Khamure

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Khamure was a ruler of some part of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, possibly during the 17th century BC, and likely belonging to the 14th Dynasty. [3] [4] As such he would have ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the Western Delta as well. His chronological position and identity are unclear.

Egypt Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Avaris Archaeological site in Egypt

Avaris was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos. It was located at modern Tell el-Dab'a in the northeastern region of the Nile Delta, at the juncture of the 8th, 14th, 19th and 20th Nomes. As the main course of the Nile migrated eastward, its position at the hub of Egypt's delta emporia made it a major administrative capital of the Hyksos and other traders. It was occupied from about 1783 to 1550 BC, or from the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt through the second intermediate period until its destruction by Ahmose I, the first Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. The name in the Egyptian language of the 2nd millennium BC was probably pronounced *Ḥaʔat-Wūrat 'Great House' and denotes the capital of an administrative division of the land. Today, the name Hawara survives, referring to the site at the entrance to Faiyum. Alternatively, Clement of Alexandria referred to the name of this city as "Athyria".

Contents

Attestations

Khamure is one of the few attested kings of the 14th Dynasty with 2 scarab seals attributable to him, both of unknown provenance. [3] [4] One of the two scarabs is currently housed in the Petrie Museum, [5] [6] under the catalog number 11819, while the other was sold at an auction at The New York Palace Hotel in December 1991. [7]

The Petrie Museum scarab is peculiar in that it has a unique and elaborate decoration on its back indicating that it was given to an official of the highest rank. [3] The scarab is inscribed with name of Khamure preceded by the epithet Netjer Nefer, "the good god", showing that Khamure was this king's prenomen. [3] This means that Khamure is not listed in the surviving fragments of the Turin canon, a king list dating to the Ramesside period and recording the prenomina of the kings.

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Egyptian dynasty from -1295 to -1186

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. This Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne.

Identity

The archaeologists Olga Tufnell and William A. Ward argue that the name written on the scarab seal of the Petrie Museum is actually "'Ammu", possibly to be identified with 'Ammu Aahotepre, a shadowy king of the late Second Intermediate Period. [5] [8] [9] The egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker reject this reading, since the Gardiner's sign N5 for the sun-disk is clearly readable on the seal together with the signs for Netjer Nefer. [3] [4] Hence, they argue, Khamure is the correct reading of the scarab, in agreement with Percy Newberry and Flinders Petrie. [1] [2]

William Ayres Ward was an American Egyptologist.

Aahotepre Egyptian pharaoh

'Ammu Ahotepre was a minor Hyksos pharaoh of Dynasty XIV of ancient Egypt.

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Although the chronological position of Khamure remains uncertain, Ryholt has proposed that he ruled in the 14th Dynasty, some time before Yaqub-Har and Yakareb. This estimation is based on a seriation of the scarabs dating to the second intermediate period. [3]

Yaqub-Har Egyptian pharaoh

Meruserre Yaqub-Har was a pharaoh of Egypt during the 17th or 16th century BCE. As he reigned during Egypt's fragmented Second Intermediate Period, it is difficult to date his reign precisely, and even the dynasty to which he belonged is uncertain.

Yakareb Egyptian pharaoh

Yakareb may have been a ruler of some part of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, possibly during the 17th century BC, and likely belonging to the 14th Dynasty. As such he would have ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the Western Delta as well. His chronological position and identity are unclear.

In archaeology, seriation is a relative dating method in which assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order. Where absolute dating methods, such as carbon dating, cannot be applied, archaeologists have to use relative dating methods to date archaeological finds and features. Seriation is a standard method of dating in archaeology. It can be used to date stone tools, pottery fragments, and other artifacts. In Europe, it has been used frequently to reconstruct the chronological sequence of graves in a cemetery.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Flinders Petrie: Scarabs and cylinders with names, illustrated by the Egyptian collection in University College, London by W. M. Flinders Petrie, British school of archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian research account, London 1917, available online copyright-free see pl. xxii, num 16.k.1
  2. 1 2 3 Percy E. Newberry: Scarabs an introduction to the study of Egyptian seals and signet rings, with forty-four plates and one hundred and sixteen illustrations in the text, 1906, available online copyright-free see plate XXI, num 30, p. 150.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, excerpts available online here.
  4. 1 2 3 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 175176
  5. 1 2 The scarab on Digital Egypt, Petrie Museum.
  6. The scarab on the catalog of the Petrie Museum
  7. Joyce Haynes, Yvonne Markowitz, Sue d'Auria (editor): Scarabs and Design Amulets : A Glimpse of Ancient Egypt in Miniature [Auction Catalog], NFA Classical Auctions, New York 1991, num 30, online reference.
  8. Olga Tufnell: Studies on Scarab Seals Vol. 2, Aris & Phillips 1984, ISBN   978-0856681301, see seal num. 3361
  9. William A. Ward: Some Personal Names of the Hyksos Period Rulers and Notes on the Epigraphy of Their Scarabs, Ugarit- Forschungen 8 (1976), p.353369, see p. 368, num 42.