Meryhathor

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Meryhathor or Meryt-Hathor, [2] was a pharaoh of the 10th Dynasty of Egypt, during the First Intermediate Period.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

The Tenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with the 7th, 8th, 9th and early 11th Dynasties under the group title First Intermediate Period.

First Intermediate Period of Egypt period in ancient Egyptian history after end of the Old Kingdom

The First Intermediate Period, often described as a "dark age" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred and twenty-five years, from c. 2181–2055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom. It comprises the Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, and part of the Eleventh Dynasties. Very little monumental evidence survives from this period, especially from the beginning of the era. The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time where rule of Egypt was roughly equally divided between two competing power bases. One of those bases was at Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt, a city just south of the Faiyum region. The other was at Thebes in Upper Egypt. It is believed that during this time temples were pillaged and violated, artwork was vandalized, and the statues of kings were broken or destroyed as a result of the postulated political chaos. These two kingdoms would eventually come into conflict, leading to the conquest of the north by the Theban kings and the reunification of Egypt under a single ruler, Mentuhotep II, during the second part of the Eleventh Dynasty. This event marked the beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Identification

Regarded as the founder of the dynasty, Meryhathor should have begun his reign in c. 2130 BCE. [3] [2] His name is not mentioned in the Turin King List but Djehutynakht II, a nomarch of the Hare nome residing in Hermopolis, ordered an ink graffito mentioning Meryhathor in the alabaster quarries at Hatnub: this is so far the only attestation of this king. [4]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

A nomarch was a provincial governor in Ancient Egypt; the country was divided into 42 provinces, called nomes. A nomarch was the government official responsible for a nome.

Hare nome ancient Egyptian nome

The Hare nome, also called the Hermopolite nome was one of the 42 nomoi in ancient Egypt; more precisely, it was the 15th nome of Upper Egypt.

There is a dispute regarding his name: since the "Hathor" sign (C9 in Gardiner's sign list) is partially damaged, some authors such as Edward Brovarski [5] believe that the real name of this pharaoh could be Meryibre ("Beloved of the heart of Ra") which is somewhat closer to the Memphite tradition. Furthermore, some Egyptologists who support the alternative reading also combine this king with his successor Neferkare VIII; thus, it is not uncommon to find a pharaoh Neferkare-Meryibre as the founder of the 10th Dynasty. [6]

Hathor Egyptian goddess of love, joy, childbirth, heaven, music, and women.

Hathor was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion who played a wide variety of roles. As a sky deity, she was the mother or consort of the sky god Horus and the sun god Ra, both of whom were connected with kingship, and thus she was the symbolic mother of their earthly representatives, the pharaohs. She was one of several goddesses who acted as the Eye of Ra, Ra's feminine counterpart, and in this form she had a vengeful aspect that protected him from his enemies. Her beneficent side represented music, dance, joy, love, sexuality and maternal care, and she acted as the consort of several male deities and the mother of their sons. These two aspects of the goddess exemplified the Egyptian conception of femininity. Hathor crossed boundaries between worlds, helping deceased souls in the transition to the afterlife.

Gardiner's Sign List is a list of common Egyptian hieroglyphs compiled by Sir Alan Gardiner. It is considered a standard reference in the study of Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Ra ancient Egyptian solar deity

Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become one of the most important gods in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the noon sun. Ra was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the Earth, and the underworld. He was the god of the sun, order, kings, and the sky.

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References

  1. Rudolph Anthes, "Die Felseninschriften von Hatnub", Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumskunde Aegyptens 9 , Leipzig 1928, pl. VII.
  2. 1 2 Jean Vercoutter, L'Egypte jusq'à la fin du Nouvel Empire, in Pierre Lévêque, Le premieres civilisations, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1987, p. 143.
  3. William C. Hayes, in The Cambridge Ancient History , vol 1, part 2, 1971 (2008), Cambridge University Press, ISBN   0-521-077915, p. 996.
  4. William C. Hayes, op. cit., p. 470.
  5. Royal Titulary of Mery... on Eglyphica.net (search in the Tenth Dynasty)
  6. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford, Blackwell Books, 1992, p. 141.