Wahibre Ibiau

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Wahibre Ibiau (throne name: Wahibre; birth name: Ibiau, also Ibiaw) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty, who reigned c. 1670 BC for 10 years 8 months and 29 days according to the Turin King List.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Contents

Attestations

Despite a relatively long reign for the period, Wahibre Ibiau is known from only a few objects, mostly scarab seals bearing his name. [1] He is also named on the stela of an official named Sahathor, probably from Thebes. [2] Finally, a fragment of faience from El-Lahun mentions this king. [3]

Scarab (artifact) object in the form of a scarab beetle in art

Scarabs were popular amulets and impression seals in Ancient Egypt. They survive in large numbers and, through their inscriptions and typology, they are an important source of information for archaeologists and historians of the ancient world. They also represent a significant body of ancient art.

Thebes, Egypt Ancient Egyptian city

Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome and was the capital of Egypt mainly during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. It was close to Nubia and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city of ancient Egypt during its heyday. The site of Thebes includes areas on both the eastern bank of the Nile, where the temples of Karnak and Luxor stand and the city proper was situated; and the western bank, where a necropolis of large private and royal cemeteries and funerary complexes can be found.

Egyptian faience sintered-quartz ceramic

Egyptian faience is a sintered-quartz ceramic displaying surface vitrification which creates a bright lustre of various colours, with blue-green being the most common. Defined as a "material made from powdered quartz covered with a true vitreous coating, usually in a transparent blue or green isotropic glass", faience is distinct from the crystalline compound Egyptian blue. Faience is considerably more porous than glass proper. It can be cast in molds to create vessels, jewelry and decorative objects. Although it contains the major constituents of glass and no clay until late periods, faience is frequently discussed in surveys of ancient pottery, as in stylistic and art-historical terms objects made of it are closer to pottery styles than ancient Egyptian glass.

A notable member of Ibiau's royal court was the namesake vizier Ibiau. It has been suggested that this vizier could have been the same person as the pharaoh Ibiau earlier in his life, [4] but in more recent times it was pointed out that such an identification is conjectural and unproven. [5]

Vizier (Ancient Egypt) highest rank of official in Ancient Egypt

The vizier was the highest official in Ancient Egypt to serve the pharaoh (king) during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. Vizier is the generally accepted rendering of ancient Egyptian tjati, tjaty etc., among Egyptologists. The Instruction of Rekhmire, a New Kingdom text, defines many of the duties of the tjaty, and lays down codes of behavior. The viziers were often appointed by the pharaoh. During the 4th Dynasty and early 5th Dynasty, viziers were exclusively drawn from the royal family; from the period around the reign of Neferirkare Kakai onwards, they were chosen according to loyalty and talent or inherited the position from their fathers.

Ibiaw (vizier) ancient Egyptian vizier

Ibiaw or Ibiau was an ancient Egyptian vizier and Chief of the town during the 13th Dynasty, likely under pharaohs Wahibre Ibiaw and/or Merneferre Ay.

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References

  1. Photos from the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology on Digital Egypt
  2. British Museum inventory number EA 1348.
  3. Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, inventory number UCL 16056.
  4. William C. Hayes, in The Cambridge Ancient History , 1973, vol. II, part I, p. 51ff.
  5. Wolfram Grajetzki, Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, London 2009, p. 40.

Bibliography

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Preceded by
Sobekhotep VI
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Merneferre Ay