Hor

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Hor Awibre (also known as Hor I) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty reigning from c. 1777 BC until 1775 BC [2] or for a few months, c. 1760 BC or c. 1732 BC, [3] during the Second Intermediate Period. Hor is known primarily thanks to his nearly intact tomb discovered in 1894 and the rare life-size wooden statue of the king's Ka it housed.

Egypt Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in the northeast corner of Africa, whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond the continental boundary with Asia, as traditionally defined. Egypt is bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Contents

Attestations

Jar lid with the nomen Awibre, LACMA. Jar Lid with Partial Name of the 13th Dynasty King Hor I LACMA M.80.203.226.jpg
Jar lid with the nomen Awibre, LACMA.

Hor Awibre is mentioned on the Turin canon, a king list compiled in the early Ramesside period. [1] The canon gives his name on the 7th column, line 17 (Gardiner entry 6.17 [4] ). Beyond the Turin canon, Hor remained unattested until the discovery in 1894 of his nearly intact tomb in Dashur by Jacques de Morgan, see below. [1]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Egyptian dynasty from -1295 to -1186

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. This Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne.

Jacques de Morgan French mining engineer, geologist, and archaeologist

Jean-Jacques de Morgan was a French mining engineer, geologist, and archaeologist. He was the director of antiquities in Egypt during the 19th century, and excavated in Memphis and Dashur, providing many drawings of many Egyptian pyramids. He also worked at Stonehenge, and Persepolis, and many other sites.

Further attestations of Hor have come to light since then, comprising a jar lid of unknown provenance and a plaque, now in the Berlin Museum, both inscribed with his name. [1] Another plaque with his name was found at the pyramid of Amenemhat I at Lisht. There were found several faience plaques with 13th Dynasty king's names. [5] More importantly, a granite architrave with the cartouches of Hor and his successor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw in close juxtaposition was uncovered in Tanis, in the Nile Delta. The architrave probably originated in Memphis and came to the Delta region during the Hyksos period. [1] Based on this evidence, the egyptologist Kim Ryholt proposed that Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw was a son and coregent of Hor Awibre. [2]

Granite A common type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock with granular structure

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar.

Architrave Lintel beam element in Classical architecture

In Classical architecture an architrave is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns.

Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Egyptian pharaoh of the early 13th dynasty

Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw was an Egyptian pharaoh of the early 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologist Kim Ryholt, he was the sixteenth king of the dynasty, reigning for 3 years, from 1775 BC until 1772 BC. Thomas Schneider, on the other hand, places his reign from 1752 BC until 1746 BC. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the third king of the dynasty. As a ruler of the early 13th Dynasty, Khabaw would have ruled from Memphis to Aswan and possibly over the western Nile Delta.

Reign

According to Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Hor Awibre was the fifteenth ruler of the 13th dynasty. [1] [2] Alternatively, Detlef Franke and Jürgen von Beckerath see him as the fourteenth king of the dynasty. [6] [7] [8] [9] No evidence has been found that relate Hor to his predecessor on the throne, Renseneb, which led Ryholt and Baker to propose that he was an usurper.

Detlef Franke was a German Egyptologist specialist of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

Renseneb Amenemhat was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt, Renseneb was the 14th king of the dynasty, while Detlef Franke sees him as the 13th ruler and Jürgen von Beckerath as the 16th. Renseneb is poorly attested and his throne name remains unknown.

Hor Awibre's reign length is partially lost to a lacuna of the Turin canon and is consequently unknown. According to the latest reading of the Turin canon by Ryholt, the surviving traces indicate the number of days as "[... and] 7 days". [2] In the previous authoritative reading of the canon by Alan Gardiner, which dates to the 1950s, this was read as "[...] 7 months". [10] This led scholars such as Miroslav Verner and Darrell Baker to believe that Hor's reign was ephemeral, while Ryholt's reading leaves a longer reign possible and indeed Ryholt credits Hor with 2 years of reign. [1] [2] In any case, Hor most likely reigned only for a short time, in particular not long enough to prepare a pyramid, which was still the common burial place for kings of the early 13th dynasty. Regardless of the duration of his reign, Hor was seemingly succeeded by his two sons Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw and Djedkheperew.

Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner was an English Egyptologist, linguist, philologist, and independent scholar. He is regarded as one of the premier Egyptologists of the early and mid-20th century.

Miroslav Verner Czech egyptologist and university educator

Miroslav Verner is a Czech egyptologist, who specializes in the history and archaeology of Ancient Egypt of the Old Kingdom and especially of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt.

Djedkheperew Egyptian pharaoh

Djedkheperew was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty reigning for an estimated two-year period, from c. 1772 BC until 1770 BC. According to Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Djedkheperew was the 17th king of this dynasty. Djedkheperew is this pharaoh's Horus name; the prenomen and nomen of Djedkheperew, which would normally be employed by modern conventions to name a pharaoh, are unknown.

Tomb

Drawing by Jacques de Morgan of the scepters and staves of Hor Awibre. Hor Awibre Scepters.png
Drawing by Jacques de Morgan of the scepters and staves of Hor Awibre.

Hor is mainly known from his nearly intact tomb, discovered in 1894 by Jacques de Morgan working in collaboration with Georges Legrain and Gustave Jequier in Dahshur. [11] The tomb was nothing more than a shaft built on the north-east corner of the pyramid of the 12th dynasty pharaoh Amenemhat III. [12] The tomb was originally made for a member of Amenemhat's court and was later enlarged for Hor, with the addition of a stone burial chamber and antechamber. [1]

Georges Legrain French egyptologist

Georges Albert Legrain was a French Egyptologist.

Dahshur Village in Giza Governorate, Egypt

Dahshur is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Cairo. It is known chiefly for several pyramids, two of which are among the oldest, largest and best preserved in Egypt, built from 2613–2589 BC.

Shaft tomb

A shaft tomb or shaft grave is a type of deep rectangular burial structure, similar in shape to the much shallower cist grave, containing a floor of pebbles, walls of rubble masonry, and a roof constructed of wooden planks.

Although the tomb had been pillaged in antiquity, it still contained a naos with a rare life-size wooden statue of the Ka of the king. This statue is one of the most frequently reproduced examples of Ancient Egyptian art and is now in the Egyptian Museum under the catalog number CG259. [12] It is one of the best-preserved and most accomplished wooden statues to survive from antiquity, and illustrates an artistic genre that must once have been common in Egyptian art, but has rarely survived in such good condition.

The tomb also contained the partly gilded rotten wooden coffin of the king. The king's wooden funerary mask, its eyes of stones set in bronze, [11] had been stripped of its gold gilding but still held the king's skull. Hor's canopic box was also found complete with its canopic vessels. The mummy of the king had been ransacked for his jewelry and only Hor's skeleton was left in his coffin. [11] The king was determined to have been in his forties at the time of his death. Other artifacts from the tomb include small statues, alabaster and wooden vases, some jewelry, two alabaster stelae inscribed with blue painted hieroglyphs and a number of flails, scepters and wooden staves which had all been disposed in a long wooden case. These had been intentionally broken in pieces. [11] The tomb also housed weapons such as a granite macehead [11] and a golden-leaf dagger and numerous pottery.

Next to the burial of Hor was found the totally undisturbed tomb of the 'king's daughter' Nubhetepti-khered. She was likely a daughter of Hor [13] or otherwise a daughter of Amenemhat III. [12]

Plan of the tomb of king Hor. Pic 44 hor.JPG
Plan of the tomb of king Hor.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 112-113-114
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, excerpts available online.
  3. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen
  4. Alan H. Gardiner: The Royal Canon of Turin, Oxford 1959, Vol. III, 6.14, Warminster 1987, ISBN   0-900416-48-3.
  5. Dieter Arnold: The Pyramid Complex of Amenemhat I at Lisht, The Metropolitan Museum of Art New York 2015, ISBN   9781588396044, p. 59, pl. 93
  6. Thomas Schneider: Ancient Egyptian Chronology - Edited by Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, And David a. Warburton, available online, see p. 176
  7. Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches (12.-18. Dynastie) Teil 1 : Die 12. Dynastie, in Orientalia 57 (1988)
  8. Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  9. Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  10. Alan Gardiner, editor. Royal Canon of Turin. Griffith Institute, 1959. (Reprint 1988. ISBN   0-900416-48-3)
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 Jacques de Morgan: Fouilles a Dahchour, mars-juin, 1894, Vienna, 1895. Available online.
  12. 1 2 3 Verner, Miroslav. The Pyramids: The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments. Grove Press. 2001 (1997). ISBN   0-8021-3935-3
  13. Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN   0-500-05128-3
Preceded by
Renseneb
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw