Vizier (Ancient Egypt)

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Statue of Hemiunu, vizier and designer of Khufu's pyramid, at the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim, Germany. His feet rest on columns of hieroglyphs, painted in yellow, red, brown, and black. RPM Agypten 006.jpg
Statue of Hemiunu, vizier and designer of Khufu's pyramid, at the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim, Germany. His feet rest on columns of hieroglyphs, painted in yellow, red, brown, and black.
Vizier (Ancient Egypt)Vizier (Ancient Egypt)
Vizier (Ancient Egypt)
Vizier (Ancient Egypt)
Vizier (Tjaty)
in hieroglyphs

The vizier ( /vɪˈzɪər/ or /ˈvɪzɪər/ ) was the highest official in ancient Egypt to serve the pharaoh (king) during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. [1] Vizier is the generally accepted rendering of ancient Egyptian tjati, tjaty etc., among Egyptologists. [2] The Instruction of Rekhmire ( Installation of the Vizier ), a New Kingdom text, defines many of the duties of the tjaty, and lays down codes of behavior. The viziers were often appointed by the pharaoh. During the 4th Dynasty and early 5th Dynasty, viziers were exclusively drawn from the royal family; from the period around the reign of Neferirkare Kakai onwards, they were chosen according to loyalty and talent or inherited the position from their fathers. [3]

Contents

Responsibilities

The viziers were appointed by the pharaohs and often belonged to a pharaoh's family. The vizier's paramount duty was to supervise the running of the country, much like a prime minister. At times this included small details such as sampling the city's water supply. [4] All other lesser supervisors and officials, such as tax collectors and scribes, reported to the vizier. The judiciary was part of the civil administration, and the vizier also sat in the High Court. At any time, the pharaoh could exert his own control over any aspect of government, overriding the vizier's decisions. The vizier also supervised the security of the pharaoh and the palace by overseeing the comings and goings of palace visitors [5] . The viziers often acted as the pharaoh's seal bearer as well, and the vizier would record trade. [6] From the Fifth Dynasty onwards, viziers, whom by then were the highest civilian bureaucratic official, held supreme responsibility for the administration of the palace and government, including jurisdiction, scribes, state archives, central granaries, treasury, storage of surplus products and their redistribution, and supervision of building projects such as the royal pyramid. [7] In the New Kingdom, there were two viziers, one for Upper Egypt and one for Lower Egypt. [8]

Installation of the Vizier

According to the Installation of the Vizier , a New Kingdom document describing the office of the vizier, there were certain traits and behaviors that were required to be a vizier:

List of viziers

Early Dynastic period

Viziers of the Early Dynastic period
VizierPharaohDynastyComments
Menka Ninetjer? 2nd Dynasty Earliest known holder of the title

Old Kingdom

Viziers of the Old Kingdom
VizierPharaohDynastyComments
Kagemni I Sneferu 4th Dynasty Purported author of the Instructions of Kagemni. Not attested in contemporary sources,
Nefermaat I Khufu 4th Dynasty Son of Sneferu and father of Hemiunu
Hemiunu Khufu 4th Dynasty Nefermaat's son, believed to have designed Khufu's pyramid
Kawab Khufu 4th Dynasty Eldest son and vizier of Khufu
Ankhhaf Khafre 4th Dynasty Son of Sneferu
Nefermaat II Khafre 4th Dynasty Nephew of Nefermaat the Elder, a son of Nefertkau I; a grandson of Sneferu
Minkhaf Khafre 4th Dynasty Son of Khufu, vizier under Khafre
Khufukhaef Khafre 4th Dynasty Son of Khufu, vizier under Khafre
Nikaure Menkaure 4th Dynasty Son of Khafre
Ankhmare Menkaure 4th Dynasty Son of Khafre
Duaenre Menkaure 4th Dynasty Son of Khafre, vizier during the late 4th dynasty
Nebemakhet Menkaure 4th Dynasty Son of Queen Meresankh III
Iunmin I Menkaure 4th Dynasty Possibly son of Khafre, vizier during the late 4th dynasty
Babaef II Shepseskaf 4th Dynasty Grandson of Khafre
Seshathotep Heti Userkaf, early 5th Dynasty 5th Dynasty It is not certain if Seshathetep held the titles of a vizier.
Sekhemkare Userkaf and Sahure 5th Dynasty Son of Khafre and queen Hekenuhedjet.
Werbauba Sahure 5th Dynasty
Washptah Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai 5th Dynasty
Minnefer Nyuserre Ini 5th Dynasty
Ptahshepses Nyuserre Ini 5th Dynasty Became the son-in-law of Nyuserre Ini some time after his ascension to the throne.
Kay Nyuserre Ini 5th Dynasty
Pehenuikai Nyuserre Ini 5th Dynasty
Ptahhotep Desher Menkauhor or Djedkare Isesi 5th Dynasty
Ptahhotep Djedkare Isesi 5th Dynasty
Seshemnefer (III) Djedkare Isesi 5th Dynasty
Ptahhotep I Djedkare Isesi 5th Dynasty Purported author of The Maxims of Ptahhotep
Akhethotep Djedkare Isesi 5th Dynasty Son of Ptahhotep I.
Senedjemib Inti Djedkare Isesi 5th Dynasty
Ptahhotep II Unas 5th Dynasty
Akhethetep Hemi Unas 5th Dynasty
Ihy Unas 5th Dynasty
Niankhba Unas 5th Dynasty
Sekhem-ankh-Ptah 5th Dynasty or 6th Dynasty Dating uncertain, may have been the son-in-law of a king.
Senedjemib Mehi 6th Dynasty possible son-in-law of Unas (or Djedkare Isesi), vizier during the early 6th dynasty
Nefersheshemre Teti 6th Dynasty
Kagemni Teti 6th Dynasty son-in-law of Teti
Mereruka Teti 6th Dynasty son-in-law of Teti
Khentika Teti 6th Dynasty
Mehu Teti 6th Dynasty
Ankhmahor Teti - Pepi I 6th Dynasty
Merefnebef Teti - Pepi I 6th Dynasty Merefnebef is also known as Unis-ankh and Fefi in his tomb
Hesi Teti - Pepi I 6th Dynasty
Meryteti Pepi I 6th Dynasty grandson of Teti, son of Mereruka
Iunmin II Pepi I 6th Dynasty
Nebet Pepi I 6th Dynasty mother-in-law and vizier of Pepi I
Tjetju Pepi I 6th Dynasty
Qar Pepi I 6th Dynasty
Djau Pepi I 6th Dynasty brother-in-law of Pepi I, son of Nebet
Rawer (vizier) Pepi I 6th Dynasty
Shemay Neferkaure - Neferkauhor 8th Dynasty son-in-law of Neferkauhor, nomarch of Coptos, later vizier
Idy Neferirkare(?) 8th Dynasty son of Shemay

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period

Viziers of the Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period
VizierPharaohDynastyComments
Bebi Mentuhotep II 11th Dynasty
Dagi Mentuhotep II 11th Dynasty
Amenemhat Mentuhotep IV 11th DynastyHe later became king as Amenemhat I, first Pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty
Ipi Amenemhat I 12th Dynasty
Intefiqer Amenemhat I
Senusret I
12th DynastyHe is indicated in the Wadi el-Hudi as being involved in military missions in Lower Nubia. [9]
Senusret Senusret I
Amenemhat II
12th Dynasty
Ameny Amenemhat II12th Dynasty
Amenemhat-ankh Amenemhat II (?) [10] 12th Dynasty
Siese Amenemhat II12th Dynasty
Nebit Senusret III12th Dynasty
Khnumhotep III Senusret III12th Dynasty
Kheti Amenemhat III 12th Dynasty
AmenyAmenemhat III12th Dynasty [11]
Zamonth Amenemhat III12th Dynasty [11]
Senewosret-Ankh (vizier) End 12th Dynasty
Beginning 13th Dynasty
Khenmes [11] 13th Dynasty
Ankhu Khendjer 13th Dynasty
Resseneb 13th dynasty Son of Ankhu [12]
Iymeru 13th Dynasty Son of Ankhu [12]
Neferkare Iymeru Sobekhotep IV 13th Dynasty
Sobka called Bebi [13] 13th Dynasty
Ibiaw [13] Ibiaw or Ay 13th Dynasty
Sonbhenaf [13] Ibiaw or Ay, or Djehuti uncertain
Aya [13] Ini I 13th DynastyAya was Governor of El Kab before being appointed vizier in year 1 of Ini I, as reported in the Juridical Stela
Ayameru [13] 13th DynastyAyameru was the younger son of Aya and succeeded him in office, as reported in the Juridical Stela

New Kingdom

Viziers of the New Kingdom
Vizier of the South (Thebes)PharaohDynastyComments
Tetinefer Ahmose I? 18th Dynasty Vizier of the North (Memphis)
Imhotep Thutmose I 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Aakheperreseneb Thutmose I 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Amethu called Ahmose Thutmose I, Hatshepsut 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Hapuseneb Hatshepsut 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Amethu called Ahmose Thutmose II, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Useramen Hatshepsut, Thutmose III 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Neferweben Thutmose III 18th Dynasty Likely Vizier of the North
Rekhmire Thutmose III 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Amenemipet called Pairy Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Seny Thutmose IV 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Hepu Thutmose IV 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Thutmose Thutmose IV 18th Dynasty Vizier of the North
Ptahmose Amenhotep III 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Amenhotep-Huy Amenhotep III 18th Dynasty Vizier of the North
Aperel Amenhotep III, Akhenaten 18th Dynasty Vizier of the North
Ramose Amenhotep III, Akhenaten 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Nakhtpaaten Akhenaten 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Pentu Tutankhamen 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Usermontu Tutankhamen 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Ay ? Tutankhamen 18th Dynasty Vizier of the South, succeeded Tutankhamen as Pharaoh
Paramessu Horemheb 18th Dynasty Later took the throne as Ramesses I
Nebamun Horemheb, Sethi I 18th Dynasty, 19th Dynasty Vizier of the North
Prince Sethi Ramesses I 19th Dynasty
Hatiay Sethi I, Ramesses II 19th Dynasty Vizier of the North?
Paser (Vizier) Sethi I, Ramesses II 19th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Nehi Ramesses II 19th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Khay Ramesses II 19th Dynasty Vizier of the South, ca. Year 27-45
Thutmose Ramesses II 19th Dynasty Vizier of the South, ca. Year 45-50.
Prehotep I Ramesses II 19th Dynasty Vizier of the North in ca year 40.
Prehotep II Ramesses II 19th Dynasty Vizier of the North in ca year 50.
Neferronpet Ramesses II 19th Dynasty Vizier of the South in ca year 50
Panehesy Merenptah 19th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Pensekhmet Merenptah 19th Dynasty Vizier of the South, Year 8
Merysekhmet Merenptah 19th Dynasty Vizier of the North, Year 3?
Amenmose Seti II and Amenmesse 19th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Khaemtir Seti II and Amenmesse 19th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Paraemheb Seti II and Amenmesse 19th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Hori II Seti II, Siptah, Twosret, Sethnakht and Ramesses III 19th Dynasty
Iuty 20th Dynasty Vizier of the North?
Nehi? Ramesses III 20th Dynasty
Hewernef Ramesses III 20th Dynasty Vizier of the South
To Ramesses III 20th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Neferronpe Ramesses IV to Ramesses VI 20th Dynasty Vizier
Nehy Ramesses VI 20th Dynasty Vizier, son of Neferronpe
Mentehetef (Montu-hir-hetef) Ramesses IX 20th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Wennefer Ramesses IX 20th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Nebmarenakht also called Saht(a)-nefer Ramesses IX, Ramesses X and Ramesses XI 20th Dynasty
Khaemwaset Ramesses IX 20th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Herihor Ramesses XI 20th Dynasty Vizier of the South

Third Intermediate Period

Viziers of the South [14]
VizierPharaohyearDynastyComments
Herihor Smendes I c. 1075 B.C.21st Dynasty
Pinedjem I Smendes I c. 1070 B.C.21st Dynasty
Amenhirpamesha Psusennes I c. 1040 B.C.21st Dynasty
Neseramun (A) Siamun c. 960 B.C.21st DynastySon of Nebneteru (ii) a Letter Writer to the Pharaoh
Padimut (A) Shoshenq I c. 930 B.C.22nd-23rd DynastyVizier of the South
Ia-o Osorkon I c. 900 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Rudpamut Takelot I c. 880 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Hor(y) Takelot I c. 876 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Hori Takelot II c. 845? B.C.22nd-23rd DynastySon of Iutjek?
Nespakheshuty A Takelot II c. 835 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Harsiese D Shoshenq III c. 825 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Hor (viii) Shoshenq III c. 820 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Pentyefankh Pedubast I c. 815 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Harsiese E Shoshenq III / Shoshenq IV c. 790 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Djedkhonsefankh E Shoshenq III / Osorkon III c. 780 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Nakhtefmut C Shoshenq III / Osorkon III c. 775 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Hor x Osorkon III c. 770 B.C.22nd-23rd DynastySon of Nakhtefmut C
Pamiu Osorkon III c. 765 B.C.22nd-23rd DynastyVizier of the South
Pakharu Takelot III c. 760 B.C.22nd-23rd DynastySon of Pamiu
Ankh-Osorkon Rudamun c. 755 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Pediamonet Iuput II c. 750 B.C.22nd-23rd DynastySon of Pamiu
Harsiese F Iuput II c. 745 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Nesmin A Iuput II c. 740 B.C.22nd-23rd DynastySon of Harsiese F
Ankh-hor Iuput II c. 730 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Nespakheshuty B Iuput II c. 725 B.C.22nd-23rd Dynasty
Pediese Iuput II c. 720 B.C.22nd-23rd DynastySon of Harsiese F?

Late Period

Viziers of the Late Period [15]
VizierPharaohDynastyComments
Khamhor A 25th Dynasty Vizier of the South, Son of Harsiese F
Harsiese G Pahrer 25th Dynasty Vizier of the South, Son of Khamhor A
Nesmin B 25th Dynasty Vizier of the South, Son of Khamhor A
Mentuhotep (Vizier) 25th Dynasty Vizier of the North
Nespaqashuty C 25th-26th Dynasty Vizier of the South
Harsiese R 25th-26th Dynasty Vizier of the North
Nespademu 25th-26th Dynasty Vizier of the South, Son of Nespaqashuty C
Nespaqashuty D 25th-26th Dynasty Vizier of the South, buried in TT312, Son of Nespademu
Djedkare (Vizier) 25th-26th Dynasty Vizier of the North
Sasobek Psamtik I 25th-26th Dynasty Vizier of the North
Nasekheperensekhmet Psamtik I26th DynastyVizier of the North
Bakenrenef Psamtik I26th DynastyVizier of the North
Ankhwennefer Psamtik I26th DynastyVizier of the North
Iry26th DynastyVizier of the South
Djedwebasettiuefankh26th DynastyVizier of the South
Iufaa 26th DynastyVizier of the North, father of Gemenefhorbak
Gemenefhorbak 26th DynastyVizier of the North
Harsomtusemhat26th DynastyVizier of the North
Psamtek-Meryneit Amasis II 26th DynastyVizier of the North
PasherientaihetAmasis II26th DynastyVizier of the North
Horsiese26th DynastyVizier of the North
Psamtikseneb Nectanebo II 30th Dynasty

See also

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References

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  6. Archived September 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
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  10. W. Grajetzki: Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, London 2009, ISBN   978-0-7156-3745-6, p. 169
  11. 1 2 3 Grajetzki: Court Officials, 169
  12. 1 2 Grajetzki: Court Officials, 170
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  14. Kitchen, Kenneth A. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 1100-650 B.C. (Book & Supplement) Aris & Phillips. 1986 , Table 15, pg 483
  15. Viziers by Anneke Bart