Giza pyramid complex

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The Great Pyramids of Giza
Pyramids of the Giza Necropolis.jpg
The three main pyramids at Giza, together with subsidiary pyramids and the remains of other structures
Egypt adm location map.svg
Archaeological site icon (red).svg
Shown within Egypt
Location Giza City, Giza, Egypt
Region Middle Egypt
Coordinates 29°58′34″N31°7′58″E / 29.97611°N 31.13278°E / 29.97611; 31.13278 Coordinates: 29°58′34″N31°7′58″E / 29.97611°N 31.13278°E / 29.97611; 31.13278
Type Monument
History
Periods Early Dynastic Period to Late Period
Site notes
Website
Part of"Pyramid fields from Giza to Dahshur" part of Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur
Includes
Criteria Cultural: i, iii, vi
Reference 86-002
Inscription1979 (3rd Session)
Area16,203.36 ha (62.5615 sq mi)

The Giza pyramid complex, also called the Giza Necropolis, is the site on the Giza Plateau in Egypt that includes the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, along with their associated pyramid complexes and the Great Sphinx of Giza. All were built during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. The site also includes several cemeteries and the remains of a workers' village.

Giza Plateau the largest known collection of pyramids in one area

The Giza Plateau is a plateau in Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt, site of the Fourth Dynasty Giza Necropolis, which includes the Great Pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, the Sphinx, several cemeteries, a workers' village and an industrial complex.

Egypt Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in the northeast corner of Africa, whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond the continental boundary with Asia, as traditionally defined. Egypt is bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Great Pyramid of Giza Largest pyramid in the Giza Necropolis, Egypt

The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering present-day El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.

Contents

The site is at the edges of the Western Desert, approximately 9 km (5 mi) west of the Nile River in the city of Giza, and about 13 km (8 mi) southwest of the city centre of Cairo.

Western Desert (Egypt) Egyptian part of the Libyan Desert

The Western Desert of Egypt is an area of the Sahara which lies west of the river Nile, up to the Libyan border, and south from the Mediterranean sea to the border with Sudan. It is named in contrast to the Eastern Desert which extends east from the Nile to Red Sea. The Western Desert is mostly rocky desert, though an area of sandy desert, known as the Great Sand Sea, lies to the west against the Libyan border. The desert covers an area of 262,800 sq miles (680,650 km2) which is two-thirds of the land area of the country. Its highest elevation is 3,300 ft (1000m) in the Gilf Kebir plateau to the far south-west of the country, on the Egypt-Sudan-Libya border. The Western Desert is barren and uninhabited save for a chain of oases which extend in an arc from Siwa, in the north-west, to Kharga in the south. It has been the scene of conflict in modern times, particularly during the Second World War.

Nile River in Africa and the longest river in the world

The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is the longest river in Africa and the disputed longest river in the world, as the Brazilian government claims that the Amazon River is longer than the Nile. The Nile, which is about 6,650 km (4,130 mi) long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan and Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan.

Cairo Capital and largest city of Egypt

Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East and 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 AD by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC.

The Great Pyramid and the Pyramid of Khafre are the largest pyramids built in ancient Egypt, and they have historically been common as emblems of ancient Egypt in the Western imagination. [1] [2] They were popularised in Hellenistic times, when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is by far the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.

Egyptian pyramids Ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt

The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. As of November 2008, sources cite either 118 or 138 as the number of identified Egyptian pyramids. Most were built as tombs for the country's pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.

Ancient Egypt in the Western imagination Legendary image of Egypt in the Western world

Egypt has had a legendary image in the Western world through the Greek and Hebrew traditions. Egypt was already ancient to outsiders, and the idea of Egypt has continued to be at least as influential in the history of ideas as the actual historical Egypt itself. All Egyptian culture was transmitted to Roman and post-Roman European culture through the lens of Hellenistic conceptions of it, until the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics by Jean-François Champollion in the 1820s rendered Egyptian texts legible, finally enabling an understanding of Egypt as the Egyptians themselves understood it.

Hellenistic period Period of ancient Greek and Mediterranean history

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. The Ancient Greek word Hellas is the original word for Greece, from which the word Hellenistic was derived.

Pyramids and Sphinx

Giza pyramid complex (map) Giza pyramid complex (map).svg
Giza pyramid complex (map)
Aerial view from north of cultivated Nile valley with the pyramids in the background Giza-pyramids-uwm.png
Aerial view from north of cultivated Nile valley with the pyramids in the background
The Great Sphinx partially excavated, photo taken between 1867 and 1899 Sphinx partially excavated2.jpg
The Great Sphinx partially excavated, photo taken between 1867 and 1899
Pyramids of Ghizeh. 1893. Egypt; heliogravures after original views. Wilbour Library of Egyptology. Brooklyn Museum "Pyramids of Ghizeh." 1893.jpg
Pyramids of Ghizeh. 1893. Egypt; heliogravures after original views. Wilbour Library of Egyptology. Brooklyn Museum

The Pyramids of Giza consist of the Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Cheops or Khufu and constructed c. 2580 – c.2560 BC), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Chephren) a few hundred meters to the south-west, and the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinos) a few hundred meters farther south-west. The Great Sphinx lies on the east side of the complex. Current consensus among Egyptologists is that the head of the Great Sphinx is that of Khafre. Along with these major monuments are a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, causeways and valley pyramids. [3]

Khufu Fourth Dynasty ancient Egyptian pharaoh

Khufu, known to the Greeks as Cheops, was an ancient Egyptian monarch who was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, in the first half of the Old Kingdom period. Khufu succeeded his father Sneferu as king. He is generally accepted as having commissioned the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but many other aspects of his reign are poorly documented.

Circa – frequently abbreviated ca., or ca and less frequently c.,circ. or cca. – signifies "approximately" in several European languages and as a loanword in English, usually in reference to a date. Circa is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known.

Pyramid of Khafre smooth-sided pyramid

The Pyramid of Khafre or of Chephren is the second-tallest and second-largest of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the Fourth-Dynasty pharaoh Khafre (Chefren), who ruled from c. 2558 to 2532 BC.

Khufu's pyramid complex

Khufu’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, now buried beneath the village of Nazlet el-Samman; diabase paving and nummulitic limestone walls have been found but the site has not been excavated. [4] [5] The valley temple was connected to a causeway which was largely destroyed when the village was constructed. The causeway led to the Mortuary Temple of Khufu. Of this temple the basalt pavement is the only thing that remains. The mortuary temple was connected to the king's pyramid. The king's pyramid has three smaller queen's pyramids associated with it and five boat pits. [6] :11–19 The boat pits contained a ship, and the two pits on the south side of the pyramid still contained intact ships when excavated. One of these ships has been restored and is on display.

Diabase An intrusive mafic rock forming dykes or sills

Diabase or dolerite or microgabbro is a mafic, holocrystalline, subvolcanic rock equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro. Diabase dikes and sills are typically shallow intrusive bodies and often exhibit fine grained to aphanitic chilled margins which may contain tachylite. Diabase is the preferred name in North America, while dolerite is the preferred name in the rest of English-speaking world, where sometimes the name diabase is applied to altered dolerites and basalts. Some geologists prefer the name microgabbro to avoid this confusion.

Nummulite genus of foraminifers

A nummulite is a large lenticular fossil, characterized by its numerous coils, subdivided by septa into chambers. They are the shells of the fossil and present-day marine protozoan Nummulites, a type of foraminiferan. Nummulites commonly vary in diameter from 1.3 cm to 5 cm and are common in Eocene to Miocene marine rocks, particularly around southwest Asia and the Mediterranean. Fossils up to six inches wide are found in the Middle Eocene rocks of Turkey. They are valuable as index fossils.

Khufu's pyramid still has a limited number of casing stones at its base. These casing stones were made of fine white limestone quarried from the nearby range. [3]

Khafre's pyramid complex

Khafre's pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, the Sphinx temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple and the king's pyramid. The valley temple yielded several statues of Khafre. Several were found in a well in the floor of the temple by Mariette in 1860. Others were found during successive excavations by Sieglin (1909–10), Junker, Reisner, and Hassan. Khafre's complex contained five boat-pits and a subsidiary pyramid with a serdab. [6] :19–26 Khafre's pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu Pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, and the steeper angle of inclination of its construction—it is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume. Khafre's pyramid retains a prominent display of casing stones at its apex. [3]

Menkaure's pyramid complex

Menkaure's pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple, and the king's pyramid. The valley temple once contained several statues of Menkaure. During the 5th Dynasty, a smaller ante-temple was added on to the valley temple. The mortuary temple also yielded several statues of Menkaure. The king's pyramid has three subsidiary or queen's pyramids. [6] :26–35 Of the four major monuments, only Menkaure's pyramid is seen today without any of its original polished limestone casing. [3]

Sphinx

The Sphinx dates from the reign of king Khafre. [7] During the New Kingdom, Amenhotep II dedicated a new temple to Hauron-Haremakhet and this structure was added onto by later rulers. [6] :39–40

Tomb of Queen Khentkaus I

Khentkaus I was buried in Giza. Her tomb is known as LG 100 and G 8400 and is located in the Central Field, near the valley temple of Menkaure. The pyramid complex of Queen Khentkaus includes: her pyramid, a boat pit, a valley temple and a pyramid town. [6] :288–289

Construction

Most construction theories are based on the idea that the pyramids were built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place. The disagreements center on the method by which the stones were conveyed and placed and how possible the method was.

In building the pyramids, the architects might have developed their techniques over time. They would select a site on a relatively flat area of bedrock—not sand—which provided a stable foundation. After carefully surveying the site and laying down the first level of stones, they constructed the pyramids in horizontal levels, one on top of the other.

For the Great Pyramid of Giza, most of the stone for the interior seems to have been quarried immediately to the south of the construction site. The smooth exterior of the pyramid was made of a fine grade of white limestone that was quarried across the Nile. These exterior blocks had to be carefully cut, transported by river barge to Giza, and dragged up ramps to the construction site. Only a few exterior blocks remain in place at the bottom of the Great Pyramid. During the Middle Ages (5th century to 15th century), people may have taken the rest away for building projects in the city of Cairo. [3]

To ensure that the pyramid remained symmetrical, the exterior casing stones all had to be equal in height and width. Workers might have marked all the blocks to indicate the angle of the pyramid wall and trimmed the surfaces carefully so that the blocks fit together. During construction, the outer surface of the stone was smooth limestone; excess stone has eroded as time has passed. [3]

Purpose

The pyramids of Giza and others are thought to have been constructed to house the remains of the deceased pharaohs who ruled over Ancient Egypt. [3] A portion of the pharaoh's spirit called his ka was believed to remain with his corpse. Proper care of the remains was necessary in order for the "former Pharaoh to perform his new duties as king of the dead." It's theorized the pyramid not only served as a tomb for the pharaoh, but also as a storage pit for various items he would need in the afterlife. "The people of Ancient Egypt believed that death on Earth was the start of a journey to the next world." The embalmed body of the King was entombed underneath or within the pyramid to protect it and allow his transformation and ascension to the afterlife. [8]

Astronomy

The Giza pyramid complex at night PyramidsofGiza at night.jpg
The Giza pyramid complex at night

The sides of all three of the Giza pyramids were astronomically oriented to the north-south and east-west within a small fraction of a degree. Among recent attempts [9] [10] [11] to explain such a clearly deliberate pattern are those of S. Haack, O. Neugebauer, K. Spence, D. Rawlins, K. Pickering, and J. Belmonte. The arrangement of the pyramids is a representation of the Orion constellation according to the disputed Orion correlation theory.

Workers' village

One face of the Pyramid of Khafre in Giza, showing a nearby archaeological site S10.08 Gizeh, image 9936.jpg
One face of the Pyramid of Khafre in Giza, showing a nearby archaeological site
Giza pyramid complex seen from above Giza-pyramids.JPG
Giza pyramid complex seen from above
3D overview of the Giza complex

The work of quarrying, moving, setting, and sculpting the huge amount of stone used to build the pyramids might have been accomplished by several thousand skilled workers, unskilled laborers and supporting workers. Bakers, carpenters, water carriers, and others were also needed for the project. Along with the methods utilized to construct the pyramids, there is also wide speculation regarding the exact number of workers needed for a building project of this magnitude. When Greek historian Herodotus visited Giza in 450 BC, he was told by Egyptian priests that "the Great Pyramid had taken 400,000 men 20 years to build, working in three-month shifts 100,000 men at a time." Evidence from the tombs indicates that a workforce of 10,000 laborers working in three-month shifts took around 30 years to build a pyramid. [3]

The Giza pyramid complex is surrounded by a large stone wall, outside which Mark Lehner and his team discovered a town where the pyramid workers were housed. The village is located to the southeast of the Khafre and Menkaure complexes. Among the discoveries at the workers' village are communal sleeping quarters, bakeries, breweries, and kitchens (with evidence showing that bread, beef, and fish were staples of the diet), a hospital and a cemetery (where some of the skeletons were found with signs of trauma associated with accidents on a building site). [12] The workers' town appears to date from the middle 4th Dynasty (2520–2472 BC), after the accepted time of Khufu and completion of the Great Pyramid. According to Lehner and the AERA team:

"The development of this urban complex must have been quite rapid. All of the construction probably happened in the 35 to 50 years that spanned the reigns of Khafre and Menkaure, builders of the Second and Third Giza Pyramids".

Without carbon dating, using only pottery shards, seal impressions, and stratigraphy to date the site, the team further concludes;

"The picture that emerges is that of a planned settlement, some of the world's earliest urban planning, securely dated to the reigns of two Giza pyramid builders: Khafre (2520–2494 BC) and Menkaure (2490–2472 BC)". [13] [14]

Cemeteries

As the pyramids were constructed, the mastabas for lesser royals were constructed around them. Near the pyramid of Khufu, the main cemetery is G 7000, which lies in the East Field located to the east of the main pyramid and next to the Queen's pyramids. These cemeteries around the pyramids were arranged along streets and avenues. [15] Cemetery G 7000 was one of the earliest and contained tombs of wives, sons and daughters of these 4th Dynasty rulers. On the other side of the pyramid in the West Field, the royals sons Wepemnofret and Hemiunu were buried in Cemetery G 1200 and Cemetery G 4000 respectively. These cemeteries were further expanded during the 5th and 6th Dynasties. [6]

West Field

The West Field is located to the west of Khufu’s pyramid. It is divided into smaller areas such as the cemeteries referred to as the Abu Bakr Excavations (1949–50, 1950–1,1952 and 1953), and several cemeteries named based on the mastaba numbers such as Cemetery G 1000, Cemetery G 1100, etc. The West Field contains Cemetery G1000 – Cemetery G1600, and Cemetery G 1900. Further cemeteries in this field are: Cemeteries G 2000, G 2200, G 2500, G 3000, G 4000, and G 6000. Three other cemeteries are named after their excavators: Junker Cemetery West, Junker Cemetery East and Steindorff Cemetery. [6] :100–122

Cemeteries in the West Field at Giza [6] :47–179
CemeteryTime PeriodExcavationComments
Abu Bakr Excavationsthe 5th and 6th Dynasty (1949–53)
Cemetery G 1000the 5th and 6th DynastyReisner (1903–05)Stone built mastabas
Cemetery G 1100the 5th and 6th DynastyReisner (1903–05)Brick built mastabas
Cemetery G 1200Mainly 4th Dynasty Reisner (1903–05)Some members of Khufu’s family are buried here; Wepemnefert (King's Son), Kaem-ah (King's Son), Nefertiabet (King's Daughter)
Cemetery G 1300the 5th and 6th DynastyReisner (1903–05)Brick built mastabas
Cemetery G 1400the 5th Dynasty or laterReisner (1903–05)Two men who were prophets of Khufu
Cemetery G 1500Reisner (1931?)Only one mastaba (G 1601)
Cemetery G 1600the 5th Dynasty or laterReisner (1931)Two men who were prophets of Khufu
Cemetery G 1900Reisner (1931)Only one mastaba (G 1903)
Cemetery G 2000the 5th and 6th DynastyReisner (1905–06)
Cemetery G 2100the 4th and 5th Dynasty and laterReisner (1931)G 2100 belongs to Merib, a King's (grand-)Son and G2101 belongs to a 5th Dynasty king's daughter.
Cemetery G 2200Late 4th or early 5th DynastyReisner ?Mastaba G 2220
Cemetery G 23005th Dynasty and 6th DynastyReisner (1911–13)Includes mastabas of Vizier Senedjemib-Inti and his family.
Cemetery G 24005th Dynasty and 6th DynastyReisner (1911–13)
Cemetery G 2500Reisner
Cemetery G 30006th DynastyFisher and Eckley Case Jr (1915)
Cemetery G 40004th Dynasty and laterJunker and Reisner (1931)Includes tomb of the vizier Hemiunu
Cemetery G 60005th DynastyReisner (1925–26)
Junker Cemetery (West)Late Old Kingdom Junker (1926–27)Includes mastaba of the dwarf Seneb
Steindorff Cemetery5th Dynasty and 6th DynastySteindorff (1903–07)
Junker Cemetery (East)Late Old KingdomJunker

East Field

The East Field is located to the east of Khufu's pyramid and contains cemetery G 7000. This cemetery was a burial place for some of the family members of Khufu. The cemetery also includes mastabas from tenants and priests of the pyramids dated to the 5th Dynasty and 6th Dynasty. [6] :179–216

Cemeteries G 7000 – Royalty [6] :179–208
Tomb numberOwnerComments
G 7000 XQueen Hetepheres I Mother of Khufu
G 7010 Nefertkau I Daughter of Sneferu, half-sister of Khufu
G 7060 Nefermaat I Son of Nefertkau I and Vizier of Khafra
G 7070 Sneferukhaf Son of Nefermaat II
G 7110–7120 Kawab and Hetepheres II Kawab was the eldest son of Khufu
G 7130–7140 Khufukhaf I and Nefertkau II King's Son and Vizier and his wife
G 7210–7220 Djedefhor King's Son of Khufu and Meritites
G 7350 Hetepheres II Wife of Kawab and later wife of Djedefre
G 7410–7420 Meresankh II and Horbaef Meresankh was a king's daughter and king's wife
G 7430–7440 Minkhaf I Son of Khufu and Vizier of Khafra
G 7510 Ankhhaf Son of Sneferu and Vizier of Khafra
G 7530–7540 Meresankh III Daughter of Kawab and Hetepheres II, wife of Khafra
G 7550 Duaenhor Probably son of Kawab and thus a grandson of Khufu
G 7560Akhethotep and Meritites II Meritites is a daughter of Khufu
G 7660 Kaemsekhem Son of Kawab, a grandson of Khufu, served as Director of the Palace
G 7760 Mindjedef Son of Kawab, a grandson of Khufu, served as Treasurer
G 7810 Djaty Son of Queen Meresankh II

Cemetery GIS

This cemetery dates from the time of Menkaure (Junker) or earlier (Reisner), and contains several stone-built mastabas dating from as late as the 6th Dynasty. Tombs from the time of Menkaure include the mastabas of the royal chamberlain Khaemnefert, the King's son Khufudjedef was master of the royal largesse, and an official named Niankhre. [6] :216–228

Central Field

The Central Field contains several burials of royal family members. The tombs range in date from the end of the 4th Dynasty to the 5th Dynasty or even later. [6] :230–293

Central Field – Royalty [6] :230–293
Tomb numberOwnerComments
G 8172 (LG 86) Nebemakhet Son of Khafre, served as vizier
G 8158 (LG 87) Nikaure Son of Khafre and Persenet, served as vizier
G 8156 (LG 88) Persenet Wife of Khafre
G 8154 (LG 89) Sekhemkare Son of Khafre and Hekenuhedjet
G 8140NiuserreSon of Khafre, Vizier in the 5th Dynasty
G 8130NiankhreKing's Son, probably 5th Dynasty
G 8080 (LG 92)IunminKing's Son, end of 4th Dynasty
G 8260BabaefSon of Khafre, end of 4th Dynasty
G 8466 Iunre Son of Khafre, end of 4th Dynasty
G 8464 Hemetre Probably daughter of Khafre, end of 4th Dynasty or 5th Dynasty
G 8460 Ankhmare King's son and vizier, end of 4th Dynasty
G 8530 Rekhetre King's daughter (of Khafre) and Queen, end of 4th Dynasty or 5th Dynasty
G 8408 Bunefer King's daughter and Queen, end of 4th Dynasty or 5th Dynasty
G 8978 Khamerernebty I King's daughter and Queen, middle to end of 4th Dynasty. Also known as the Galarza Tomb

Tombs dating from the Saite and later period were found near the causeway of Khafre and the Great Sphinx. These tombs include the tomb of a commander of the army named Ahmose and his mother Queen Nakhtubasterau, who was the wife of Pharaoh Amasis II. [6] :289–290

South Field

The South Field includes mastabas dating from the 1st-3rd Dynasties as well as later burials. [16] Of the more significant of these early dynastic tombs are one referred to as "Covington's tomb", otherwise known as Mastaba T, and the large Mastaba V which contained artifacts naming the 1st Dynasty pharaoh Djet. [17] [16] Other tombs date from the late Old Kingdom (5th and 6th Dynasty). The south section of the field contains several tombs dating from the Saite period and later. [6] :294–297

Tombs of the pyramid builders

In 1990, tombs belonging to the pyramid workers were discovered alongside the pyramids, with an additional burial site found nearby in 2009. Although not mummified, they had been buried in mud-brick tombs with beer and bread to support them in the afterlife. The tombs' proximity to the pyramids and the manner of burial supports the theory that they were paid laborers who took great pride in their work and were not slaves, as was previously thought. Evidence from the tombs indicates that a workforce of 10,000 laborers working in three-month shifts took around 30 years to build a pyramid. Most of the workers appear to have come from poor families. Specialists such as architects, masons, metalworkers and carpenters, were permanently employed by the king to fill positions that required the most skill. [18] [19] [20] [21]

New Kingdom and Late Period

During the New Kingdom, Giza was still an active site. A brick-built chapel was constructed near the Sphinx during the early 18th dynasty, probably by King Thutmose I. Amenhotep II built a temple dedicated to Hauron-Haremakhet near the Sphinx. The future pharaoh Thutmose IV visited the pyramids and the Sphinx as a prince and in a dream was told that clearing the sand from the Sphinx would be rewarded with kingship. This event is recorded in the Dream Stela, which he had installed between the Sphinx's front legs. During the early years of his reign, Thutmose IV, together with his wife Queen Nefertari, had stelae erected at Giza. Pharaoh Tutankhamun had a structure built, which is now referred to as the king's resthouse. During the 19th Dynasty, Seti I added to the temple of Hauron-Haremakhet, and his son Ramesses II erected a stela in the chapel before the Sphinx and usurped the resthouse of Tutankhamun. [6] :39–47

During the 21st Dynasty, the Temple of Isis Mistress-of-the-Pyramids was reconstructed. During the 26th Dynasty, a stela made in this time mentions Khufu and his Queen Henutsen. [6] :18

See also

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The Pyramid of Menkaure is the smallest of the three main Pyramids of Giza, located on the Giza Plateau in the southwestern outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. It is thought to have been built to serve as the tomb of the fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Menkaure.

Ancient Egyptian architecture

Spanning over two thousand years in total, what is called ancient Egypt was not one stable civilization, but instead a civilization in constant change and upheaval commonly split into periods by historians. Likewise, ancient Egyptian architecture is not one style, but a set of styles with commonalities used during each period of ancient Egyptian history.

Ankhhaf Egyptian prince and vizier

Prince Ankhhaf was an Egyptian prince and served as vizier and overseer of works to the Pharaoh Khufu, who was Ankhhaf's half-brother. He lived during Egypt's 4th Dynasty.

Meresankh III ancient Egyptian queen consort

Queen Meresankh III was the daughter of Hetepheres II and Prince Kawab and a granddaughter of the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu. She was the wife of King Khafre.

Meritites I was an ancient Egyptian queen of the 4th dynasty. Her name means "Beloved of her Father". Several of her titles are known from a stela found at Giza. She was buried in the middle Queen’s Pyramid in Giza.

Djedefhor or Hordjedef was a noble Egyptian of the 4th dynasty. He was the son of Khufu and his name means "Enduring Like Horus".

Duaenre was a vizier under Menkaure during the Fourth dynasty of Egypt. His titles include those of king's son of his body, hereditary prince (jrj-pat), count (HAtj-a), vizier (tAjtj), scribe of the divine book, mouth of Nekhen, and mouth of every Butite.

Khafre Enthroned

Khafre Enthroned is a funerary statue of the Pharaoh Khafre, who reigned during the Fourth dynasty of ancient Egypt. It is now located in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The construction is made of anorthosite gneiss, a valuable, extremely hard, and dark stone brought 400 miles down the Nile River from royal quarries. This highlights Khafre's importance and power as a ruler. The statue was carved for the Pharaoh's valley temple near the Great Sphinx, a part of the necropolis used in funeral rituals. This Old Kingdom statue has an important function in Egyptian tombs as substitute abodes for the Pharaoh's ka—the life force that accompanied a person with a kind of other self. After death, the ka leaves the body into the afterlife, but still needs a place to rest: the statue.

Cemetery GIS Necropolis on the Giza Plateau, Egypt

Cemetery GIS is a necropolis in the Giza Plateau. It derives its name from its proximity to pyramid G I (Khufu). The tombs are located on the south side of that pyramid and hence the name G I South Cemetery. Reisner thought the cemetery a continuation of the G7000 cemetery which is part of the Giza East Field. The construction postdates that of mastaba G 7070 of Sneferukhaf. Junker dated the cemetery to the reign of Menkaure based on the presence of granite powder thought to derive from the dressing of the second pyramid at Giza. Reisner allows for a possible construction date dating to the reign of Khafre.

Inventory Stela

The Inventory Stela is an Ancient Egyptian commemorative tablet dating to the 26th Dynasty. It was found in Giza during the 19th century. The stela presents a list of 22 divine statues owned by a Temple of Isis, and goes on to claim that the temple existed since before the time of Khufu.

References

  1. Pedro Tafur, Andanças e viajes .
  2. Medieval visitors, like the Spanish traveller Pedro Tafur in 1436, viewed them however as "the Granaries of Joseph" (Pedro Tafur, Andanças e viajes ).
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Verner, Miroslav. The Pyramids: The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments. Grove Press. 2001 (1997). ISBN   0-8021-3935-3
  4. Shafer, Byron E.; Dieter Arnold (2005). Temples of Ancient Egypt. I.B. Tauris. pp. 51–52. ISBN   978-1-85043-945-5.
  5. Arnold, Dieter; Nigel Strudwick; Helen Strudwick (2002). The encyclopaedia of ancient Egyptian architecture . I.B. Tauris. p. 126. ISBN   978-1-86064-465-8.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Porter, Bertha and Moss, Rosalind L. B.. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings. Volume III. Memphis. Part I. Abû Rawâsh to Abûṣîr. 2nd edition, revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek, The Clarendon Press, Oxford 1974. PDF from The Giza Archives, 29,5 MB Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  7. Riddle of the Sphinx Retrieved 6 November 2010.
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  10. "Nature". 16 August 2001.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. "DIO The International Journal of Scientific History" (PDF). 13 (1). December 2003: 2–11. ISSN   1041-5440.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. I. E. S. Edwards The Pyramids of Egypt (1993)
  13. "Egyptian Pyramids - Lost City of the Pyramid Builders - AERA - Ancient Egypt Research Associates". aeraweb.org.
  14. "Dating the Lost City of the Pyramids - Mark Lehner & AERA - Ancient Egypt Research Associates". aeraweb.org.
  15. Lehner, Dr. Mark, "The Complete Pyramids", Thames & Hudson, 1997. ISBN   0-500-05084-8.
  16. 1 2 Petrie, W. M. Flinders; et al. (1907). Gizeh and Rifeh (PDF). London: School of Archaeology in Egypt. pp. 2–8. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  17. Flentye, Laurel (March 2018). "The Art and Archaeology of the Giza Plateau". doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935413.013.29.
  18. "Who Built the Pyramids?". Explore the pyramids. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
  19. The Discovery of the Tombs of the Pyramid Builders at Giza by Zahi Hawass
  20. The Cemetery of the Pyramid Builders Archived 15 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine by Zahi Hawass
  21. Cooney, Kathlyn (2007). "Labour". In Wilkinson, Toby (ed.). The Egyptian World. Routledge.