Neuss

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Neuss
Neuss, Rathaus 2008.JPG
Town hall
Flagge Neuss.svg
Flag
DEU Neuss COA.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Neuss within Rhein-Kreis Neuss district
Neuss in NE.svg
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Red pog.svg
Neuss
North Rhine-Westphalia location map 01.svg
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Neuss
Coordinates: 51°12′N6°42′E / 51.200°N 6.700°E / 51.200; 6.700 Coordinates: 51°12′N6°42′E / 51.200°N 6.700°E / 51.200; 6.700
Country Germany
State North Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. region Düsseldorf
District Rhein-Kreis Neuss
Government
   Mayor (202025) Reiner Breuer  [ de ] [1] (SPD)
Area
  Total99.48 km2 (38.41 sq mi)
Elevation
40 m (130 ft)
Population
 (2020-12-31) [2]
  Total153,109
  Density1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
41460-41472
Dialling codes 02131, 02137 (Norf), 02182
Vehicle registration NE, GV
Website www.neuss.de

Neuss (German pronunciation: [nɔʏs] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); spelled Neuß until 1968; Limburgish : Nüss [nʏs] ; Latin : Novaesium) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the west bank of the Rhine opposite Düsseldorf. Neuss is the largest city within the Rhein-Kreis Neuss district. It is primarily known for its historic Roman sites, as well as the annual Neusser Bürger-Schützenfest. Neuss and Trier share the title of "Germany's oldest city"; and in 1984 Neuss celebrated the 2000th anniversary of its founding in 16 BCE.

Contents

History

Rheinbahn tram in downtown Neuss. Rheinbahn.Neuss.jpg
Rheinbahn tram in downtown Neuss.
Saint Sebastianus church in the city of Neuss St. Sebastianus Kirche Neuss 2.JPG
Saint Sebastianus church in the city of Neuss

Ancient Rome

Neuss was founded by the Romans in 16 BC as a military fortification ( castrum ) with the current city to the north of the castrum, at the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Erft, with the name of Novaesium.

Legio XVI Gallica ("Gallic 16th Legion") of the Roman army was stationed here in 43-70 AD. It was disbanded after surrendering during the Batavian rebellion (AD 70). [3]

Later a civil settlement was founded in the area of today's centre of the town during the 1st century AD. Novaesium, together with Trier (Augusta Treverorum), is one of the three oldest Roman settlements in Germany.

Middle Ages

Neuss grew during the Middle Ages because of its prime location on several routes, by the crossing of the great Rhine valley, and with its harbour and ferry. During the 10th century, the remains of the martyr and tribune Saint Quirinus, not to be confused with the Roman god Quirinus, had been relocated to Neuss. This resulted in pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Quirinus even from countries beyond the borders of the Holy Roman Empire. Neuss was first documented as a town in 1138.

One of the main events in the town's history is the siege of the town in 1474–75 by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, that lasted for nearly a year. The citizens of Neuss withstood the siege and were therefore rewarded by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. The town was granted the right to mint its own coins and to carry the imperial coat of arms, the imperial eagle and the crown, in the town's own coat of arms. Neuss became a member of the Hanseatic League, although it was never accepted by the other members of the League.

Early modernity

In 1586, more than two-thirds of the city was destroyed by fire, and several wars during the reign of King Louis XIV of France resulted in worsening finances for Neuss. Its importance as a place for trading declined rapidly, and from the mid-17th century onwards, Neuss became a place only important for its agriculture.

Until the late 18th century, Neuss belonged to the Electorate of Cologne. From 1794 to 1814, Neuss was part of France during the reign of Napoleon. In 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, Neuss became part of the Kingdom of Prussia, and was reorganized as a district with the municipalities of Neuss, Dormagen, Nettesheim, Nievenheim, Rommerskirchen and Zons. The town had a population of 6,333 at that time. It was part of the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1815–22) and its successor, the Rhine Province (1822–1946).

19th century – present

Neuss regained its economic power in the 19th century, with expansion of the harbour in 1835, and increasing industrial activity. The city's boundaries were expanded in 1881. Neuss became part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia in 1946.

In 1968 the spelling of the name was changed from Neuß to Neuss. In 1975 the town of Neuss and the district of Grevenbroich were joined to form the district of Rhein-Kreis Neuss with a population of 440,000 and its seat of government in Neuss. Neuss is also home to Toshiba's European headquarters.

Largest groups of foreign residents [4]
NationalityPopulation (2018)
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 5,440
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 1,775
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 1,627
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 1,132
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1,088
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (1992-2006).svg  Serbia and Montenegro 1,072
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 982
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 829

Mayors and Lord Mayors since 1849

Number of inhabitants

Sports

One sports club is Neusser Schlittschuh-Klub. Their sections are figure skating, ice stock sport and, as the only club in Germany, bandy. With the lack of a large ice surface, the variety rink bandy is practiced. [5] There are also two football clubs in the city of Neuss, VfR Neuss Football Club, and DJK Novesia Neuss. There is also a fieldhockey club, HTC Schwarz-Weiss Neuss, and TC Blau-Weiss Neuss, a famous tennis club where Nadal began his career. And an American Football Club, the Neuss Frogs. Besides Neuss owns an all-weather racecourse called "Galopprennbahn Neuss".

Points of interest

Notable people

Theodor Schwann 1857 Theodor Schwann Litho.jpg
Theodor Schwann 1857

Twin towns – sister cities

Neuss is twinned with: [7]

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Siege of Neuss

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References

  1. Wahlergebnisse in NRW Kommunalwahlen 2020, Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, accessed 29 June 2021.
  2. "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden Nordrhein-Westfalens am 31. Dezember 2020" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW . Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  3. Matthew Bunson (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Infobase Publishing. pp. 313–. ISBN   978-1-4381-1027-1.
  4. "Die ausländischen Mitbürger in der Stadt Neuss am 0 1.01.2013" (PDF). Stadt Neuss. Retrieved 2014-10-26.
  5. Neusser Schlittschuh-Klub official home page
  6. "Partnerstädte". neuss.de (in German). Neuss. Retrieved 2021-03-02.