Tiger reserves of India

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Logo of National Tiger Conservation Authority National Tiger Conservation Authority logo.png
Logo of National Tiger Conservation Authority

There are 50 [1] tiger reserves in India [2] which are governed by Project Tiger which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).

Contents

India is home to 80 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010, 2,226 in 2014 and 2967 in 2018. [3] The Indian increase played a big role in driving up global populations as well; the number of wild tigers globally rose from 3,159 in 2010 to 3,890 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum. [4]

Goals

71,027.1 km2 (27,423.7 sq mi) of declared reserves are operated by state forestry departments "to ensure maintenance of viable populations of the conservation dependent Bengal tigers in India". The tigers are maintained for their scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people." [5]

Population assessment

By the year 2018, according to the National Tiger Conservation Authority, there were estimated only 2,967 tigers in existence in India. [6] The 2010 National Tiger Assessment estimated the total population of tigers in India at 1,706. As per Ministry of Environment and Forests, the tiger population in India stood at 2,226 in 2014 with an increase of 30.5% since the 2010 estimate. This exhaustive study indicated that better protected tiger source sites, especially tiger reserves, have maintained viable populations. However, the area occupied by tigers outside protected areas has decreased considerably. This demonstrates the need for corridors in order for tigers to move between source sites. The existing tiger reserves represent around one-third of India's high density forest area. [7] More tigers were killed in the first quarter of 2016 than in the entire previous year. This significant revelation comes at a time when the tiger census numbers are disputed by the scientific community. Some tigers get tamed and poorly fed by owners.

In 2010-11, the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in partnership with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) undertook an independent management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) of the 49 tiger reserves in the country. The reserves were categorized into four major categories. Madhya pradesh has the highest number of tigers(526) in the age group of 1.5 years with more than 408 big cats. Other states with significant populations included Uttarakhand (442), Karnataka (524), Tamil Nadu (229), Maharashtra (190), Assam (167), Kerala (136) and Uttar Pradesh (117). [8]

List of Tiger reserves

State wise Bengal Tiger Population India, 2019 State wise Bengal Tiger Population India, 2019.jpg
State wise Bengal Tiger Population India, 2019
Si No.Tiger Reserve (Year of Creation)StatePopulation of tigers, 2014 [9]
1 Bandipur (1973–74) Karnataka 120
2 Corbett (1973–74) Uttarakhand 215
3 Kanha (1973–74) Madhya Pradesh 80
4 Manas (1973–74) Assam 11
5 Melghat (1973–74) Maharashtra 25
6 Palamau (1973–74) Jharkhand 3
7 Ranthambore (1973–74) Rajasthan 37
8 Similipal (1973–74) Odisha 3
9 Sunderbans (1973–74) West Bengal 68
10 Periyar (1978–79) Kerala 20
11 Sariska (1978–79)Rajasthan9
12 Buxa (1982–83)West Bengal2
13 Indravati (1982–83) Chhattisgarh 12
14 Namdapha (1982–83) Arunachal Pradesh 11
15 Dudhwa (1987–88) Uttar Pradesh 58
16 Kalakad-Mundanthurai (1988–89) Tamil Nadu 10
17 Valmiki (1989–90) Bihar 40
18 Pench (1992–93)Madhya Pradesh43
19 Tadoba-Andhari (1993–94)Maharashtra51
20 Bandhavgarh (1993–94)Madhya Pradesh63
21 Panna (1994–95)Madhya Pradesh17
22 Dampa (1994–95) Mizoram 3
23 Bhadra (1998–99)Karnataka22
24 Pench (1998–99)Maharashtra35
25 Pakke or Pakhui (1999-2000)Arunachal Pradesh7
26 Nameri (1999-2000)Assam5
27 Satpura (1999-2000)Madhya Pradesh26
28 Anamalai (2008–09)Tamil Nadu13
29 Udanti-Sitanadi (2008–09)Chhattisgarh4
30 Satkosia (2008–09)Odisha3
31 Kaziranga (2008–09)Assam103
32 Achanakmar (2008–09)Chhattisgarh11
33 Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve(Kali) (2008–09)Karnataka5
34 Sanjay-Dubri (2008–09)Madhya Pradesh8
35 Mudumalai (2008–09)Tamil Nadu89
36 Nagarahole (2008–09)Karnataka101
37 Parambikulam (2008–09)Kerala19
38 Sahyadri (2009–10)Maharashtra7
39Biligiri Ranganatha Temple (2010–11)Karnataka68
40 Kawal (2012–13) Telangana -
41 Sathyamangalam (2013–14)Tamil Nadu72
42Mukandra Hills (2013–14)Rajasthan-
43 Nawegaon-Nagzira (2013–14)Maharashtra7
44 Nagarjunsagar Srisailam (1982–83) Andhra Pradesh 74
45Amrabad (2014)Telangana-
46 Pilibhit (2014)Uttar Pradesh25
47 Bor (2014)Maharashtra5
48 Rajaji (2015)Uttarakhand-
49 Orang (2016)Assam-
50 Kamlang (2016)Arunachal Pradesh1

Future

In addition to existing reserves, the in-principle approval has been accorded by the National Tiger Conservation Authority for the creation of four new tiger reserves, and the sites are: Ratapani Tiger Reserve (Madhya Pradesh), Sunabeda Tiger Reserve (Odisha), and Guru Ghasidas (Chhattisgarh). Final approval has been accorded to Kudremukh National Park (Karnataka) for declaring as tiger reserves by States. The State Governments have been advised to send proposals for declaring the following areas as tiger reserves: (i) Suhelwa (Uttar Pradesh), (ii) Mhadei Sanctuary (Goa), (iii) Srivilliputhur Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary / Megamalai Wildlife Sanctuary / Varushanadu Valley (Tamil Nadu), (iv) Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary (Arunachal Pradesh) and (v) Cauvery-MM Hills (Karnataka). [10]

Related Research Articles

Project Tiger project aiming at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers

Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure. Kailash Sankhala was the first director of Project Tiger. As the Bengal Tiger is the national animal of India, this project aims to stem the dwindling population of the big cats and work to increase their numbers.

Bengal tiger Tiger population in Indian subcontinent

The Bengal tiger is a tiger from a specific population of the Panthera tigris tigris subspecies that is native to the Indian subcontinent. It is threatened by poaching, loss, and fragmentation of habitat, and was estimated at comprising fewer than 2,500 wild individuals by 2011. None of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within its range is considered large enough to support an effective population of more than 250 adult individuals. India's tiger population was estimated at 1,706–1,909 individuals in 2010. By 2018, the population had increased to an estimated 2,603–3,346 individuals. Around 300–500 tigers are estimated in Bangladesh, 220–274 tigers in Nepal and 103 tigers in Bhutan.

Mudumalai National Park National Park in Tamil Nadu, India

The Mudumalai National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary also a declared tiger reserve, lies on the northwestern side of the Nilgiri Hills, in Nilgiri District, about 150 kilometres (93 mi) north-west of Coimbatore city in Tamil Nadu, India. It shares its boundaries with the states of Karnataka and Kerala. The sanctuary is divided into five ranges – Masinagudi, Thepakadu, Mudumalai, Kargudi and Nellakota.Mudumalai starts from Gudalur, Thorappalli 17 km to Thepakadu.

National Chambal Sanctuary wildlife sanctuary

National Chambal Sanctuary, also called the National Chambal Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary, is a 5,400 km2 (2,100 sq mi) tri-state protected area in northern India for the protection of the Critically Endangered gharial, the red-crowned roof turtle and the Endangered Ganges river dolphin. Located on the Chambal River near the tripoint of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, it was first declared in Madhya Pradesh in 1978, and now constitutes a long narrow eco-reserve co-administered by the three states. Within the sanctuary, the pristine Chambal River cuts through mazes of ravines and hills with many sandy beaches.

Panna National Park National Park in India

Panna National Park is a national park located in Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh in India. It has an area of 542.67 km2 (209.53 sq mi). It was declared in 1993 as the twenty second Tiger reserve of India and the fifth in Madhya Pradesh, Panna was given the Award of Excellence in 2007 as the best maintained national park of India by the Ministry of Tourism of India. It is notable that by 2009, the entire tiger population had been eliminated by poaching with the collusion of forest department officials. It was designated as Biosphere Reserve on 25 August 2011.Sal, crocodile bark, Arjun, jamun, etc. are trees present here.

Barasingha species of mammal

The barasingha, also called swamp deer, is a deer species distributed in the Indian subcontinent. Populations in northern and central India are fragmented, and two isolated populations occur in southwestern Nepal. It is extinct in Pakistan and Bangladesh.

K. Ullas Karanth Indian conservationist

K. Ullas Karanth is a conservation zoologist and a leading tiger expert based in Karnataka, India. He was the director of the Wildlife Conservation Society's India Programme. He is notable for pioneering the scientific use of camera traps in population density studies of large wild mammals in India. He was a Senior Conservation Scientist with the New York based Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and Technical Director of the WCS Tiger Conservation Program.

Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project initiative of the Indian Government

The Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project is an initiative of the Indian Government to provide safeguards to the Asiatic lion from extinction in the wild by means of reintroduction. The last wild population of the Asiatic lion is found in the region of Gir Forest National Park, in the state of Gujarat. The single population faces the threats of epidemics, natural disasters and other anthropogenic factors. The project aims to establish a second independent population of Asiatic lions at the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. However, the proposed translocation has been bitterly contested by the state government.

Conservation areas of India ecological protection areas from 1996 to 2002

Conservation Areas in India refer to well-demarcated large geographical entities with an established conservation plan, and were part of a joint Indo-US project on "landscape management and protection". The project ran from 1996 to 2002. These areas are home to many Conservation reliant species

Protected areas of Tamil Nadu

The Protected areas of Tamil Nadu State in South India cover an area of 3,305 km2 (1,276 sq mi), constituting 2.54% of the geographic area and 15% of the 22,643 km2 (8,743 sq mi) recorded forest area. It ranks 14th among all the States and Union Territories of India in terms of total protected area.

Wildlife of India Wildlife of India

India is home to a large variety of animals. It is a biodiversity hotspot with its various ecosystems ranging from the Himalayas in the north to the evergreen rain-forests in the south, the desert sands of the west to the marshy mangroves of the east. India, lying within the Indomalayan realm, is home to about 7.6% of mammal, 14.7% of amphibian, 6% of bird, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species. India's forest lands nurture about 500 species of mammals and 2000+ bird species. This richness of Indian wildlife has been celebrated since time immemorial. Four of India’s national symbols consist India’s mammals.

National Tiger Conservation Authority

The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) was established in December 2005 following a recommendation of the Tiger Task Force, constituted by the Prime Minister of India for reorganised management of Project Tiger and the many Tiger Reserves in India.

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve part of Dudhwa National Park set aside for tigers

The Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is a protected area in Uttar Pradesh that stretches mainly across the Lakhimpur Kheri and Bahraich districts and comprises the Dudhwa National Park, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary. It covers an area of 1,284.3 km2 (495.9 sq mi) and includes three large forest fragments amidst the matrix dominated by agriculture. It shares the north-eastern boundary with Nepal, which is defined to a large extent by the Mohana River. The area is a vast alluvial floodplain traversed by numerous rivers and streams flowing in south-easterly direction. It ranges in altitude from 110 to 185 m.

Ratapani Tiger Reserve

The Ratapani Tiger Reserve, located in the Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, in Vindhya Range in central India, is one of the finest teak forests in the state and is less than 50 km. away from the capital Bhopal.

Wildlife Protection Society of India organization

The Wildlife Protection Society of India (WPSI) was founded in 1994 by Belinda Wright, its Executive Director, who was an award-winning wildlife photographer and filmmaker till she took up the cause of conservation. From its inception, WPSI's main aim has been to bring a new focus to the daunting task of tackling India's growing wildlife crisis. It does this by providing support and information to government authorities to combat poaching and the escalating illegal wildlife trade - particularly in wild tigers. It has now broadened its focus to deal with human-animal conflicts and provide support for research projects.

This article is about the conservation in Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh state of India.

Cheetah reintroduction in India

Reintroduction of the cheetah in India involves the re-establishment of a population of cheetahs into areas where they had previously existed but were hunted into extinction during and after the Mughal Period, Rajput and Maratha Indian royalty and later by the British Raj, until the early 20th century when only several thousand remained. The Mughal emperor Akbar kept Cheetahs for hunting gazelle and blackbucks. Trapping of large numbers of adult Indian cheetahs, who had already learned hunting skills from wild mothers, for assisting in royal hunts is said to be another major cause of the species rapid decline in India as they never bred in captivity with only one record of a litter ever.

Conservation in India

Conservation in India can be traced to the time of Ashoka.

Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu, India

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is a protected area and tiger reserve in the Eastern Ghats in the Erode District of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It has a tiger population of 83 and a leopard population of 111 according to the 2019 census.

Satkosia Tiger Reserve

Satkosia Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve located in the Angul district of Odisha, India covering an area of 988.30 km².

References

  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-25. Retrieved 2016-02-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. "Core buffer areas". Government of India. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  3. "India's tiger population sees 33% increase". BBC. 29 July 2019.
  4. "2967 - WHAT THE NEW GLOBAL TIGER NUMBER MEANS". WWF. 2016.
  5. "Project Tiger" (PDF). Delhi: Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  6. Y.V. Jhala; R. Gopal; Q. Qureshi, eds. (2008). Status of the Tigers, Co-predators and Prey in India (PDF) (Report). National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. TR 08/001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-02.
  7. "Tiger Estimate in India" (PDF). Public Information Brochure. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, GOI. 28 March 2011. p. 9. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  8. "India's tiger population rises". Deccan Chronicle. 15 January 2015.
  9. "Population of tigers" (PDF).
  10. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/flora-fauna/In-principle-approval-given-to-4-new-tiger-reserves-Government/articleshow/51211020.cms