Eastern Coastal Plains

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View of Fields at Biccavolu, Eastern coastal plains, Andhra Pradesh View of Fields at Biccavolu.jpg
View of Fields at Biccavolu, Eastern coastal plains, Andhra Pradesh

The Eastern Coastal Plains is a wide stretch of landmass of India, lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. It is wider and leveled than the Western Coastal Plains and stretches from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north through Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. [1] Chilka Lake is a brackish water lake along the eastern coastal plain. It lies in the state of Odisha and stretches to the south of the Mahanadi Delta. [2]

India Country in South Asia

India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Eastern Ghats mountain range

The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast. The Eastern Ghats run from the northern Odisha through Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu in the south passing some parts of Karnataka and in the Wayanad district of Kerala. They are eroded and cut through by four major rivers of peninsular India, viz. Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri.

Bay of Bengal Northeastern part of the Indian Ocean between India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman Islands of India and Myanmar and the Nicobar Islands of India. Its southern limit is a line between Sri Lanka and the north western most point of Sumatra (Indonesia). It is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal in South Asia and Southeast Asia.

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Deltas of many of India's rivers form a major portion of these plains. The Mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri and Krishna rivers drain these plains. The region receives both the Northeast & Southwest monsoon rains with its annual rainfall averaging between 1,000 and 3,000 mm (39 and 118 in). The width of the plains varies between 100 and 120 km (62 to 80 miles).

River delta Silt deposition landform at the mouth of a river

A river delta is a landform created by deposition of sediment that is carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, or another river that cannot carry away the supplied sediment. The size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between watershed processes that supply sediment, and receiving basin processes that redistribute, sequester, and export that sediment. The size, geometry, and location of the receiving basin also plays an important role in delta evolution. River deltas are important in human civilization, as they are major agricultural production centers and population centers. They can provide coastline defense and can impact drinking water supply. They are also ecologically important, with different species' assemblages depending on their landscape position.

Godavari River River in India

The Godavari is India's second longest river after the Ganga. Its source is in Triambakeshwar, Maharashtra. It flows east for 1,465 kilometres (910 mi), draining the states of Maharashtra (48.6%), Telangana (18.8%), Andhra Pradesh (4.5%), Chhattisgarh (10.9%), Odisha (5.7%),ultimately emptying into the Bay of Bengal through its extensive network of tributaries. Measuring up to 312,812 km2 (120,777 sq mi), it forms one of the largest river basins in the Indian subcontinent, with only the Ganga and Indus rivers having a larger drainage basin. In terms of length, catchment area and discharge, the Godavari is the largest in peninsular India, and had been dubbed as the Vridha Ganga.

Kaveri river in southern India

Kaveri, is an Indian river flowing through the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It is the fourth largest after Godavari and Mahanadi River in south India and the largest in Tamil Nadu which, on its course, bisects the state into North and South. Originating in the foothills of Western Ghats at Talakaveri, Kodagu in Karnataka it flows generally south and east through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and across the southern Deccan plateau through the southeastern lowlands, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths in Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu. Amongst the river valleys, the Kaveri delta forms one of the most fertile regions in the country.

It is locally known as Utkal Plains in the Northern part between Kangsabati and Rushikulya Rivers, Northern Circars in the Central part between Rushikulya and Krishna Rivers and, as Coromandel Coast in the Southern part from the south of river Krishna till the Southern tip of Mainland India at Cape Comorin where it merges .

The Utkal Plain is part of the East Coastal Plain of India. It is a coastal plain in the Odisha state of eastern India. It includes the delta of the Mahanadi River, Brahmani River, Baitarani River. The most prominent physiographic feature of this plain is the Chilka Lake. It is the biggest lake in the country and its area varies between 780 sq km in winter to 1,144 sq km in the monsoon months.

Kangsabati River River in West Bengal, India

Kangsabati River (Pron:/ˌkæŋsəˈbɑːtɪ/) rises from the Chota Nagpur plateau in the state of West Bengal, India and passes through the districts of Purulia, Bankura and Paschim Medinipur in West Bengal before draining in the Bay of Bengal.

Rushikulya River river in India

The Rushikulya River is one of the major rivers in the state of Odisha and covers entire catchment area in the districts of Kandhamal and Ganjam of Odisha. The Rushikulya originates at an elevation of about 1000 metres from Daringbadi hills of the Eastern Ghats range. The place from where the river originates, Daringbadi is called the ' Kashmir of Odisha '. The river lies within the geographical coordinates of 19.07 to 20.19 north latitude and 84.01 to 85.06 east longitude. It meets the Bay of Bengal at Puruna Bandha in Ganjam. Its tributaries are the Baghua, the Dhanei, the Badanadi etc. It has no delta as such at its mouth.

Agriculture

Agriculture on the eastern Coastal Plain primarily consists of paddy. Other crops include Linseed, Wheat, Jowar, Gram and Groundnut. [3]

See also

Related Research Articles

Geography of India geography of the country of India

India lies on the Indian Plate, the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent. The country is situated north of the equator between 8°04' to 37°06' north latitude and 68°07' to 97°25' east longitude. It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi). India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,516.6 km (4,671 mi).

Odisha State in Eastern India

Odisha is one of the 28 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the northeast, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and northwest, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam. It is the 8th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state also has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India. Odia is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 36.6 million according to the 2016 Census.

Mahanadi river in India

The Mahanadi is a major river in East Central India. It drains an area of around 141,600 square kilometres (54,700 sq mi) and has a total course of 858 kilometres (533 mi) Mahanadi is also known for the Hirakud Dam. The river flows through the states of Chhattisgarh and Odisha.

Coastal Andhra Region of Andhra Pradesh in India

Coastal Andhra, is a region in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. This region was part of Madras State before 1953 and Andhra State from 1953 to 1956. According to the 2011 census, it has an area of 95,442 square kilometres (36,850 sq mi) which is 57.99% of the total state area and a population of 34,193,868 which is 69.20% of Andhra Pradesh state population. This area includes the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh on the Coromandel Coast between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal, from the northern border with Odisha to Pulicat lake of South.

Kalinga is a historical region of India. It is generally defined as the eastern coastal region between the Mahanadi and the Godavari rivers, although its boundaries have fluctuated with the territory of its rulers. The core territory of Kalinga now encompasses a large part of Odisha and northern part of Andhra Pradesh. At its widest extent, the Kalinga region also included a part of present-day Chhattisgarh.

Kendrapara district District in Odisha, India

Kendrapara District is an administrative district of Odisha state in eastern India. The town of Kendrapara is the district headquarters. Kendrapara District is situated in the eastern portion of the state, and is bounded on the north by Bhadrak District, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Jagatsinghpur District, on the west by Cuttack District and on the northwest by Jajpur District.

Baitarani River river in India

The Baitarani River or River Baitarani is one of six major rivers of Odisha, India. Venerated in popular epics and legends, the Baitarani River is a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Most of the potentially arable land in the area is not under cultivation. The coastal plain of Odisha has the name of "Hexadeltaic region" or the "Gift of Six Rivers". These deltas divide the coastal plain into three regions from north to south. The Baitarani, the Mahanadi and the Brahmani rivers form the Middle Coastal Plain, with evidence of past "back bays" and present lakes.

Geography of West Bengal পশ্চিমবঙ্গের ভূগোল।

Geography of West Bengal, a state in eastern India, is diverse, of high peaks of Himalaya in the northern extremes to where Himalayas are in the north and sea is at the south, with both plains and plateaus covering the remaining region.

Mahanadi River Delta

Mahanadi River Delta in India is a basin of deposit that drains a large land mass of the Indian subcontinent into the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial valley is wide and relatively flat with a meandering river channel that changes its course.

Geography of South India

The Geography of South India comprises the diverse topological and climatic patterns of South India. South India is a peninsula in the shape of a vast inverted triangle, bounded on the west by the Arabian Sea, on the east by the Bay of Bengal and on the north by the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. The line created by the Narmada River and Mahanadi river is the traditional boundary between northern and southern India. Technically all Indian territories below the 20th Parallel.

{{Infobox Indian politician | name = Rama Chandra Panda | image= | caption= | birth_date =15 June 1949 | birth_place =Ganjam, Odisha, India | residence =Berhampur, Ganjam | office = [[Ex Deputy Speaker, Odisha Legislative Assembly]], India | party =BJD | website = | footnotes = }}

Geography of Odisha

Odisha is one of the 29 states in the Republic of India. It is located at the eastern part of the peninsular India bounded by Bay of Bengal in the east and Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west. West Bengal at the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Andhra Pradesh to the south form the other geographic boundaries. The state has an area of 155,707 km2 and extends for 1030 km from north to south and 500 kilometres from east to west. Its coastline is 480 km long. The state is divided into 30 districts which are further subdivided into 314 blocks.

Garhjat Hills

The Garhjat Hills is a mountain range formed by a series low lying hills, plateaux, ridges and meadows that stretch into Odisha from the Utkal Plains in the Chotanagpur region of Jharkhand and the Chhattisgarh Plains. The range, also known as the Odisha Highlands, runs in a north east to south west direction for about 382 km along the Odisha coast, covering 76,800 km2.

Biogeographic classification of India is the division of India according to biogeographic characteristics. Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species (biology), organisms, and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time. There are ten biogeographic zones in India.

  1. Trans Himalayan zone.
  2. Himalayan zone
  3. Desert zone.
  4. Semiarid zone.
  5. Western ghat zone.
  6. Deccan plateau zone.
  7. Gangetic plain zone.
  8. North east zone.
  9. Coastal zone.
  10. Islands
Howrah–Chennai main line

The Howrah–Chennai main line is a railway line connecting Chennai and Kolkata cutting across Eastern Coastal Plains of India. It covers a distance of 1,661 kilometres (1,032 mi) across, West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Kharagpur–Puri line Railway route of India

The Kharagpur–Puri line is a railway line connecting Kharagpur railway station in the Indian state of West Bengal and Puri in Odisha. The Kharagpur-Khurda Road portion of this line is part of the Howrah-Chennai main line.

Khurda Road–Visakhapatnam section

The Khurda Road–Visakhapatnam section is a railway line connecting Khurda Road in the Indian state of Odisha and Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The main line is part of the Howrah-Chennai main line.

References

  1. Raj, A.J.; Lal, S.B. (2014). Agroforestry Theory and Practices. Scientific Publisher (Ind. p. 185. ISBN   978-93-86102-96-6 . Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  2. Sr.Bimcy; Sr.Sisily; Charlotte. Bibliographic information. Scholar Publishing House. pp. 20–21. ISBN   8171725163.
  3. Basu, D.N.; Guha, G.S.; Kashyap, S.P. (1996). Agro-climatic Regional Planning in India: Concept and applications. Agro-climatic Regional Planning in India. Concept Publishing Company. p. 128. ISBN   978-81-7022-582-9 . Retrieved 16 September 2019.