List of countries by GDP (nominal)

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)
Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2018 [1]

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year. [2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency. [3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population. [4]

Gross domestic product market value of goods and services produced within a country

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a period of time, often annually. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations.

Market value or OMV is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction setting. Market value is often used interchangeably with open market value, fair value or fair market value, although these terms have distinct definitions in different standards, and may or may not differ in some circumstances.

Exchange rate rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another

In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another. It is also regarded as the value of one country’s currency in relation to another currency. For example, an interbank exchange rate of 114 Japanese yen to the United States dollar means that ¥114 will be exchanged for each US$1 or that US$1 will be exchanged for each ¥114. In this case it is said that the price of a dollar in relation to yen is ¥114, or equivalently that the price of a yen in relation to dollars is $1/114.

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Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, does not take into account the differences of quality of goods and services among countries, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP. [5] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures. [6]

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a way of measuring economic variables in different countries so that irrelevant exchange rate variations do not distort comparisons. Purchasing power exchange rates are such that it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then buy a basket of goods in the market as it would cost to purchase the same goods directly with dollars. The purchasing power exchange rate used in this conversion equals the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing powers.

International trade Exchanges across international borders

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.

The United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of approximately $20.513 trillion, notably due to high average incomes, a large population, [7] capital investment, moderate unemployment, [8] high consumer spending, [9] a relatively young population, [10] and technological innovation. [11] Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy, with a GDP of about $32 million, because of its very small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible capital investment, demographic problems, and low average incomes. [12]

Economy of the United States National economy

The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy. It is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and the second-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It also has the world's seventh-highest per capita GDP (nominal) and the eleventh-highest per capita GDP (PPP) in 2016. The US has a highly diversified, world-leading industrial sector. It is also a high-technology innovator with the second-largest industrial output in the world. The U.S. dollar is the currency most used in international transactions and is the world's foremost reserve currency, backed by its science and technology, its military, the full faith of the U.S. government to reimburse its debts, its central role in a range of international institutions since World War II, and the petrodollar system. Several countries use it as their official currency, and in many others, it is the de facto currency. Its largest trading partners are China, Canada, Mexico, Japan, Germany, South Korea, United Kingdom, France, India, and Taiwan.

Economy of Tuvalu national economy

Tuvalu is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. The economy of Tuvalu is constrained by its remoteness and lack of economies of scale. Government revenues largely come from fishing licences ; direct grants from international donors ; and income from the Tuvalu Trust Fund. The lease of its highly fortuitous .tv Top Level Domain (TLD) also contributes revenue; however, revenue from the sales of stamps have significantly declined in recent years.

Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output. [13] [14] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through privatisation and deregulation, [15] [16] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978 to second to only the United States in 2016 as economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016. [14] [17] India has also experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s. [18] When supranational entities are included, the European Union is the second largest economy in the world. It was the largest from 2004, when ten countries joined the union, [19] to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States. [20]

Gilded Age era in the history of the USA between the late 1860s and the 1890s

The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. The term for this period came into use in the 1920s and 1930s and was derived from writer Mark Twain's and Charles Dudley Warner's 1873 novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding. The early half of the Gilded Age roughly coincided with the middle portion of the Victorian era in Britain and the Belle Époque in France. Its beginning in the years after the American Civil War overlaps the Reconstruction Era. It was followed in the 1890s by the Progressive Era.

British Empire States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.

Qing dynasty former empire in Eastern Asia, last imperial regime of China

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing.

The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.

International Monetary Fund International organisation

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of 189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world. Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system. It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had SDR477 billion.

The World Economic Outlook (WEO) is a survey conducted and published by the International Monetary Fund. It is published biannually and partly updated twice a year. It portrays the world economy in the near and medium context, with projections for up to four years into the future. WEO forecasts include key macroeconomic indicators, such as GDP, inflation, current account and fiscal balance of more than 180 countries around the globe. It also deals with major economic policy issues.

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group.

Lists

Per the International Monetary Fund (2018) [17] Per the World Bank (2017) [21] Per the United Nations (2017) [22] [23]
RankCountry/TerritoryGDP
(US$million)
   World [20] 84,740,322
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 20,494,050
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union [n 1] 18,750,052
2Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China [n 2] 13,407,398
3Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4,971,929
4Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 4,000,386
5Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 2,828,644
6Flag of France.svg  France 2,775,252
7Flag of India.svg  India 2,716,746
8Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 2,072,201
9Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1,868,184
10Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1,711,387
11Flag of Russia.svg  Russia [n 3] 1,630,659
12Flag of South Korea.svg  Korea, South 1,619,424
13Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1,425,865
14Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1,418,275
15Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1,223,359
16Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 1,022,454
17Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 912,899
18Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 782,483
19Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 766,428
20Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 703,750
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 589,391
21Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 586,015
22Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 551,135
23Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 533,153
24Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 518,092
25Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 487,239
26Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 457,637
27Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 452,275
28Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 434,937
29Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 424,635
30Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 397,270
31Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 372,695
32Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 369,843
33Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 368,135
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 363,031
34Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 361,109
35Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 354,348
36Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 350,874
37Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 333,114
38Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 330,846
39Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 314,656
40Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 312,570
41Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 298,172
42Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 275,321
43Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 249,559
44Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 242,052
45Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 241,272
46Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 239,851
47Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 238,510
48Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 226,070
49Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 225,203
50Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 219,097
51Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 203,404
52Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 192,450
53Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 180,441
54Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 170,539
55Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 155,703
56Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 141,050
57Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 124,603
58Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 118,309
59Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 107,511
60Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 107,316
61Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 106,585
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico 104,344
62Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 98,468
63Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 89,205
64Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 88,223
65Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 82,243
66Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 80,940
67Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia 80,279
68Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 78,979
69Flag of Syria.svg  Syria [n 4] 77,460/Na
70Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 68,770
71Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar 68,559
72Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 65,206
73Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 65,191
74Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 64,963
75Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 60,688
76Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 60,180
77Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 59,643
78Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 59,006
79Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania 57,862
80Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 56,409
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau 54,545
81Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 54,242
82Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 53,323
83Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 50,651
84Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 45,418
85Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 44,114
86Flag of Libya.svg  Libya 43,587
87Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Côte d'Ivoire 43,032
88Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 42,644
89Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 42,371
90Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 41,604
91Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia 41,410
92Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 41,241
93Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 39,911
94Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 38,521
95Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 38,291
96Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 34,881
97Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 33,903
98Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 30,312
99Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 28,812
100Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 28,122
101Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen 26,914
102Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 26,127
103Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 26,057
104Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 25,882
105Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia 25,179
106Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 24,523
107Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 24,492
108Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 24,027
109Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 23,778
110Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 22,311
111Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 21,319
112Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 19,881
113Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 19,585
114Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana 18,998
115Flag of Laos.svg  Laos 18,434
116Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 17,187
117Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon 17,033
118Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 16,324
119Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 15,422
120Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 15,202
121Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 14,505
122Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique 14,428
123Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 14,180
124Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 14,277
125Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 14,082
126Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 13,824
127Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 13,734
128Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 13,258
129Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 13,038
130Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas, The 12,803
131Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 12,669
132Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 12,411
133Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar 12,093
134Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 11,739
135Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 11,404
136Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo, Republic of the 11,188
137Flag of Chad.svg  Chad 10,919
138Flag of Benin.svg  Benin 10,456
139Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 9,525
140Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 9,511
141Flag of Niger.svg  Niger 9,226
142Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 8,093
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 7,981
143Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan 7,520
144Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi 6,925
145Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea 6,721
146Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 5,402
147Flag of Togo.svg  Togo 5,358
148Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 5,302
149Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania 5,194
150Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 5,145
151Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 4,809
152Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini 4,679
153Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan 3,929
154Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 3,906
155Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 3,636
156Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi 3,436
157Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 3,427
158Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia 3,249
159Flag of East Timor.svg  Timor-Leste 3,090
160Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho 2,762
161Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan 2,627
162Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti 2,187
163Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic 2,185
164Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde 1,970
165Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 1,925
166Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  St. Lucia 1,874
167Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino 1,638
168Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 1,626
169Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia, The 1,617
170Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 1,573
171Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau 1,459
172Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands 1,424
173Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 1,196
174Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  St. Kitts and Nevis 1,019
175Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu 928
176Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 861
177Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 826
178Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros 742
179Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica 494
180Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 470
181Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe 449
182Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Micronesia, Federated States of 374
183Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 297
184Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands 214
185Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati 189
186Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu 45
RankCountry/TerritoryGDP
(US$million)
   World 80,683,787
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 19,390,604
2Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China [n 5] 12,237,700
3Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4,872,137
4Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 3,677,439
5Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 2,622,434
6Flag of India.svg  India 2,597,491
7Flag of France.svg  France 2,582,501
8Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 2,055,506
9Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1,934,798
10Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1,653,043
11Flag of South Korea.svg  Korea, South 1,577,524
12Flag of Russia.svg  Russia [n 3] 1,530,751
13Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1,323,421
14Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1,311,320
15Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1,149,919
16Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 1,015,539
17Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 851,102
18Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 826,200
19Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 683,827
20Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 678,887
21Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 637,590
22Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 538,040
23Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 524,510
24Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 492,681
25Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 455,221
26Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 439,514
27Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 416,596
28Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 398,832
29Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 382,575
30Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 375,771
31Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 350,851
32Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 349,419
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 341,449
33Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 333,731
34Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 324,872
35Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 323,907
36Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 314,500
37Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 313,595
38Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 309,191
39Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 304,952
40Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 277,076
41Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 251,885
42Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 249,724
43Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 235,369
44Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 223,864
45Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 217,571
46Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 215,726
47Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 211,803
48Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 211,389
49Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 205,853
50Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 200,288
51Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 197,716
52Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 170,371
53Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 167,605
54Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 159,407
55Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 139,135
56Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 124,209
57Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 120,126
58Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 117,488
59Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 112,154
60Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco [n 6] 109,139
61Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 103,057
62Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 96,851
63Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovak Republic 95,769
64Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 87,175
65Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia 80,561
66Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 75,932
67Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 75,620
68Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 74,938
69Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 72,643
70Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar 69,322
71Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 62,404
72Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 61,838
73Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 57,057
74Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 56,832
75Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 56,157
76Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 54,849
77Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 54,442
78Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania [n 7] 52,090
79Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 51,844
80Flag of Libya.svg  Libya 50,984
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau 50,361
81Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 48,770
82Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 48,718
83Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 47,330
84Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 47,168
85Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 42,355
86Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 41,432
87Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 40,748
88Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Cote d'Ivoire 40,389
89Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 40,257
90Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 40,068
91Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia 37,509
92Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 37,241
93Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 35,307
94Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 34,799
95Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 30,264
96Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 29,735
97Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 25,921
98Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 25,891
99Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia 25,809
100Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 24,805
101Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 24,472
102Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 23,909
103Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 22,979
104Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 22,158
105Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 22,105
106Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus [n 8] 21,652
107Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 21,089
108Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 20,815
109Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 18,169
110Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 17,846
111Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana 17,407
112Flag of Laos.svg  Laos 16,853
113Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 16,375
114Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 15,288
115Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia [n 9] 15,159
116Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 14,768
117Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon 14,623
Flag of Palestine.svg  West Bank and Gaza 14,498
118Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 13,814
119Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 13,338
120Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 13,245
121Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 13,039
122Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 12,873
123Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 12,538
124Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 12,487
125Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique 12,334
126Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas, The 12,162
127Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 12,128
128Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 11,537
129Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar 11,500
130Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 11,488
131Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 11,338
132Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 10,491
133Flag of Chad.svg  Chad 9,981
134Flag of Benin.svg  Benin 9,274
135Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 9,137
136Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo, Republic of the 8,723
137Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 8,408
138Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova [n 10] 8,128
139Flag of Niger.svg  Niger 8,120
140Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 7,565
141Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia 7,369
142Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan 7,146
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 7,129
143Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi 6,303
144Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 5,061
145Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania 5,025
146Flag of Togo.svg  Togo 4,813
147Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 4,797
148Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 4,774
149Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 4,597
150Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini 4,409
151Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 3,774
152Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 3,676
153Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi 3,478
154Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 3,324
155Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 3,013
156Flag of East Timor.svg  Timor-Leste 2,955
157Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho 2,639
158Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan 2,512
159Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia 2,158
160Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic 1,949
161Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti 1,845
162Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 1,838
163Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cabo Verde 1,754
164Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia 1,712
165Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino 1,659
166Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 1,532
167Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 1,486
168Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau 1,347
169Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands 1,303
170Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 1,119
171Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia, The 1,015
172Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis 946
173Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu 863
174Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 857
175Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 790
176Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros 649
177Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica 563
178Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 426
179Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  Sao Tome and Principe 391
180Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Micronesia, Federated States of 336
181Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 292
182Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands 199
183Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati 196
184Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru 114
185Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu 40
RankCountry/TerritoryGDP
(US$million)
   World [25] 80,501,413
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 19,485,394
2Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China [n 5] 12,234,781
3Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4,872,415
4Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 3,693,204
5Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 2,631,228
6Flag of France.svg  France 2,582,492
7Flag of India.svg  India 2,575,666
8Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 2,055,512
9Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1,943,835
10Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1,647,120
11Flag of South Korea.svg  Korea, South 1,577,524
12Flag of Russia.svg  Russia [n 3] 1,530,750
13Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1,408,675
14Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1,314,314
15Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1,158,229
16Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 1,015,539
17Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 851,541
18Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 830,572
19Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 683,827
20Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 678,938
21Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 637,486
22Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 535,607
23Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 526,211
24Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 494,763
25Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 460,976
26Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 455,302
27Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 416,835
28Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 399,470
29Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 382,575
30Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 375,769
31Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 353,268
32Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 348,872
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 341,659
33Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 331,430
34Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 329,865
35Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 323,901
36Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 314,707
37Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 313,595
38Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 309,191
39Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 302,139
40Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 277,080
41Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 255,092
42Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 252,246
43Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 245,633
44Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 223,779
45Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 215,824
46Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 211,803
47Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 211,402
48Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 203,085
49Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 202,044
50Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 195,135
51Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 195,041
52Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 182,023
53Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 167,605
54Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 167,555
55Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 159,406
56Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 139,761
57Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 126,505
58Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 120,265
59Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 119,534
60Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 112,154
61Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 109,708
62Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 104,295
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico 104,218
63Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 96,851
64Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 95,617
65Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 87,356
66Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 75,931
67Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 75,619
68Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia 75,605
69Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 74,938
70Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 70,783
71Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar 67,101
72Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 62,316
73Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 61,838
74Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 59,180
75Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 58,996
76Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 58,222
77Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 57,564
78Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 55,201
79Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 54,441
80Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 53,393
81Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania 52,090
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau 50,361
82Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 49,677
83Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 48,455
84Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 47,544
85Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 41,589
86Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 40,748
87Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 40,708
88Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 40,068
8938,054
90Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 37,915
91Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 37,642
92Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia 37,508
93Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 35,325
94Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 34,924
95Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 30,463
96Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 29,435
97Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen 27,956
98Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 27,698
99Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 25,921
100Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia 25,868
101Flag of Libya.svg  Libya 25,127
102Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 24,870
103Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 24,805
104Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 24,476
105Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 22,978
106Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 22,121
107Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 22,104
108Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 22,054
109Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 22,005
110Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 21,992
111Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 21,126
112Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 18,169
113Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 18,036
114Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana 17,406
115Flag of North Korea.svg  Korea, North 17,364
116Flag of Laos.svg  Laos 16,853
117Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 15,235
118Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 15,159
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine, State of 14,498
119Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon 14,623
120Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique 12,651
121Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 12,487
122Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 12,128
123Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo, Republic of the 11,292
124Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 14,826
125Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 13,814
126Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 13,366
127Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 13,244
128Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 13,039
129Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 12,553
130Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 12,324
131Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas, The 11,791
132Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 11,536
133Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 11,279
134Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 11,135
135Flag of Chad.svg  Chad 10,716
136Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar 10,674
137Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 10,208
Flag of FLNKS.svg  New Caledonia 9,894
138Flag of Benin.svg  Benin 9,236
139Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 9,136
140Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 8,521
141Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 8,128
142Flag of Niger.svg  Niger 8,119
143Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 7,564
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 7,227
144Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan 7,145
145Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 6,400
146Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi 6,339
147Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 6,295
148Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan 5,693
Flag of French Polynesia.svg  French Polynesia 5,623
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda 5,601
149Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 5,210
150Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania 5,092
151Flag of East Timor.svg  Timor-Leste 4,970
152Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 4,893
153Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 4,588
154Flag of Togo.svg  Togo 4,576
155Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 4,532
156Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini 4,482
157Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 4,353
158Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea 3,858
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands 3,480
159Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 3,278
Flag of Curacao.svg  Curaçao 3,159
160Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 3,086
161Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 3,032
162Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi 2,869
Flag of Aruba.svg  Aruba 2,664
163Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan 2,562
Flag of Greenland.svg  Greenland 2,441
164Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia 2,122
165Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho 2,081
166Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic 1,992
167Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 1,902
168Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde 1,855
169Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti 1,844
170Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia 1,718
171Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino 1,689
172Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia 1,535
173Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 1,486
Flag of Zanzibar.svg  Zanzibar 1,391
174Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 1,248
175Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau 1,209
176Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands 1,103
Flag of Sint Maarten.svg  Sint Maarten 1,059
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands 902
177Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 884
178Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis 852
179Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia, The 851
180Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 824
181Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu 812
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg  Turks and Caicos Islands 797
182Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 729
183Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros 648
184Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica 533
185Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 435
186337
187Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Micronesia, Federated States of 308
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands 311
Flag of Anguilla.svg  Anguilla 311
188Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 234
189Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands 209
190Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru 182
191Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati 180
Flag of Montserrat.svg  Montserrat 63
192Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu 38

See also

Notes

  1. The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur. [24] As the EU is not a country, China is the second ranked country on these lists.
  2. Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. 1 2 3 Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  4. Data for Syria's 2014 GDP is from the September 2011 WEO Database, the latest available from the IMF.
  5. 1 2 Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  6. Includes Western Sahara.
  7. Covers mainland Tanzania only.
  8. Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  9. Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  10. Excludes data for Transnistria.

Related Research Articles

The gross world product (GWP) is the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world. Because imports and exports balance exactly when considering the whole world, this also equals the total global gross domestic product (GDP). According to the World Bank, the 2013 nominal GWP was approximately US$75.59 trillion. In 2014, according to the CIA's World Factbook, the GWP was around US$78.28 trillion in nominal terms and totaled approximately 107.5 trillion international dollars in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). The per capita PPP GWP in 2017 was approximately Int$17,300 according to the World Factbook.

World economy economy of the world

The world economy or global economy is the economy of the humans of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account. In some contexts, the two terms are distinct "international" or "global economy" being measured separately and distinguished from national economies while the "world economy" is simply an aggregate of the separate countries' measurements. Beyond the minimum standard concerning value in production, use and exchange the definitions, representations, models and valuations of the world economy vary widely. It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of Earth.

Comparison between U.S. states and sovereign states by GDP per capita

This is a comparison between U.S. states and countries' per capita gross domestic product. The U.S. is not counted as a whole in the overall rank because this would be double counting since the states of the U.S. are being compared to other countries. These figures are calculated using exchange rate conversions, and exchange rates fluctuate from year to year.

References

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  2. "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia . IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  3. Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". About.com . IAC/InterActiveCorp . Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  4. Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia" (PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. National Bureau of Economic Research . Retrieved 23 May 2016.
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  6. Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". Finance & Development . International Monetary Fund . Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  7. Vo, Lam Thuy (30 May 2012). "The World's Richest Countries and Biggest Economies, In 2 Graphics". Planet Money . National Public Radio . Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  8. Burgen, Emily; et al. (5 April 2012). "An Elusive Relation Between Unemployment and GDP Growth: Okun's Law". Economic Trends. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland . Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  9. Vitez, Osmond. "The Importance of Consumer Spending". Houston Chronicle . Hearst Corporation . Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  10. Koesterich, Russ (16 May 2014). "America The Youthful? Yes, On a Relative Basis". BlackRock . Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  11. Landefeld, J. Steven (11 February 2008). "The Multi-Factor Productivity Residual" (PDF). Measuring Innovation’s Role in GDP & Productivity Growth. Bureau of Economic Analysis . Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  12. "Tuvalu". Europa . European Commission. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  13. Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". Fortune . Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  14. 1 2 Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press.
  15. Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). "China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform". Studies on Contemporary China. Taylor & Francis . Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  16. Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. International Monetary Fund . Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  17. 1 2 "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. 10 April 2019.
  18. Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research . Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  19. "The economics of enlargement". Europa . European Commission. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  20. 1 2 "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects". World Economic Outlook . International Monetary Fund. April 2019.
  21. "GDP (current US$)". World Development Indicators . World Bank . Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  22. "GDP and its breakdown at current prices in US Dollars". United Nations Statistics Division. January 2019.
  23. "United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts". unstats.un.org.
  24. CIA (2014). "The World Factbook" . Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.
  25. "All countries and regions/subregions (totals) for all years - sorted by region/subregion". United Nations. United Nations. Retrieved 28 January 2019.