Sewadjkare

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Sewadjkare (more exactly Sewadjkare I) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the early Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker he was the eleventh ruler of the dynasty, reigning for a short time c. 1781 BC. [1] [2] Alternatively, Thomas Schneider, Detlef Franke and Jürgen von Beckerath see him as the tenth king of the 13th dynasty, with Schneider placing his reign at c. 1737 BC. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh ruler of Ancient Egypt

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Contents

Evidence

No contemporary attestation of Sewadjkare survives to this day and this pharaoh is only known to us thanks to the Turin canon. This king list was redacted during the early Ramesside period from older documents and serves as the primary source for kings of the Second Intermediate Period. Sewadjkare's name appears on the 7th column, 13th line of the papyrus. [1]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Egyptian dynasty from -1295 to -1186

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. This Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne.

Reign length

The Turin canon normally gives the reign length of the kings it lists; however, the duration of Sewadjkare's reign is lost in a lacuna. Only the number of days is partially preserved and was read by Ryholt as 11 to 14 days. The space apparently taken by the total duration of the reign as recorded on the Turin canon led Ryholt to propose a minimum reign length of half a month. [1] Given the total absence of contemporary attestation for Sewadjkare, it seems likely that he was an ephemeral ruler.

Identity

Sewadjkare should not be confused with two other pharaohs bearing the same prenomen and who reigned later in the second intermediate period. Sewadjkare Hori II, also known as Hori II, reigned at the very end of the 13th dynasty, from c. 1669 until 1664 BC. The other ruler with the same prenomen is Sewadjkare III of the 14th dynasty, who is also known only thanks to the Turin canon. Sewadjkare III reigned for a short while, some time between c. 1699 and 1694 BC. [1]

Sewadjkare Hori was a pharaoh of the late 13th dynasty, possibly the thirty-sixth king of this dynasty. He reigned over Middle and Upper Egypt for 5 years either during the early or mid-17th century, from 1669 until 1664 BC or from 1648 until 1643 BC.

Sewadjkare III was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1700 BC. As a king of the 14th dynasty, Sewadjkare III would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

The Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt was a series of rulers reigning during the Second Intermediate Period over the Nile Delta region of Egypt. It lasted between 75 and 155 years, depending on the scholar. The capital of the dynasty was probably Avaris. The 14th dynasty existed concurrently with the 13th dynasty based in Memphis. The rulers of the 14th dynasty are commonly identified by Egyptologists as being of Canaanite or West Semitic descent, owing to the distinct origins of the names of some of their kings and princes, like Ipqu, Yakbim, Qareh, or Yaqub-Har. Names in relation with Nubia are also recorded in two cases, king Nehesy and queen Tati.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, excerpts available online here.
  2. Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 417
  3. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN   3-491-96053-3
  4. Thomas Schneider: Ancient Egyptian Chronology - Edited by Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, And David a. Warburton, available online, see p. 176
  5. Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches (12.-18. Dynastie) Teil 1 : Die 12. Dynastie, in Orientalia 57 (1988)
  6. Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  7. Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz am Rhein, 1997
Preceded by
Sehetepibre
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Nedjemibre