Electoral Rhenish Circle

Last updated
The Electoral Rhenish Circle as at the beginning of the 16th century Locator Electoral Rhenish Circle.svg
The Electoral Rhenish Circle as at the beginning of the 16th century
map of the Electoral Rhenish Circle from Topographia Archiepiscopatuum Moguntinensis by Matthaus Merian, 1646 De Merian Mainz Trier Koln 002.jpg
map of the Electoral Rhenish Circle from Topographia Archiepiscopatuum Moguntinensis by Matthäus Merian, 1646

The Electoral Rhenish Circle (German : Kurrheinischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire, created in 1512.

Contents

The circle derived its name from four of the seven prince-electors whose lands along the Middle Rhine comprised the vast majority of its territory.

Composition

The circle was made up of the following states:

NameType of entityComments
Wappen Aremberg.svg Arenberg County Attained imperial immediacy in 1549 under Jean de Ligne, Principality from 1576, raised to Duchy in 1644
Beilstein Lordship Held by the Counts of Nassau-Dillenburg from 1343
Teutonic Knights Arms.svg Cologne Prince-bishopric (Re-)established by King Otto I in 953, Prince-elector and Archchancellor of Italy in 1356; including Vest Recklinghausen and the Duchy of Westphalia
Den tyske ordens skjold.svg Koblenz Bailiwick An administrative grouping of lands including the immediate Lordship of Elsen, held by the Teutonic Knights
Mainz Arms.svg Mainz Prince-bishopricArchbishopric established in 781 by Pope Adrian I, Prince-elector and Archchancellor of Germany in 1356; including Eichsfeld, Erfurt, and Aschaffenburg
Nieder-Isenburg.PNG Nieder-Isenburg CountyEmerged from Isenburg-Isenburg in 1199, partitioned in 1502 into Isenburg-Grenzau and Isenburg-Neumagen (to Sayn-Wittgenstein in 1554), extinct in 1664
Arms of the Palatinate (Bavaria-Palatinate).svg Electorate of the Palatinate County palatinate Arose from the allodium of the Count palatine of Lower Lorraine in 1085 under Henry of Laach, held by the House of Wittelsbach from 1214, Prince-elector and Truchsess in 1356
Armoiries de Rheineck.svg Rheineck Burgraviate Fiefdom of Cologne around Rheineck Castle  [ de; fr ], held by the Freiherren of Varsberg from 1576
Wappen Thurn und Taxis.svg Thurn und Taxis Barons Briefadel without territory, Freiherren from 1608, Counts from 1624, raised to Princely Counts in 1695
Trier Arms.svg Trier Prince-bishopricEstablished in 902, Prince-elector and Archchancellor of Arles in 1356

Sources

Related Research Articles

Franconia Cultural region of Germany in Bavaria

Franconia is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, colloquially referred to as "Franconian", is spoken. There are several other Franconian dialects, but only the East Franconian ones are colloquially referred to as "Franconian".

Electoral Palatinate Historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire

The County Palatine of the Rhine, later the Electorate of the Palatinate or simply Electoral Palatinate, was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire administered by the count palatine of the Rhine. Its rulers served as prince-electors from "time immemorial", were noted as such in a papal letter of 1261, and were confirmed as electors by the Golden Bull of 1356.

Palatinate (region) Region in southwestern Germany

The Palatinate, historically also Rhenish Palatinate or Lower Palatinate (Unterpfalz), is a region in southwestern Germany. It occupies roughly the southernmost quarter of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz), covering an area of 5,451 square kilometres (2,105 sq mi) with about 1.4 million inhabitants. Its residents are known as Palatines.

Rhineland Historic region of Germany

The Rhineland is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

Imperial circle Administrative groupings of the Holy Roman Empire

During the Early Modern period the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Imperial Circles, administrative groupings whose primary purposes were the organization of common defensive structure and the collection of imperial taxes. They were also used as a means of organization within the Imperial Diet and the Imperial Chamber Court. Each circle had a Circle Diet, although not every member of the Circle Diet would hold membership of the Imperial Diet as well.

Rhenish Hesse

Rhenish Hesse or Rhine-Hesse is a region and a former government district in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, made up of those territories west of the Upper Rhine river that from 1816 were part of the Grand Duchy of Hesse and of the People's State of Hesse until 1945. The hilly countryside is largely devoted to vineyards, comprising the Rheinhessen wine region.

Nikolay Rumyantsev

Count Nikolai Petrovich Rumyantsev, born in Saint Petersburg, was Russia's Foreign Minister and Chancellor of the Russian Empire in the run-up to Napoleon's invasion of Russia (1808–12). He was the son of Field Marshal Pyotr Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky from the Rumyantsev comital family.

Austrian Circle Imperial circle of the Holy Roman Empire

The Austrian Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. It was one of the four Imperial Circles created by decree after the 1512 Diet at Cologne, twelve years after the original six Circles were established in the course of the Imperial Reform. It roughly corresponds to present-day Austria, Slovenia, and the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Venezia Giulia regions of Northern Italy, but also comprised the Further Austrian territories in the former Swabian stem duchy.

Bavarian Circle

The Bavarian Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire.

Franconian Circle

The Franconian Circle was an Imperial Circle established in 1500 in the centre of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised the eastern part of the former Franconian stem duchy—roughly corresponding with the present-day Bavarian Regierungsbezirke of Upper, Middle and Lower Franconia—while western Rhenish Franconia belonged to the Upper Rhenish Circle. The title of a "Duke of Franconia" was claimed by the Würzburg bishops.

Lower Saxon Circle

The Lower Saxon Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. It covered much of the territory of the medieval Duchy of Saxony, and was originally called the Saxon Circle before later being better differentiated from the Upper Saxon Circle by the more specific name.

Upper Saxon Circle

The Upper Saxon Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire, created in 1512.

Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle

The Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised territories of the former Duchy of Lower Lorraine, Frisia and the Westphalian part of the former Duchy of Saxony.

Swabian Circle

The Circle of Swabia or Swabian Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1500 on the territory of the former German stem-duchy of Swabia. However, it did not include the Habsburg home territories of Swabian Austria, the member states of the Swiss Confederacy nor the lands of the Alsace region west of the Rhine, which belonged to the Upper Rhenish Circle. The Swabian League of 1488, a predecessor organization, disbanded in the course of the Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years War later in the 16th century.

Upper Rhenish Circle

The Upper Rhenish Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1500 on the territory of the former Duchy of Upper Lorraine and large parts of Rhenish Franconia including the Swabian Alsace region and the Burgundian duchy of Savoy.

Duchy of Franconia

The Duchy of Franconia was one of the five stem duchies of East Francia and the medieval Kingdom of Germany emerging in the early 10th century. The word Franconia, first used in a Latin charter of 1053, was applied like the words Francia, France, and Franken, to a portion of the land occupied by the Franks.

Rhenish Franconia

Rhenish Franconia or Western Franconia (Westfranken) denotes the western half of the central German stem duchy of Franconia in the 10th and 11th century, with its residence at the city of Worms. The territory located on the banks of Rhine river roughly corresponded with the present-day state of Hesse and the adjacent Palatinate region in the south.

Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire) General assembly of the Holy Roman Empire

The Imperial Diet was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire. It was not a legislative body in the contemporary sense; its members envisioned it more like a central forum where it was more important to negotiate than to decide.

Territories of the Holy Roman Empire outside the Imperial Circles

When the Imperial Circles — comprising a regional grouping of territories of the Holy Roman Empire — were created as part of the Imperial Reform at the 1500 Diet of Augsburg, many Imperial territories remained unencircled.