Thutmose II

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Thutmose II (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis II, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: /ḏḥwty.ms/ Djehutymes, meaning "Thoth is born") was the fourth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. His reign is generally dated from 1493 to 1479 BC. His body was found in the Deir el-Bahri Cache above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut and can be viewed today in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

Egyptian language Language spoken in ancient Egypt, branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages

The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian stage. Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.

Thoth egyptian deity

Thoth is one of the ancient Egyptian deities. In art, he was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, animals sacred to him. His feminine counterpart was Seshat, and his wife was Ma'at. He was the god of wisdom, writing, hieroglyphs, science, magic, art, judgment, and the dead.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Contents

Family

Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a minor wife, Mutnofret. He was, therefore, a lesser son of Thutmose I and chose to marry his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut, in order to secure his kingship. While he successfully put down rebellions in Nubia and the Levant and defeated a group of nomadic Bedouins, these campaigns were specifically carried out by the king's Generals, and not by Thutmose II himself. This is often interpreted as evidence that Thutmose II was still a minor at his accession. Thutmose II fathered Neferure with Hatshepsut, but also managed to father a male heir, the famous Thutmose III, by a lesser wife named Iset before his death.

Thutmose I Egyptian pharaoh

Thutmose I was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He received the throne after the death of the previous king, Amenhotep I. During his reign, he campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt farther than ever before. He also built many temples in Egypt, and a tomb for himself in the Valley of the Kings; he is the first king confirmed to have done this.

Mutnofret ancient Egyptian queen consort

Mutnofret, also rendered as Mutneferet or Mutnefert, was a queen during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. She was a secondary wife of Thutmose I—Queen Ahmose was the chief wife—and the mother of Thutmose II.

Hatshepsut Queen Regent of Egypt

Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically-confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu.

Some archaeologists believe that Hatshepsut was the real power behind the throne during Thutmose II's rule because of the similar domestic and foreign policies that were later pursued under her reign and because of her claim that she was her father's intended heir. She is depicted in several raised relief scenes from a Karnak gateway dating to Thutmose II's reign both together with her husband and alone. [1] She later had herself crowned Pharaoh several years into the rule of her husband's young successor Thutmose III; this is confirmed by the fact that "the queen's agents actually replaced the boy king's name in a few places with her own cartouches" on the gateway. [2]

Thutmose III sixth Egyptian Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty

Thutmose III was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost 54 years and his reign is usually dated from 24 April 1479 BC to 11 March 1425 BC, from the age of two and until his death at age fifty-six; however, during the first 22 years of his reign, he was coregent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, who was named the pharaoh. While he was shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other. Thutmose served as the head of Hatshepsut's armies. During the final two years of his reign, he appointed his son and successor, Amenhotep II, as his junior co-regent. His firstborn son and heir to the throne, Amenemhat, predeceased Thutmose III.

Manetho's Epitome refers to Thutmose II as "Chebron" (a reference to his prenomen, Aakheperenre) and gives him a reign of 13 years, but this figure is highly disputed among scholars. Some Egyptologists prefer to shorten his reign by a full decade to only three years because his highest Year Date is only a Year 1 II Akhet day 8 stela. [3]

Manetho Egyptian historian and priest from Ancient Egypt

Manetho is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytos who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the early third century BC, during the Hellenistic period. He authored the Aegyptiaca in Greek, a major chronological source for the reigns of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It is unclear if he wrote his work during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or Ptolemy II Philadelphos, but no later than that of Ptolemy III Euergetes.

Dates and length of reign

Red granite fragment bearing the cartouche of Thutmose II. Probably from a throne of a seated statue. From Thutmose III Temple at Koptos, Egypt. 18th Dynasty Red granite fragment bearing the cartouche of Thutmose II. Probably from a throne of a seated statue. From Thutmose III Temple at Koptos, Egypt. 18th Dynasty.jpg
Red granite fragment bearing the cartouche of Thutmose II. Probably from a throne of a seated statue. From Thutmose III Temple at Koptos, Egypt. 18th Dynasty

Manetho's Epitome has been a debated topic among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign, but a 13-year reign is preferred by older scholars while newer scholars prefer a shorter 3-4 year reign for this king due to the minimal amount of scarabs and monuments attested under Thutmose II. It is still possible to estimate when Thutmose II's reign would have begun by means of a heliacal rise of Sothis in Amenhotep I's reign, which would give him a reign from 1493 to 1479 BC, [4] although uncertainty about how to interpret the rise also permits a date from 1513 to 1499 BC, [5] and uncertainty about how long Thutmose I ruled could also potentially place his reign several years earlier still. Nonetheless, scholars generally assign him a reign from 1493 or 1492 to 1479. [4] [6]

The heliacal rising or star rise of a star occurs annually when it briefly becomes visible above the eastern horizon at dawn just before sunrise, after a period of less than a year when it had not been visible. Historically, the most important such rising is that of Sirius, which was an important feature of the Egyptian calendar and astronomical development. The rising of the Pleiades heralded the start of the Ancient Greek sailing season, using celestial navigation.

Sirius Brightest star in the night sky

Sirius is the brightest star in the night sky. Its name is derived from the Greek word Σείριος Seirios "glowing" or "scorching". With a visual apparent magnitude of −1.46, Sirius is almost twice as bright as Canopus, the next brightest star. Sirius is a binary star consisting of a main-sequence star of spectral type A0 or A1, termed Sirius A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, termed Sirius B. The distance between the two varies between 8.2 and 31.5 astronomical units as they orbit every 50 years.

Amenhotep I Second Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt

Amenhotep I or Amenophis I, (,), from Ancient Greek Ἀμένωφις, additionally King Zeserkere, was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. His reign is generally dated from 1526 to 1506 BC. He was a son of Ahmose I and Ahmose-Nefertari, but had at least two elder brothers, Ahmose-ankh and Ahmose Sapair, and was not expected to inherit the throne. However, sometime in the eight years between Ahmose I's 17th regnal year and his death, his heir apparent died and Amenhotep became crown prince. He then acceded to the throne and ruled for about 21 years. Although his reign is poorly documented, it is possible to piece together a basic history from available evidence. He inherited the kingdom formed by his father's military conquests and maintained dominance over Nubia and the Nile Delta but probably did not attempt to maintain Egyptian power in the Levant. He continued the rebuilding of temples in Upper Egypt and revolutionized mortuary complex design by separating his tomb from his mortuary temple, setting a trend in royal funerary monuments which would persist throughout the New Kingdom. After his death, he was deified as a patron god of Deir el-Medina.

Argument for a short reign

Aakheperenre, the praenomen of Thutmose II, temple of Hatshepsut, Luxor. Luxor, hieroglyphs on an obelisk inside the Temple of Hatshepsut, Egypt, Oct 2004.jpg
Aakheperenre, the praenomen of Thutmose II, temple of Hatshepsut, Luxor.

Ineni, who was already aged by the start of Thutmose II's reign, lived through this ruler's entire reign into that of Hatshepsut. [7] In addition, Thutmose II is poorly attested in the monumental record and in the contemporary tomb autobiographies of New Kingdom officials. A clear count of monuments from his rule, which is the principal tool for estimating a king's reign when dated documents are not available, is nearly impossible because Hatshepsut usurped most of his monuments, and Thutmose III in turn reinscribed Thutmose II's name indiscriminately over other monuments. [8] However, apart from several surviving blocks of buildings erected by the king at Semna, Kumma, and Elephantine, Thutmose II's only major monument consists of a limestone gateway at Karnak that once lay at the front of the Fourth Pylon's forecourt. Even this monument was not completed in Thutmose II's reign but in the reign of his son Thutmose III, which hints at "the nearly ephemeral nature of Thutmose II's reign". [9] The gateway was later dismantled and its building blocks incorporated into the foundation of the Third Pylon by Amenhotep III. [2]

Ineni ancient Egyptian architect

Ineni was an Ancient Egyptian architect and government official of the 18th Dynasty, responsible for major construction projects under the pharaohs Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II and the joint reigns of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III. He had many titles, including Superintendent of the Granaries, Superintendent of the Royal Buildings, Superintendent of the Workmen in the Karnak Treasuries, etc.

Semna (Nubia)

The region of Semna is 15 miles south of Wadi Halfa and is situated where rocks cross the Nile narrowing its flow—the Semna Cataract.

Kumma (Nubia) building in Africa

Kumma or Semna East is an archaeological site in Sudan. Established in the mid-12th Dynasty of Egypt, it served as a fortress of ancient Egypt in Nubia. Along with Semna, Kumma was built by the Pharaoh Sesostris III. The forts protected the border between ancient Egypt and the southern areas.

In 1987, Luc Gabolde published an important study that statistically compared the number of surviving scarabs found under Thutmose I, Thutmose II and Hatshepsut. [10] While monuments can be usurped, scarabs are so small and comparatively insignificant that altering their names would be impractical and without profit; hence, they provide a far better insight into this period. Hatshepsut's reign is believed to have lasted for 21 years and 9 months. Gabolde highlighted, in his analysis, the consistently small number of surviving scarabs known for Thutmose II compared to Thutmose I and Hatshepsut respectively; for instance, Flinders Petrie's older study of scarab seals noted 86 seals for Thutmose I, 19 seals for Thutmose II and 149 seals for Hatshepsut while more recent studies by Jaeger estimate a total of 241 seals for Thutmose I, 463 seals for Hatshepsut and only 65 seals for Thutmose II. [11] Hence, unless there was an abnormally low number of scarabs produced under Thutmose II, this would indicate that the king's reign was rather short-lived. On this basis, Gabolde estimated Thutmose I and II's reigns to be approximately 11 and 3 full years, respectively. Consequently, the reign length of Thutmose II has been a much debated subject among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign.

Argument for a long reign

Thutmose's reign is still traditionally given as 13 or 14 years. Although Ineni's autobiography can be interpreted to say that Thutmose reigned only a short time, it also calls Thutmose II a "hawk in the nest", indicating that he was perhaps a child when he assumed the throne. [7] Since he lived long enough to father two children—Neferure and Thutmose III—this suggests that he may have had a longer reign of 13 years in order to reach adulthood and start a family. The German Egyptologist, J. Von Beckerath, uses this line of argument to support the case of a 13-year reign for Thutmose II. [12] [ page needed ] Alan Gardiner noted that at one point a monument had been identified by Georges Daressy in 1900 [13] , dated to Thutmose's 18th year, although its precise location has not been identified. [14] This inscription is now usually attributed to Hatshepsut, who certainly did have an 18th year. Von Beckerath observes that a Year 18 date appears in a fragmentary inscription of an Egyptian official and notes that the date likely refers to Hatshepsut's prenomen Maatkare, which had been altered from Aakheperenre Thutmose II, with the reference to the deceased Thutmose II being removed. [15] There is also the curious fact that Hatshepsut celebrated her Sed Jubilee in her Year 16, which von Beckerath believes occurred 30 years after the death of Thutmose I, her father, who was the main source of her claim to power. This would create a gap of 13 to 14 years where Thutmose II's reign would fit in between Hatshepsut and Thutmose I's rule. [15] Von Beckerath additionally stresses that Egyptologists have no conclusive criteria to statistically evaluate the reign length of Thutmose II based on the number of preserved objects from his reign. [16]

Catherine Roerig has proposed that tomb KV20, generally believed to have been commissioned by Hatshepsut, was the original tomb of Thutmose II in the Valley of the Kings. [17] If correct, this would be a major project on the part of Thutmose II, which required a construction period of several years and implies a long reign for this king. Secondly, new archaeological work by French Egyptologists at Karnak has produced evidence of a pylon and an opulent festival court of Thutmose II in front of the 4th pylon according to Luc Gabolde. [18] Meanwhile, French Egyptologists at Karnak have also uncovered blocks from a chapel and a barque sanctuary constructed by Thutmose II there. [19] Finally, Zygmunt Wysocki has proposed that the funerary temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari was originally begun as Thutmose II's own mortuary temple. Thutmose III here later replaced depictions of Hatshepsut with those by Thutmose II in those parts of the temple that are proposed to have been executed by the latter king before Hatshepsut took over the temple following Thutmose II's death. [20] Thutmose II also contributed to the decoration of the temple of Khnum at Semna. [21]

A reconsideration of this new archaeological evidence would remove several arguments usually advanced in support of a short reign: namely the absence of a tomb that can be assigned to Thutmose II, the absence of a funerary temple and the lack of any major works undertaken by this pharaoh. [22] Thutmose II's Karnak building projects would also imply that his reign was closer to 13 years rather than just 3 years.

Campaigns

Upon Thutmose's coronation, Kush rebelled, as it had the habit of doing upon the transition of Egyptian kingship. The Nubian state had been completely subjugated by Thutmose I, [23] but some rebels from Khenthennofer rose up, and the Egyptian forces retreated into a fortress built by Thutmose I. [24] On account of his relative youth at the time, Thutmose II dispatched an army into Nubia rather than leading it himself, but he seems to have easily crushed this revolt with the aid of his father's military generals. [25] An account of the campaign is given by the historian Josephus who refers to it as the Ethiopic War.

Thutmose also seems to have fought against the Shasu Bedouin in the Sinai, in a campaign mentioned by Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet. [14] Although this campaign has been called a minor raid, there is a fragment recorded by Kurt Sethe that records a campaign in Upper Retenu, or Syria, which appears to have reached as far as a place called Niy where Thutmose I hunted elephants after returning from crossing the Euphrates. [26] This quite possibly indicates that the raid against the Shasu was only fought en route to Syria. [26]

Mummy

The mummified head of Thutmose II Thutmose II mummy head.png
The mummified head of Thutmose II

Thutmose II's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with other 18th and 19th dynasty leaders including Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX.

The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on July 1, 1886. There is a strong familial resemblance to the mummy of Thutmose I, his likely father, as the mummy's face and shape of the head are very similar. The body of Thutmose II suffered greatly at the hands of ancient tomb robbers, with his left arm broken off at the shoulder-joint, the forearm separated at the elbow joint, and his right arm chopped off below the elbow. His anterior abdominal wall and much of his chest had been hacked at, possibly by an axe. In addition, his right leg had been severed from his body. [27] All of these injuries were sustained post-mortem, though the body also showed signs that Thutmose II did not have an easy life, as the following quote by Gaston Maspero attests:

He had scarcely reached the age of thirty when he fell a victim to a disease of which the process of embalming could not remove the traces. The skin is scabrous in patches, and covered with scars, while the upper part of the skull is bald; the body is thin and somewhat shrunken, and appears to have lacked vigour and muscular power. [28]

As the pharaoh of the Exodus

Thutmose II is one of the more popular candidates for the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Alfred Edersheim proposes in his Old Testament Bible History that Thutmose II is best qualified to be the pharaoh of Exodus based on the fact that he had a brief, prosperous reign and then a sudden collapse with no son to succeed him. His widow Hatshepsut then became first Regent (for Thutmose III) then Pharaoh in her own right. Edersheim states that Thutmose II is the only Pharaoh's mummy to display cysts, possible evidence of plagues that spread through the Egyptian and Hittite Empires at that time. [29]

See also

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References

  1. Betsy Bryan (2000). "The 18th Dynasty before the Amarna Period". The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 236.
  2. 1 2 Betsy Bryan, p. 236
  3. J. Von Beckerath (1997). Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz: Philip von Zabern. p. 201.
  4. 1 2 Grimal, Nicolas (1988). A History of Ancient Egypt. Librairie Arthéme Fayard. p. 204.
  5. Helk, Wolfgang. Schwachstellen der Chronologie-Diskussion. pp. 47–49. Göttinger Miszellen, Göttingen, 1983
  6. Shaw, Ian; Nicholson, Paul (1995). The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. The British Museum Press. p. 289.
  7. 1 2 Breasted, James Henry (1906). Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II. University of Chicago Press. p. 47.
  8. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988. p. 216.
  9. Betsy Bryan, pp. 235–236
  10. Gabolde, Luc (1987). "La Chronologie du règne de Thoutmosis II, ses conséquences sur la datation des momies royales et leurs répercutions sur l'histoire du développement de la Vallée des Rois". Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur . 14: 61–87.
  11. Gabolde, Luc (1987). "La Chronologie du règne de Thoutmosis II, ses conséquences sur la datation des momies royales et leurs répercutions sur l'histoire du développement de la Vallée des Rois". Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur . 14: 67–68.
  12. J. Von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46 (Philip von Zabern, Mainz: 1997)
  13. G. Daressy, Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte 1, 1900, 90(20)
  14. 1 2 Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 180 Oxford University Press, 1964
  15. 1 2 J. Von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46 (Philip von Zabern, Mainz: 1997), p. 121
  16. J. von Beckerath, "Nochmals zur Regierung Tuthmosis' II", Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 17 (1990), pp. 65–74
  17. C. Roerig, "The Building Activities of Thutmose III in the Valley of the Kings", in E.C. Cline, D. O'Connor (eds.), Thutmose III: A New Biography, Ann Arbor 2006, pp. 238–259
  18. Luc Gabolde, "La 'cour de fetes' de Thoutmosis II à Karnak", Cahiers de Karnak 9 (1993), pp. 1–100; Luc Gabolde, "Monuments décorés en bas relief aux noms de Thoutmosis II et Hatshepsout à Karnak", Mémoires publiés par les membres de l'Institut Français d'Archéology Orientale (MIFAO) 123 le Cairo 2005.
  19. Luc Gabolde, "Monuments décorés en bas relief aux noms de Thoutmosis II et Hatshepsout à Karnak, Mémoires publiés par les membres de l'Institut Français d'Archéology Orientale (MIFAO) 123 le Cairo 2005.
  20. Zygmunt Wysocki, "The Temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari: Its Original Form", Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 42 (1986), pp. 213–228
  21. W. V. Davies, "Tombos and the Viceroy Inebny/Amenemnekhu", British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and the Sudan 10 (2008), 45f
  22. Thomas Schneider, "Contributions to the Chronology of the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period", Egypt and the Levant 20, 2010. p. 393
  23. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p. 35. University of Chicago, 1942
  24. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 49. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  25. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 50. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  26. 1 2 Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 51. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  27. Smith, G Elliot. The Royal Mummies, pp. 28–29. Duckworth, 2000 (reprint).
  28. Maspero, Gaston. History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Volume 4 (of 12) Project Gutenberg EBook, Release Date: December 16, 2005. EBook #17324.
  29. Edersheim, A., Old Testament Bible History, originally published 1876-1887, ISBN   156563165X, p. 134

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