Middle East

Last updated

Coordinates: 29°N41°E / 29°N 41°E / 29; 41

Middle East
Middle East (orthographic projection).svg
Area7,207,575 km2 (2,782,860 sq mi)
Population371 million (2010) [1]
Countries
Dependencies
Languages
Time zones UTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, UTC+03:30, UTC+04:00, UTC+04:30
Largest cities Largest cities:
Map of the Middle East between Africa, Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. Middle east.jpg
Map of the Middle East between Africa, Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia.
Middle East map of Koppen climate classification. Middle East map of Koppen climate classification.svg
Middle East map of Köppen climate classification.

The Middle East is a transcontinental region in Afro-Eurasia which generally includes Western Asia (except for Transcaucasia), all of Egypt (mostly in North Africa), and Turkey (partly in Southeast Europe). The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. The broader concept of the "Greater Middle East" (aka the Middle East and North Africa or the MENAP) also includes the Maghreb, Sudan, Djibouti, Somalia, the Comoros, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and sometimes Transcaucasia and Central Asia into the region. The term "Middle East" has led to some confusion over its changing definitions.

Contents

Most Middle Eastern countries (13 out of 18) are part of the Arab world. The most populous countries in the region are Egypt, Iran, and Turkey, while Saudi Arabia is the largest Middle Eastern country by area. The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the geopolitical importance of the region being recognized for millennia. [2] [3] [4] Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Arabs constitute the majority ethnic group in the region, [5] followed by Turks, Persians, Kurds, Azeris, Copts, Jews, Assyrians, Iraqi Turkmen, and Greek Cypriots.

The Middle East generally has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia (Iraq, Kuwait, and eastern Syria), and most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent. Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports. Because of the arid climate and heavy reliance on the fossil fuel industry, the Middle East is both a heavy contributor to climate change and a region expected to be severely negatively impacted by it.

Terminology

The term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. [6] However, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 [7] to "designate the area between Arabia and India". [8] [9] During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of its center, the Persian Gulf. [10] [11] He labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, and said that after Egypt's Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India. [12] Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in September 1902 in the National Review , a British journal.

The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar; it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. Naval force has the quality of mobility which carries with it the privilege of temporary absences; but it needs to find on every scene of operation established bases of refit, of supply, and in case of disaster, of security. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, India, and the Persian Gulf. [13]

Mahan's article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India." [14] After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. [15]

Until World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "Near East", while the "Far East" centered on China, [16] and the Middle East then meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East.[ citation needed ] In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, which was based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term "Middle East" gained broader usage in Europe and the United States, with the Middle East Institute founded in Washington, D.C. in 1946, among other usage. [17]

The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner.

Criticism and usage

1957 American film about the Middle East

The description Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Turkestan. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia (e.g. China, Japan, Korea, etc.)

With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" largely fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, which is not used by these disciplines (see Ancient Near East).

The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including Libya on the west and Pakistan on the east, Syria and Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the Sudan and Ethiopia." [16] In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, and defined the region as including only Egypt, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar. [18]

The Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous. It instructs:

Use Middle East unless Near East is used by a source in a story. Mideast is also acceptable, but Middle East is preferred. [19]

The term Middle East has also been criticised as Eurocentric ("based on a British Western perception") by Hanafi (1998). [20]

Translations

There are terms similar to Near East and Middle East in other European languages, but since it is a relative description, the meanings depend on the country and are different from the English terms generally. In German the term Naher Osten (Near East) is still in common use (nowadays the term Mittlerer Osten is more and more common in press texts translated from English sources, albeit having a distinct meaning) and in Russian Ближний Восток or Blizhniy Vostok, Bulgarian Близкия Изток, Polish Bliski Wschód or Croatian Bliski istok (meaning Near East in all the four Slavic languages) remains as the only appropriate term for the region. However, some languages do have "Middle East" equivalents, such as the French Moyen-Orient, Swedish Mellanöstern, Spanish Oriente Medio or Medio Oriente, and the Italian Medio Oriente. [note 1]

Perhaps because of the influence of the Western press, the Arabic equivalent of Middle East (Arabic: الشرق الأوسط ash-Sharq al-Awsaṭ) has become standard usage in the mainstream Arabic press, comprising the same meaning as the term "Middle East" in North American and Western European usage. The designation, Mashriq , also from the Arabic root for East, also denotes a variously defined region around the Levant, the eastern part of the Arabic-speaking world (as opposed to the Maghreb , the western part). [21] Even though the term originated in the West, apart from Arabic, other languages of countries of the Middle East also use a translation of it. The Persian equivalent for Middle East is خاورمیانه (Khāvar-e miyāneh), the Hebrew is המזרח התיכון (hamizrach hatikhon) and the Turkish is Orta Doğu.

Territories and regions

Territories and regions usually considered within the Middle East

Traditionally included within the Middle East are Iran (Persia), Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and Egypt. In modern-day-country terms they are these:

Arms Flag State Area
(km2)
Population
(2012)
Density
(per km2)
Capital Nominal
GDP
, bn (2018) [22]
Per capita (2018) [23] CurrencyGovernmentOfficial
languages
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Akrotiri and Dhekelia 25415,700N/A Episkopi N/AN/A Euro De facto stratocratic dependency under a constitutional monarchy English
Arms of Bahrain.png Flag of Bahrain.svg Bahrain 7801,234,5961,582.8 Manama $30.355$25,851 Bahraini dinar Absolute monarchy Arabic
Arms of Cyprus.svg Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus 9,2501,088,503117 Nicosia $24.492$28,340 Euro Presidential republic Greek,
Turkish
Insigne Aegyptium.svg Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 1,010,40782,798,00090 Cairo $249.559$2,573 Egyptian pound Presidential republic Arabic
Emblem of Iran.svg Flag of Iran.svg Iran 1,648,19578,868,71145 Tehran $452.275$5,491 Iranian rial Islamic republic Persian
Arms of Iraq.svg Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq 438,31733,635,00073.5 Baghdad $226.07$5,930 Iraqi dinar Parliamentary republic Arabic,
Kurdish
Emblem of Israel.svg Flag of Israel.svg Israel 20,7707,653,600365.3 Jerusalem a $369.843$41,644 Israeli shekel Parliamentary republic Hebrew
Arms of Jordan.svg Flag of Jordan.svg Jordan 92,3006,318,67768.4 Amman $42.371$4,278 Jordanian dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic
Insigne Cuvaiti.svg Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait 17,8203,566,437167.5 Kuwait City $141.05$30,839 Kuwaiti dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic
Coat of Arms of Lebanon.svg Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon 10,4524,228,000404 Beirut $56.409$9,257 Lebanese pound Parliamentary republic Arabic
National emblem of Oman.svg Flag of Oman.svg Oman 212,4602,694,0949.2 Muscat $82.243$19,302 Omani rial Absolute monarchy Arabic
Insigne Palaestinae.svg Flag of Palestine.svg Palestine 6,2204,260,636667 Ramallah a n/an/a Israeli shekel,
Jordanian dinar
Semi-presidential republic Arabic
Emblem of Qatar.svg Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar 11,4371,696,563123.2 Doha $192.45$70,780 Qatari riyal Absolute monarchy Arabic
Emblem of Saudi Arabia.svg Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia 2,149,69027,136,97712 Riyadh $782.483$23,566 Saudi riyal Absolute monarchy Arabic
Insigne Syriae.svg Flag of Syria.svg Syria 185,18023,695,000118.3 Damascus n/an/a Syrian pound Presidential republic Arabic
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 783,56273,722,98894.1 Ankara $766.428$9,346 Turkish lira Presidential republic Turkish
Arms of the United Arab Emirates.svg Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates 82,8808,264,07097 Abu Dhabi $424.635$40,711 UAE dirham Federal Absolute monarchy Arabic
Insigne Iemeniae.svg Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen 527,97023,580,00044.7 Sana'a b
Aden (provisional)
$26.914$872 Yemeni rial Provisional presidential republic Arabic
a. ^ ^ Jerusalem is the proclaimed capital of Israel, which is disputed and the actual location of the Knesset, Israeli Supreme Court, and other governmental institutions of Israel. Ramallah is the actual location of the government of Palestine, whereas the proclaimed capital of Palestine is East Jerusalem, which is disputed.
b. ^ Controlled by the Houthis due to the ongoing war. Seat of government moved to Aden.

Other definitions of the Middle East

Various concepts are often being paralleled to Middle East, most notably Near East, Fertile Crescent and the Levant. Near East, Levant and Fertile Crescent are geographic concepts, which refer to large sections of the modern defined Middle East, with Near East being the closest to Middle East in its geographic meaning. Due to it primarily being Arabic speaking, the Maghreb region of North Africa is sometimes included.

The countries of the South CaucasusArmenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia—are occasionally included in definitions of the Middle East. [24]

The Greater Middle East was a political term coined by the second Bush administration in the first decade of the 21st century, [25] to denote various countries, pertaining to the Muslim world, specifically Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan and Pakistan. [26] Various Central Asian countries are sometimes also included. [27]

History

Western Wall and Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem Jerusalem kotel mosque.jpg
Western Wall and Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
The Kaaba, located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia Kaaba mirror edit jj.jpg
The Kaaba, located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

The Middle East lies at the juncture of Eurasia and Africa and of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. It is the birthplace and spiritual center of religions such as Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Manichaeism, Yezidi, Druze, Yarsan and Mandeanism, and in Iran, Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism, and the Baháʼí Faith. Throughout its history the Middle East has been a major center of world affairs; a strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive area. The region is one of the regions were agriculture was independently discovered, and from the Middle East it was spread, during the Neolithic, to different regions of the world such as Europe, the Indus Valley and Eastern Africa.

Prior to the formation of civilizations, advanced cultures formed all over the Middle East during the Stone age. The search for agricultural lands by agriculturalists, and pastoral lands by herdsmen meant different migrations took place within the region and shaped its ethnic and demographic makeup.

Around 10,000 BC the first fully developed Neolithic cultures belonging to the phase Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) appeared in the Fertile Crescent. [28] Around 10,700–9400 BC a settlement was established in Tell Qaramel, 10 miles (16 km) north of Aleppo. The settlement included two temples dating to 9650 BC. [29] Around 9000 BC during the PPNA, one of the world's first towns, Jericho, appeared in the Levant. It was surrounded by a stone wall and contained a population of 2,000–3,000 people and a massive stone tower. [30] Around 6400 BC the Halaf culture appeared in Syria and Northern Mesopotamia. The Halaf culture was adjacent to the Ubaid culture (c. 6500 BC) of southern Mesopotamia, Hassuna culture (c. 6000 BC) of northeastern Mesopotamia and Samarra culture (c. 5500 BC) of central Mesopotamia.

In 1981 a team of researchers from the Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, including Jacques Cauvin and Oliver Aurenche divided Near East Neolithic chronology into ten periods (0 to 9) based on social, economic and cultural characteristics. [31] In 2002 Danielle Stordeur and Frédéric Abbès advanced this system with a division into five periods.

  1. Natufian between 12,000 and 10,200 BC,
  2. Khiamian between 10,200 and 8800 BC, PPNA: Sultanian (Jericho), Mureybetian,
  3. Early PPNB (PPNB ancien) between 8800 and 7600 BC, middle PPNB (PPNB moyen) between 7600 and 6900 BC,
  4. Late PPNB (PPNB récent) between 7500 and 7000 BC,
  5. A PPNB (sometimes called PPNC) transitional stage (PPNB final) in which Halaf and dark faced burnished ware begin to emerge between 6900 and 6400 BC. [32]

The Middle East is widely and most famously known as the Cradle of civilization. The world's earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia), ancient Egypt and Kish in the Levant, all originated in the Fertile Crescent and Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East. These were followed by the Hittite, Greek, Hurrian and Urartian civilisations of Asia Minor, Elam in pre-Iranian Persia, as well as the civilizations of the Levant (such as Ebla, Mari, Nagar, Ugarit, Canaan, Aramea, Mitanni, Phoenicia and Israel), Persian and Median civilizations in Iran, North Africa (Carthage/Phoenicia) and the Arabian Peninsula (Magan, Sheba, Ubar). The Near East was first largely unified under the Neo Assyrian Empire, then the Achaemenid Empire followed later by the Macedonian Empire and after this to some degree by the Iranian empires (namely the Parthian and Sassanid Empires), the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire. The region served as the intellectual and economic center of the Roman Empire and played an exceptionally important role due to its periphery on the Sassanid Empire. From the 4th century CE onwards, the Middle East became the center of the two main powers at the time, the Byzantine empire and the Sassanid Empire. However, it would be the later Arab Caliphates of the Middle Ages, or Islamic Golden Age which began with the Arab conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant Islamic ethnic identity that largely (but not exclusively) persists today. The 4 caliphates that dominated the Middle East for more than 600 years were the Rashidun Caliphate, the Umayyad caliphate, the Abbasid caliphate and the Fatimid caliphate. The Mongols, the Kingdom of Armenia, the Franks during the crusades, the Seljuks, the Safavids, the Mamluks, the Ottoman Empire, and the British Empire also dominated the region.

The modern Middle East began after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the Central Powers, was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the eventual departure of European powers, notably Britain and France by the end of the 1960s. They were supplanted in some part by the rising influence of the United States from the 1970s onwards.

In the 20th century, the region's significant stocks of crude oil gave it new strategic and economic importance. Mass production of oil began around 1945, with Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, and the United Arab Emirates having large quantities of oil. [33] Estimated oil reserves, especially in Saudi Arabia and Iran, are some of the highest in the world, and the international oil cartel OPEC is dominated by Middle Eastern countries.

During the Cold War, the Middle East was a theater of ideological struggle between the two superpowers and their allies: NATO and the United States on one side, and the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact on the other, as they competed to influence regional allies. Besides the political reasons there was also the "ideological conflict" between the two systems. Moreover, as Louise Fawcett argues, among many important areas of contention, or perhaps more accurately of anxiety, were, first, the desires of the superpowers to gain strategic advantage in the region, second, the fact that the region contained some two-thirds of the world's oil reserves in a context where oil was becoming increasingly vital to the economy of the Western world [...] [34] Within this contextual framework, the United States sought to divert the Arab world from Soviet influence. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict particularly between Sunnis and Shiites.

Demographics

Maunsell's map, a Pre-World War I British Ethnographical Map of the Middle East Maunsell's map, Pre-World War I British Ethnographical Map of eastern Turkey in Asia, Syria and western Persia 01.jpg
Maunsell's map, a Pre-World War I British Ethnographical Map of the Middle East

Ethnic groups

Arabs constitute the largest ethnic group in the Middle East, followed by various Iranian peoples and then by Turkic speaking groups (Turkish, Azeris, and Iraqi Turkmen). Native ethnic groups of the region include, in addition to Arabs, Arameans, Assyrians, Baloch, Berbers, Copts, Druze, Greek Cypriots, Jews, Kurds, Lurs, Mandaeans, Persians, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Bosniaks, Circassians (including Kabardians), Crimean Tatars, Greeks, Franco-Levantines, Italo-Levantines, and Iraqi Turkmens. Among other migrant populations are Chinese, Filipinos, Indians, Indonesians, Pakistanis, Pashtuns, Romani, and Afro-Arabs.


Migration

"Migration has always provided an important vent for labor market pressures in the Middle East. For the period between the 1970s and 1990s, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in particular provided a rich source of employment for workers from Egypt, Yemen and the countries of the Levant, while Europe had attracted young workers from North African countries due both to proximity and the legacy of colonial ties between France and the majority of North African states." [35] According to the International Organization for Migration, there are 13 million first-generation migrants from Arab nations in the world, of which 5.8 reside in other Arab countries. Expatriates from Arab countries contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. In 2009 Arab countries received a total of US$35.1 billion in remittance in-flows and remittances sent to Jordan, Egypt and Lebanon from other Arab countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab countries. [36] In Somalia, the Somali Civil War has greatly increased the size of the Somali diaspora, as many of the best educated Somalis left for Middle Eastern countries as well as Europe and North America.

Non-Arab Middle Eastern countries such as Turkey, Israel and Iran are also subject to important migration dynamics.

A fair proportion of those migrating from Arab nations are from ethnic and religious minorities facing racial and or religious persecution and are not necessarily ethnic Arabs, Iranians or Turks.[ citation needed ] Large numbers of Kurds, Jews, Assyrians, Greeks and Armenians as well as many Mandeans have left nations such as Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey for these reasons during the last century. In Iran, many religious minorities such as Christians, Baháʼís and Zoroastrians have left since the Islamic Revolution of 1979.[ citation needed ]

Religions

Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East. Here, Muslim men are prostrating during prayer in a mosque. Mosque.jpg
Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East. Here, Muslim men are prostrating during prayer in a mosque.

The Middle East is very diverse when it comes to religions, many of which originated there. Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East, but other faiths that originated there, such as Judaism and Christianity, are also well represented. Christians represent 40.5% of Lebanon, where the Lebanese president, half of the cabinet, and half of the parliament follow one of the various Lebanese Christian rites. There are also important minority religions like the Baháʼí Faith, Yarsanism, Yazidism, Zoroastrianism, Mandaeism, Druze, and Shabakism, and in ancient times the region was home to Mesopotamian religions, Canaanite religions, Manichaeism, Mithraism and various monotheist gnostic sects.

Languages

The five top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Kurdish, and Hebrew. Arabic and Hebrew represent the Afro-Asiatic language family. Persian and Kurdish belong to the Indo-European language family. Turkish belongs to Turkic language family. About 20 minority languages are also spoken in the Middle East.

Arabic, with all its dialects, are the most widely spoken languages in the Middle East, with Literary Arabic being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. Arabic dialects are also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. It is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Several Modern South Arabian languages such as Mehri and Soqotri are also spoken Yemen and Oman. Another Semitic language such as Aramaic and its dialects are spoken mainly by Assyrians and Mandaeans. There is also an Oasis Berber-speaking community in Egypt where the language is also known as Siwa. It is a non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic language.

Persian is the second most spoken language. While it is primarily spoken in Iran and some border areas in neighbouring countries, the country is one of the region's largest and most populous. It belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the family of Indo-European languages. Other Western Iranic languages spoken in the region include Achomi, Daylami, Kurdish dialects, Semmani, Lurish, amongst many others.

The third-most widely spoken language, Turkish, is largely confined to Turkey, which is also one of the region's largest and most populous countries, but it is present in areas in neighboring countries. It is a member of the Turkic languages, which have their origins in Central Asia. Another Turkic language, Azerbaijani, is spoken by Azerbaijanis in Iran.

Hebrew is one of the two official languages of Israel, the other being Arabic. Hebrew is spoken and used by over 80% of Israel's population, the other 20% using Arabic.

English is one of the official languages of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. [37] [38] It is also commonly taught and used as a second language, especially among the middle and upper classes, in countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Iran, Kurdistan, Iraq, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. [39] [40] It is also a main language in some Emirates of the United Arab Emirates.

French is taught and used in many government facilities and media in Lebanon, and is taught in some primary and secondary schools of Egypt and Syria. Maltese, a Semitic language mainly spoken in Europe, is also used by the Franco-Maltese diaspora in Egypt.

Armenian and Greek speakers are also to be found in the region. Georgian is spoken by the Georgian diaspora. Russian is spoken by a large portion of the Israeli population, because of emigration in the late 1990s. [41] Russian today is a popular unofficial language in use in Israel; news, radio and sign boards can be found in Russian around the country after Hebrew and Arabic. Circassian is also spoken by the diaspora in the region and by almost all Circassians in Israel who speak Hebrew and English as well. The largest Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East is found in Israel, where as of 1995 Romanian is spoken by 5% of the population. [note 2] [42] [43]

Bengali, Hindi and Urdu are widely spoken by migrant communities in many Middle Eastern countries, such as Saudi Arabia (where 20–25% of the population is South Asian), the United Arab Emirates (where 50–55% of the population is South Asian), and Qatar, which have large numbers of Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Indian immigrants.

Economy

Oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East Oil and Gas Infrastructure Persian Gulf (large).gif
Oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East

Middle Eastern economies range from being very poor (such as Gaza and Yemen) to extremely wealthy nations (such as Qatar and UAE). Overall, as of 2007, according to the CIA World Factbook, all nations in the Middle East are maintaining a positive rate of growth.

According to the World Bank's World Development Indicators database published on July 1, 2009, the three largest Middle Eastern economies in 2008 were Turkey ($794,228), Saudi Arabia ($467,601) and Iran ($385,143) in terms of Nominal GDP. [44] Regarding nominal GDP per capita, the highest ranking countries are Qatar ($93,204), the UAE ($55,028), Kuwait ($45,920) and Cyprus ($32,745). [45] Turkey ($1,028,897), Iran ($839,438) and Saudi Arabia ($589,531) had the largest economies in terms of GDP-PPP. [46] When it comes to per capita (PPP)-based income, the highest-ranking countries are Qatar ($86,008), Kuwait ($39,915), the UAE ($38,894), Bahrain ($34,662) and Cyprus ($29,853). The lowest-ranking country in the Middle East, in terms of per capita income (PPP), is the autonomous Palestinian Authority of Gaza and the West Bank ($1,100).

The economic structure of Middle Eastern nations are different in the sense that while some nations are heavily dependent on export of only oil and oil-related products (such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait), others have a highly diverse economic base (such as Cyprus, Israel, Turkey and Egypt). Industries of the Middle Eastern region include oil and oil-related products, agriculture, cotton, cattle, dairy, textiles, leather products, surgical instruments, defence equipment (guns, ammunition, tanks, submarines, fighter jets, UAVs, and missiles). Banking is also an important sector of the economies, especially in the case of UAE and Bahrain.

With the exception of Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon and Israel, tourism has been a relatively undeveloped area of the economy, in part because of the socially conservative nature of the region as well as political turmoil in certain regions of the Middle East. In recent years, however, countries such as the UAE, Bahrain, and Jordan have begun attracting greater numbers of tourists because of improving tourist facilities and the relaxing of tourism-related restrictive policies.

Unemployment is notably high in the Middle East and North Africa region, particularly among young people aged 15–29, a demographic representing 30% of the region's total population. The total regional unemployment rate in 2005, according to the International Labour Organization, was 13.2%, [47] and among youth is as high as 25%, [48] up to 37% in Morocco and 73% in Syria. [49]

Climate change

Middle East map of Koppen climate classification Middle East map of Koppen climate classification.svg
Middle East map of Köppen climate classification
Africa map of Koppen climate classification Africa map of Koppen climate classification.svg
Africa map of Köppen climate classification

Climate change in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) refers to changes in the climate of the MENA region and the subsequent response, adaption and mitigation strategies of countries in the region. In 2018, the MENA region emitted 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide and produced 8.7% of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) [50] despite making up only 6% of the global population. [51] These emissions are mostly from the energy sector, [52] an integral component of many Middle Eastern and North African economies due to the extensive oil and natural gas reserves that are found within the region. [53] [54]

Recognised by the United Nations, The World Bank and the World Health Organisation as one of the greatest global challenges in the 21st century, climate change is currently having an unprecedented effect upon the Earth's natural systems. [55] [56] [57] Sharp global temperature and sea level changes, shifting precipitation patterns and increased frequency of extreme weather events are some of the main impacts of climate change as identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). [58] The MENA region is especially vulnerable to such impacts due to its arid and semi-arid environment, facing climatic challenges such as low rainfall, high temperatures and dry soil. [58] [59] The climatic conditions that foster such challenges for MENA are projected by the IPCC to worsen throughout the 21st century. [58] If greenhouse gas emissions are not significantly reduced, part of the MENA region risks becoming uninhabitable before the year 2100. [60] [61] [62]

Climate change is expected to put significant strain on already scarce water and agricultural resources within the MENA region, threatening the national security and political stability of all included countries. [63] This has prompted some MENA countries to engage with the issue of climate change on an international level through environmental accords such as the Paris Agreement. Policy is also being established on a national level amongst MENA countries, with a focus on the development of renewable energies. [64]
This video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station.
This video over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station.
A pass beginning over Turkmenistan, east of the Caspian Sea to south-eastern China, just north-west of Hong Kong.

See also

Notes

  1. In Italian, the expression "Vicino Oriente" (Near East) was also widely used to refer to Turkey, and Estremo Oriente (Far East or Extreme East) to refer to all of Asia east of Middle East
  2. According to the 1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel there were 250,000 Romanian speakers in Israel, at a population of 5,548,523 (census 1995).

Related Research Articles

The Levant is the large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the south, and Mesopotamia in the east. It stretches 400 miles north to south from the Taurus Mountains to the Sinai desert, and 70 to 100 miles east to west between the sea and the Arabian desert. The term is also sometimes used to refer to modern events or states in the region immediately bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria and Hatay Province of Turkey.

Levant Region in the Eastern Mediterranean

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria, which included present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine and most of Turkey south-east of the middle Euphrates. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the Eastern Mediterranean with its islands; that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica in eastern Libya.

Arab world Geographic and cultural region in Africa and the Middle East

The Arab world, formally the Arab homeland, also known as the Arab nation, the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Arab countries which are members of the Arab League. A majority of these countries are located in Western Asia, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa; the southernmost member, the Comoros, is an island country off the coast of East Africa. The region stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Indian Ocean in the southeast. The eastern part of the Arab world is known as the Mashriq, and the western part as the Maghreb. Arabic is used as the lingua franca throughout the Arab world.

Near East Geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia

The Near East is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental region comprising Western Asia, Turkey, and Egypt. Despite having varying definitions within different academic circles, the term was originally applied to the maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire. The term has fallen into disuse in American English and has been replaced by the terms Middle East, which includes Egypt, and Western Asia, which includes the South Caucasus.

Western Asia Westernmost portion of Asia

Western Asia—or simply West Asia—is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It includes Anatolia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Mesopotamia, the Levant region, the island of Cyprus, the Sinai Peninsula, and Transcaucasia (partly). The region is considered to be separated from Africa by the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt, and separated from Europe by the waterways of the Turkish Straits and the watershed of the Greater Caucasus. Central Asia lies to its northeast, while South Asia lies to its east. Eight seas surround the region (clockwise): the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea.

The Arameans were an ancient Semitic-speaking people in the Middle East in the 1st millennium BC. A number of Aramean states were established throughout the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia in the early Iron Age before their conquest by the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Population transfer under the Assyrian empire resulted in a symbiosis of the Assyrians and Arameans, and the Aramaic language became the lingua franca of the Near East until the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 7th century.

History of the Middle East Aspect of history

Home to the Cradle of Civilization, the Middle East—interchangeable with the Near East—has seen many of the world's oldest cultures and civilizations. This history started from the earliest human settlements, continuing through several major pre- and post-Islamic Empires through to the nation-states of the Middle East today.

Mashriq is a name of the cultural and geographical region in the eastern part of the Arab world, split between westernmost Western Asia and easternmost North Africa. This area comprises the modern Arab states of Bahrain, Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Yemen, Oman, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine and Iraq. The four cultural regions within Mashriq are Arabia, Nile Valley, Levant and the Persian Gulf.

MENA Middle East and North Africa region

MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa, which corresponds to the Greater Middle East. It is alternatively called the WANA, as well as the MENAP, which also includes Central Asia and the South Asian countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The MENAP covers an extensive region stretching from the Maghreb in the west to Pakistan in the east. The MENA acronym is often used in academia, military planning, disaster relief, media planning as a broadcast region, and business writing. Moreover, the region shares a number of cultural, economic and environmental similarities across the countries; for example, some of the most extreme impacts of climate change will be felt in the region.

The Iraqi people are people identified with the country of Iraq.

Armenians in the Middle East are mostly concentrated in Iran, Lebanon, Cyprus, Syria, Jordan and Jerusalem, although well-established communities exist in Iraq, Egypt, Turkey and other countries of the area including, of course, Armenia itself. They tend to speak the western dialect of the Armenian language and the majority are adherents of the Armenian Apostolic Church, with smaller Catholic and Protestant minorities. There is a sizable Armenian population in the thousands in Israel and especially the Armenian Quarter in Jerusalem with a history that goes back 2,000 years. Armenians in Lebanon have the most freedoms, compared to other regions in the area that have large number of Armenians.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has emphasized education's importance as a fundamental human right and a necessary element of development. Education encompasses the scope of social values, morality, tradition, religion, politics and history. It is the acquired body of knowledge that equips the emerging labor force with the necessary skills to ensure its active participation in economic development. The acquisition of literacy, arithmetic, and problem-solving skills improves the value and efficiency of labor. It creates a skilled and intellectually flexible labor force through training, expertise, and academic credentials. A professional working force enhances the quality of a nation's economic productivity and guarantees its suitability for global market competitiveness. According to a recent research report by the United Nations Population Fund, countries such as Egypt, Jordan, and Algeria have invested in family planning, healthcare, and education and have subsequently experienced more rapid economic development than the countries that were reluctant to invest in social development programs.

Demographics of the Arab League

The Arab League is a social, cultural and economic grouping of 22 Arab states in the Arabic speaking world. As of 2018, the combined population of all the Arab states was around 407-420 million people.

Eastern Arabian cuisine

Eastern Arabian cuisine includes the similar cuisines that are shared by the population in the Eastern Arabia. Seafood is a very significant part of the diet of the inhabitants of the coastal region of Eastern Arabia. Fish is very popular, usually eaten with rice. The cuisine of eastern Arabia is different from the cuisine of the Arabs of Hejaz, Najd and other parts of Arabia. Harees is also a very popular dish in the region.

Three major religious groups originated in the Middle East. Smaller minority religions, such as the Baháʼí Faith, Druze, Nusairism, Manichaeism, Sabianism, Bábism, Yazidism, Mandaeism, Gnosticism, Yarsanism, Samaritanism, Shabakism, Ishikism, Ali-Illahism, Alevism, Yazdânism and Zoroastrianism are also present in the Middle East.

Ethnic groups in the Middle East Wikimedia list article

The ethnic groups in the Middle East refers to the peoples that reside in Western Asia and Egypt in North Africa, a transcontinental region commonly known as the Middle East. The region has historically been a crossroad of different cultures. Since the 1960s, the changes in political and economic factors have significantly altered the ethnic composition of groups in the region. While some ethnic groups have been present in the region for millennia, others have arrived fairly recently through immigration. The largest ethnic groups in the region are the Arabs, Azerbaijanis, Egyptians, Kurds, Persians, and Turks, but there are dozens of other ethnic groups which have hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of members.

Alexei Mikhailovich Vasiliev scholar

Alexei Mikhailovich Vasiliev is a prominent Russian Arabist and Africanist. Dr. of Science, Professor, full member (academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) since 2011.

Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples or Proto-Semite people were Western Asian people who lived throughout the ancient Near East, including the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Horn of Africa from the third millennium BC until the end of antiquity.

The Demographics of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region show a highly populated, culturally diverse region spanning three continents. As of 2018, the population was nearly 578 million. The class, cultural, ethnic, governmental, linguistic and religious make-up of the region is highly variable.

References

  1. Population 1971–2010 (pdf Archived 2012-01-06 at the Wayback Machine p. 89) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) (original population ref OECD/ World Bank e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 p. 57)
  2. Cairo, Michael F. The Gulf: The Bush Presidencies and the Middle East Archived 2015-12-22 at the Wayback Machine University Press of Kentucky, 2012 ISBN   978-0-8131-3672-1 p xi.
  3. Government Printing Office. History of the Office of the Secretary of Defense: The formative years, 1947–1950 Archived 2015-12-22 at the Wayback Machine ISBN   978-0-16-087640-0 p 177
  4. Kahana, Ephraim. Suwaed, Muhammad. Historical Dictionary of Middle Eastern Intelligence Archived 2015-12-23 at the Wayback Machine Scarecrow Press, 13 apr. 2009 ISBN   978-0-8108-6302-6 p. xxxi.
  5. Shoup, John A. (2011-10-31). Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia. ISBN   978-1-59884-362-0. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  6. Beaumont, Blake & Wagstaff 1988, p. 16.
  7. Koppes, CR (1976). "Captain Mahan, General Gordon and the origin of the term "Middle East"". Middle East Studies. 12: 95–98. doi:10.1080/00263207608700307.
  8. Lewis, Bernard (1965). The Middle East and the West. p. 9.
  9. Fromkin, David (1989). A Peace to end all Peace. p.  224. ISBN   978-0-8050-0857-9.
  10. Melman, Billie (November 2002), Companion to Travel Writing, Collections Online, 6 The Middle East/Arabia, Cambridge, archived from the original on July 25, 2011, retrieved January 8, 2006.
  11. Palmer, Michael A. Guardians of the Persian Gulf: A History of America's Expanding Role in the Persian Gulf, 1833–1992. New York: The Free Press, 1992. ISBN   0-02-923843-9 pp. 12–13.
  12. Laciner, Dr. Sedat. "Is There a Place Called 'the Middle East'? Archived 2007-02-20 at the Wayback Machine ", The Journal of Turkish Weekly, June 2, 2006. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
  13. Adelson 1995, pp. 22–23.
  14. Adelson 1995, p. 24.
  15. Adelson 1995, p. 26.
  16. 1 2 Davison, Roderic H. (1960). "Where is the Middle East?". Foreign Affairs. 38 (4): 665–75. doi:10.2307/20029452. JSTOR   20029452. S2CID   157454140.
  17. Held, Colbert C. (2000). Middle East Patterns: Places, Peoples, and Politics . Westview Press. p.  7. ISBN   978-0-8133-8221-0.
  18. "'Near East' is Mideast, Washington Explains". The New York Times. August 14, 1958. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-25.(subscription required)
  19. Goldstein, Norm. The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York: Basic Books, 2004. ISBN   0-465-00488-1 p. 156
  20. Hanafi, Hassan. "The Middle East, in whose world? (Primary Reflections)". Nordic Society for Middle Eastern Studies (The fourth Nordic conference on Middle Eastern Studies: The Middle East in globalizing world Oslo, 13–16 August 1998). Archived from the original on 8 October 2006. ("unedited paper as given at the Oslo conference. An updated and edited version has been published in Utvik and Vikør, The Middle East in a Globalized World, Bergen/London 2000, 1–9. Please quote or refer only to the published article") "The expression Middle East is an old British label based on a British Western perception of the East divided into middle or near and far". see also Shohat, Ella. "Redrawing American Cartographies of Asia". City University of New York. Archived from the original on 2007-03-12. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
  21. Anderson, Ewan W., William Bayne Fisher (2000). The Middle East: Geography and Geopolitics. Routledge. pp. 12–13.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. 10 April 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  23. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. April 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  24. Novikova, Gayane (December 2000). "Armenia and the Middle East" (PDF). Middle East Review of International Affairs. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  25. Haeri, Safa (2004-03-03). "Concocting a 'Greater Middle East' brew". Asia Times . Retrieved 2008-08-21.
  26. Ottaway, Marina & Carothers, Thomas (2004-03-29), The Greater Middle East Initiative: Off to a False Start Archived 2009-03-12 at the Wayback Machine , Policy Brief, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 29, pp. 1–7
  27. Middle East Archived 2016-04-15 at the Wayback Machine What Is The Middle East And What Countries Are Part of It? worldatlas.com. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  28. Bellwood 2004, p. 384.
  29. Yet another sensational discovery by polish archaeologists in Syria Archived 2011-10-01 at the Wayback Machine . eduskrypt.pl. 21 June 2006
  30. "Jericho", Encyclopædia Britannica
  31. Haïdar Boustani, M., The Neolithic of Lebanon in the context of the Near East: State of knowledge (in French), Annales d'Histoire et d'Archaeologie, Universite Saint-Joseph, Beyrouth, Vol. 12–13, 2001–2002. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
  32. Stordeur, Danielle., Abbès Frédéric., Du PPNA au PPNB : mise en lumière d'une phase de transition à Jerf el Ahmar (Syrie), Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française, Volume 99, Issue 3, pp. 563–595, 2002
  33. Goldschmidt (1999), p. 8
  34. Louise, Fawcett. International Relations of the Middle East. (Oxford University Press, New York, 2005)
  35. Hassan, Islam; Dyer, Paul (2017). "The State of Middle Eastern Youth". The Muslim World. 107 (1): 3–12. doi:10.1111/muwo.12175. hdl:10822/1042998. Archived from the original on 2017-04-03.
  36. "IOM Intra regional labour mobility in Arab region Facts and Figures (English)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
  37. "Europe :: Akrotiri — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  38. "Europe :: Dhekelia — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  39. "World Factbook – Jordan". Archived from the original on 2011-06-29.
  40. "World Factbook – Kuwait". Archived from the original on 2014-07-02.
  41. Dowty 2004, p. 95.
  42. "Reports of about 300,000 Jews that left the country after WW2". Eurojewcong.org. Archived from the original on 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  43. "Evenimentul Zilei". Evz.ro. Archived from the original on 2007-12-24. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  44. The World Bank: World Economic Indicators Database. GDP (Nominal) 2008. Archived 2009-09-12 at the Wayback Machine Data for 2008. Last revised on July 1, 2009.
  45. Data refer to 2008. World Economic Outlook Database-October 2009, International Monetary Fund. Retrieved October 1, 2009.
  46. The World Bank: World Economic Indicators Database. GDP (PPP) 2008. Archived 2014-02-09 at the Wayback Machine Data for 2008. Last revised on July 1, 2009.
  47. "Unemployment Rates Are Highest in the Middle East". Progressive Policy Institute. August 30, 2006. Archived from the original on July 14, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2008.
  48. Navtej Dhillon; Tarek Yousef (2007). "Inclusion: Meeting the 100 Million Youth Challenge". Shabab Inclusion. Archived from the original on 2008-11-09.
  49. Hilary Silver (December 12, 2007). "Social Exclusion: Comparative Analysis of Europe and Middle East Youth". Middle East Youth Initiative Working Paper. Shabab Inclusion. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved July 31, 2008.
  50. "CO2 Emissions | Global Carbon Atlas". www.globalcarbonatlas.org. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  51. "Population, total - Middle East & North Africa, World | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2020-04-11.
  52. Abbass, Rana Alaa; Kumar, Prashant; El-Gendy, Ahmed (February 2018). "An overview of monitoring and reduction strategies for health and climate change related emissions in the Middle East and North Africa region" (PDF). Atmospheric Environment. 175: 33–43. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.11.061. ISSN   1352-2310.
  53. Al-mulali, Usama (2011-10-01). "Oil consumption, CO2 emission and economic growth in MENA countries". Energy. 36 (10): 6165–6171. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2011.07.048. ISSN   0360-5442.
  54. Tagliapietra, Simone (2019-11-01). "The impact of the global energy transition on MENA oil and gas producers". Energy Strategy Reviews. 26: 100397. doi: 10.1016/j.esr.2019.100397 . ISSN   2211-467X.
  55. Bhargava, Viy K., ed. (2006-08-28). Global Issues for Global Citizens. The World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-0-8213-6731-5. ISBN   978-0-8213-6731-5.
  56. "Ten health issues WHO will tackle this year". www.who.int. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  57. Nations, United. "The Greatest Threat To Global Security: Climate Change Is Not Merely An Environmental Problem". United Nations. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  58. 1 2 3 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp.
  59. El-Fadel, M.; Bou-Zeid, E. (2003). "Climate change and water resources in the Middle East: vulnerability, socio-economic impacts and adaptation". Climate Change in the Mediterranean. doi:10.4337/9781781950258.00015. hdl: 10535/6396 . ISBN   9781781950258.
  60. Broom, Douglas. "How the Middle East is suffering on the front lines of climate change". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  61. Gornall, Jonathan (24 April 2019). "With climate change, life in the Gulf could become impossible". Euroactive. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  62. Pal, Jeremy S.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B. (2015-10-26). "Future temperature in southwest Asia projected to exceed a threshold for human adaptability". Nature Climate Change. 6 (2): 197–200. doi:10.1038/nclimate2833. ISSN   1758-678X.
  63. Waha, Katharina; Krummenauer, Linda; Adams, Sophie; Aich, Valentin; Baarsch, Florent; Coumou, Dim; Fader, Marianela; Hoff, Holger; Jobbins, Guy; Marcus, Rachel; Mengel, Matthias (2017-04-12). "Climate change impacts in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region and their implications for vulnerable population groups". Regional Environmental Change. 17 (6): 1623–1638. doi:10.1007/s10113-017-1144-2. ISSN   1436-3798. S2CID   134523218.
  64. Brauch, Hans Günter (2012), "Policy Responses to Climate Change in the Mediterranean and MENA Region during the Anthropocene", Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict, Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, 8, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 719–794, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-28626-1_37, ISBN   978-3-642-28625-4

Further reading