain PrefeituraHi 002.jpg
Historic Market Place with City Hall and market fountain
Saint Michael's Church and the tower of St. Andreas seen from St. Magdalena's Garden MichaeliskircheMagdalenengarten.jpg
Saint Michael's Church and the tower of St. Andreas seen from St. Magdalena's Garden
Tempelhaus in the historic Market Place PrefeituraHi 049.jpg
Tempelhaus in the historic Market Place
The Wernersches House (1606) is a half-timbered house with wood carvings in its facade. Hildesheim Wernersches Haus 403-vtmd.jpg
The Wernersches House (1606) is a half-timbered house with wood carvings in its façade.
Half-timbered houses in Lappenberg Street LappenBerg.jpg
Half-timbered houses in Lappenberg Street
Tower Kehrwiederturm (14th century) AmKehrwieder.jpg
Tower Kehrwiederturm (14th century)
Marienrode Priory Hildesheim-Marienrode Klosterkirche Teich.jpg
Marienrode Priory
Renaissance bay window in Alter Markt Street ErkerAlterMarkt.jpg
Renaissance bay window in Alter Markt Street
River Innerste and Saint Magdalena's Church 20.4.09.Innerste.jpg
River Innerste and Saint Magdalena's Church
Baroque park Magdalenengarten Magdalenengarten5.jpg
Baroque park Magdalenengarten
Vineyard in Magdalenengarten MagdalenengartenWeinberg.jpg
Vineyard in Magdalenengarten
Alte Kemenate, a medieval store house (15th century) HiKemenate.jpg
Alte Kemenate, a medieval store house (15th century)
St. Magdalena's Church Dom 096.jpg
St. Magdalena's Church
Half-timbered house (1981) built on the medieval city wall in Muhlenstrasse HiMuehlenstrasse.jpg
Half-timbered house (1981) built on the medieval city wall in Mühlenstraße

Other places of interest include the theatre, offering opera, operetta and musicals, drama, ballet and concerts.

Incorporations

Demographics

Population history

On 31 Dec 2017 Hildesheim had 103,970 inhabitants. [10]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
14006,000    
14508,000+33.3%
16485,500−31.2%
180311,108+102.0%
182512,630+13.7%
184914,651+16.0%
187120,801+42.0%
187522,581+8.6%
189033,481+48.3%
190042,973+28.4%
191050,239+16.9%
191953,499+6.5%
192558,522+9.4%
193362,519+6.8%
193972,101+15.3%
195065,531−9.1%
196196,296+46.9%
197093,400−3.0%
1975106,000+13.5%
1980102,700−3.1%
1985100,900−1.8%
1989103,512+2.6%
1997105,700+2.1%
2002103,448−2.1%
2013100,708−2.6%
2015101,667+1.0%
2017103,970+2.3%
2019101,693−2.2%

Largest minority groups

The following list shows the largest foreign groups in the city of Hildesheim as of 2013: [11]

RankNationalityPopulation (2016)
1Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 2,395
2Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 764
3Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 474
4Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 442
5Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 299
6Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 268
7Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 254
8Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 243

List of mayors of Hildesheim

Twin towns – sister cities

Hildesheim is twinned with: [12]

Events of international interest

Economy

Hildesheim is home to notable multinational corporations – besides many strong medium-sized companies – including Bosch, Fairchild and Coca-Cola. Blaupunkt went bankrupt and Krupp&Thyssen merge to become KSM Castings Group which is in the process of bankruptcy at the end of 2020.

Transport

Hildesheim has an efficient traffic infrastructure: it is a regional hub for interstate roads and railway (Hildesheim Hauptbahnhof is served by InterCityExpress services), is connected to the motorway (Autobahn), has a harbour at the artificial waterway Mittellandkanal and Hildesheim Betriebsgesellschaft Airfield.

Education

There are many secondary schools (Gymnasiums, comprehensive schools and subject-specific secondary schools): Gymnasium Andreanum, Gymnasium Marienschule, Gymnasium Josephinum Hildesheim, Scharnhorstgymnasium Hildesheim, Goethegymnasium Hildesheim, Michelsenschule, Gymnasium Himmelsthür. Further: Freie Waldorfschule Hildesheim, Robert-Bosch-Gesamtschule. Friedrich-List-Schule (Fachgymnasium Wirtschaft), Herman-Nohl-Schule (Fachgymnasium Gesundheit und Soziales), Walter-Gropius-Schule (Berufsbildende Schule), Werner-von-Siemens-Schule (Fachgymnasium Technik), Elisabeth-von-Rantzau-Schule (Fachakademie für Sozialmanagement).

Tertiary Education can be achieved at the University of Hildesheim or Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst (HAWK), a co-operation with the cities of Holzminden and Göttingen.

Culture

The community has the headquarters of the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Frankfurt and all of Germany. [13]

Notable residents

A–K

Ludolf van Ceulen Ludolf van Ceulen.jpeg
Ludolf van Ceulen
Adolf Hurwitz Adolf Hurwitz.jpg
Adolf Hurwitz

L–Z

Ferdinand von Roemer Ferdinand Roemer 2.jpg
Ferdinand von Roemer

See also

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References

  1. Landesamt für Statistik Niedersachsen, LSN-Online Regionaldatenbank, Tabelle 12411: Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes, Stand 31. Dezember 2019.
  2. https://www.hildesheim.de/pics/verwaltung/1_1549983673/Bevoelkerung_der_Stadt_Hildesheim_HW_31.12.2019.pdf
  3. Neigenfind, W.: Unsere schöne Stadt, p.46. Hildesheim 1964.
  4. Neigenfind, W.: Unsere schöne Stadt, p.38. Hildesheim 1964.
  5. Borck, Heinz-Günther: Der Marktplatz zu Hildesheim, p.24. Hildesheim 1989.
  6. http://archiv.nationalatlas.de/wp-content/art_pdf/Band5_88-91_archiv.pdf
  7. Segers-Glocke, Christiane: Baudenkmale in Niedersachsen, Band 14.1. - Hildesheim, p.109. Hameln 2007.
  8. Segers-Glocke, Christiane: Baudenkmale in Niedersachsen, Band 14.1. - Hildesheim, p.108. Hameln 2007.
  9. Stadtgeschichte auf dem Hinterhof. - Hildesheimer Allgemeine Zeitung, 23 June 2009, p.9.
  10. "Fläche und Bevölkerung".
  11. "Stadt Hildesheim Statistische Daten 2014" (PDF). Stadt Hildesheim. Retrieved 2015-07-13.
  12. "Partnerstädte". hildesheim.de (in German). Hildesheim. Retrieved 2021-02-15.
  13. "Kontakdaten Archived 2012-03-10 at the Wayback Machine ." Diocese of Central Europe. Retrieved on 27 February 2011. "Obere Dorfstr. 12 D - 31137 Hildesheim-Himmelsthür"