Tiger reserves of India

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The tiger reserves of India were set up in 1973 and are governed under Project Tiger, which is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority, Government of India. Tiger reserves were designated in 50 protected areas until 2018. [1] In 2022, the 53rd tiger reserve was declared in Ranipur Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, and the State's third tiger reserve. [2]


India is home to 80 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, India estimated that there were 1,411 tigers, which more than doubled to a population 3,167 tigers in 2022. [3] [4]

The increase in population of tigers in India played a major role in driving up global populations as well; the number of wild tigers globally rose from 3,159 in 2010 to 3,890 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum. [5]


State forestry departments operate 71,027.1 km2 (27,423.7 sq mi) of declared reserves "to ensure maintenance of viable populations of the conservation dependent Bengal tigers in India". The tigers are maintained for their scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, educational purposes." [6]

Population assessment

State wise Bengal tiger population India as of 2018 State wise Bengal Tiger Population India, 2019.jpg
State wise Bengal tiger population India as of 2018

By the year 2018, according to the National Tiger Conservation Authority, there were estimated only 2,967 tigers in existence in India. [7] The 2010 National Tiger Assessment estimated the total population of tigers in India at 1,706. As per Ministry of Environment and Forests, the tiger population in India stood at 2,226 in 2014 with an increase of 30.5% since the 2010 estimate. This exhaustive study indicated that better protected tiger source sites, especially tiger reserves, have maintained viable populations. However, the area occupied by tigers outside protected areas has decreased considerably. This demonstrates the need for corridors in order for tigers to move between source sites. The existing tiger reserves represent around one-third of India's high density forest area. [8] More tigers were killed in the first quarter of 2016 than in the entire previous year. This significant revelation comes at a time when the tiger census numbers are disputed by the scientific community.

In 2010–11, the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in partnership with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) undertook an independent management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) of the 53 tiger reserves in the country. The reserves were categorized into four major categories. Madhya pradesh has the highest number of tigers(526) in the age group of 1.5 years with more than 408 big cats. Other states with significant populations include Karnataka (524), Uttarakhand (442), Tamil Nadu (229), Maharashtra (190), Assam (167), Kerala (136) and Uttar Pradesh (117). [9]

List of tiger reserves

Si No.Tiger ReserveYear of creationStatePopulation of tigers, 2018 [1] Population of tigers, 2023Area Core (km2)Area buffer (km2)
1 Bandipur 1973–74Karnataka120150868.63
2 Corbett 1973–74Uttarakhand2162601318.54
3 Kanha 1973–74Madhya Pradesh80105940
4 Manas 1973–74Assam1158500
5 Melghat 1973–74Maharashtra25571677
6 Palamau 1973–74Jharkhand31414.93
7 Ranthambore 1973–74Rajasthan37571334
8 Similipal 1973–74Odisha9162750
9 Sunderbans 1973–74West Bengal96 [10] 1001330.10
10 Periyar 1978–79Kerala2030350
11 Sariska 1978–79Rajasthan919881
12 Buxa 1982–83West Bengal21760
13 Indravati 1982–83Chhattisgarh1211258.37
14 Namdapha 1982–83Arunachal Pradesh1111985.23
15 Dudhwa 1987–88Uttar Pradesh58135490.3
16 Kalakad-Mundanthurai 1988–89Tamil Nadu105895706.542
17 Valmiki 1989–90Bihar4054898.45
18 Pench 1992–93Madhya Pradesh43 (contiguous with Maharashtra)77 (contiguous with Maharashtra)292.85
19 Tadoba-Andhari 1993–94Maharashtra11597625.4
20 Bandhavgarh 1993–94Madhya Pradesh631351536
21 Panna 1994–95Madhya Pradesh1755542.67
22 Dampa 1994–95 Mizoram 00500
23 Bhadra 1998–99Karnataka2228892.46
24 Pench 1998–99Maharashtra35 (contiguous with Madhya Pradesh)48 (contiguous with Madhya Pradesh)257.26
25 Pakke 1999–2000Arunachal Pradesh76861.95
26 Nameri 1999–2000Assam53200
27 Satpura 1999–2000Madhya Pradesh2650524
28 Anamalai 2008–09Tamil Nadu1316958.59521.28
29 Sitanadi 2008–09Chhattisgarh41556
30 Satkosia 2008–09Odisha30796
31 Kaziranga 2008–09Assam103104858.98
32 Achanakmar 2008–09Chhattisgarh115557.55
33 Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve 2008–09Karnataka5171300
34 Sanjay 2008–09Madhya Pradesh816466.68
35 Mudumalai 2007Tamil Nadu103114321367.59
36 Nagarhole 2008–09Karnataka101141642.39
37 Parambikulam 2008–09Kerala1931643.66
38 Sahyadri 2009–10Maharashtra701166
39Biligiri Ranganatha Temple2010–11Karnataka6837539.52
40 Kawal 2012–13Telangana02015.44
41 Sathyamangalam 2013–14Tamil Nadu7285793.49614.91
42Mukandra Hills2013–14Rajasthan1759.99
43 Nawegaon 2013–14Maharashtra711133.88
44 Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam 1982–83Andhra Pradesh74583728
46 Pilibhit 2014Uttar Pradesh6563602.79
47 Bor 2014Maharashtra59121.1
48 Rajaji 2015Uttarakhand54820.5
49 Orang 2016Assam1678.81
50 Kamlang 2016Arunachal Pradesh0783
51 Srivilliputhur – Megamalai 2021Tamil Nadu1412641.86374.7
52Ramgarh Vishdhari2022Rajasthan3511501.89
53 Ranipur Wildlife Sanctuary [11] 2022Uttar Pradesh
54Veerangana Durgavati Tiger Reserve [12] 2023Madhya Pradesh1414.006

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Champaran district</span> District in Bihar, India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dang district, India</span> District of Gujarat in India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anamalai Tiger Reserve</span> Wildlife sanctuary and national park in Tamil Nadu, India

Anaimalai Tiger Reserve, earlier known as Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park and as Anaimalai Wildlife Sanctuary, is a protected area in the Anaimalai Hills of Pollachi and Valparai taluks of Coimbatore District and Udumalaipettai taluk in Tiruppur District, Tamil Nadu, India. The Tamil Nadu Environment and Forests Department by a notification dated 27 June 2007, declared an extent of 958.59 km2 that encompassed the erstwhile IGWLS&NP or Anaimalai Wildlife Sanctuary, as Anaimalai Tiger Reserve under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. According to the National Tiger Conservation Authority, the Reserve presently includes a core area of 958.59 km2 and buffer/peripheral area of 521.28 km2 forming a total area of 1479.87 km2.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Valmiki National Park</span> National park and wildlife sanctuary in Bihar, India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vansda National Park</span> National park in Gujarat, India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tigers in India</span>

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dampa Tiger Reserve</span> Tiger reserve in Mizoram, India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">National Tiger Conservation Authority</span> Indian government agency

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dudhwa Tiger Reserve</span>

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pilibhit Tiger Reserve</span>

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Pakke Tiger Reserve, is a Project Tiger reserve in the East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. The 862 km2 (333 sq mi) reserve is protected by the Department of Environment and Forest of Arunachal Pradesh. It was known as Pakhui Tiger Reserve, but renamed in April 2001 by the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh. It has won India Biodiversity Award 2016 in the category of 'Conservation of threatened species' for its Hornbill Nest Adoption Programme.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gulf of Khambhat</span> Shallow gulf near Gujarat, India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Purna Wildlife Sanctuary</span> Wildlife Sanctuary in Gujarat, India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yadvendradev Vikramsinh Jhala</span> Indian scientist and conservationist

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Srivilliputhur-Megamalai Tiger Reserve is India's 51st tiger reserve and 5th tiger reserve of Tamil Nadu. It was formed by combining Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary and Megamalai Wildlife Sanctuary. On 8 February 2021, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change gave notification of this new tiger reserve. On 6 April 2021, the Government of Tamil Nadu and forest department approved the creation of a new tiger reserve in Tamil Nadu and on 11 April 2021 a new tiger reserve was formed.


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