Khendjer

Last updated

Userkare Khendjer was the twenty-first pharaoh of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. [2] Khendjer possibly reigned for 4 to 5 years, archaeological attestations show that he was on the throne for at least 3 or 4 years 3 months and 5 days. Several absolute dates have been proposed for his reign, depending on the scholar: 1764—1759 BC as proposed by Ryholt and Baker, [1] 1756—1751 BC as reported by Redford, [3] and 1718—1712 BC as per Schneider. [4] Khendjer had a small pyramid built for himself in Saqqara and it is therefore likely that his capital was in Memphis.

Contents

Name

The name Khendjer is poorly attested in Egyptian. [5] Khendjer "has been interpreted as a foreign name hnzr and equated with the Semitic personal name h(n)zr, [for] "boar" according to the Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt. [1] He notes that this identification is confirmed by the fact that the name h(n)zr is written as hzr in a variant spelling of this king's name on a seal from this king's reign. [6] Ryholt states that the word 'boar' is:

"attested as huzīru in Akkadian, hinzīr in Arabic, hazīrā in Aramaic, hazīr in Hebrew (the name is attested as hēzīr in I Chron. 24:15, Neh. 10:20) hu-zi-ri in the Nuzi texts, hnzr in Ugarit, and perhaps hi-zi-ri in Amorite." [1]

Khendjer was, therefore, the earliest known Semitic king of a native Egyptian dynasty. Khendjer's prenomen or throne name, Userkare, translates as "The Soul of Re is Powerful." [7]

Khendjer, however, may have had a second prenomen at his coronation: 'Nimaatre' which translates as 'The one who belongs to Maat is Re.' [8] This name appears together with the name Khendjer at the top of the stela of Amenyseneb (Louvre C12). [9]

Chronological position and reign length

Khendjer making offerings on the pyramidion from his pyramid. Khendjer 1.jpg
Khendjer making offerings on the pyramidion from his pyramid.
The pyramidion from Khendjer's pyramid. Khendjer 2.jpg
The pyramidion from Khendjer's pyramid.

The exact chronological position of Khendjer in the Thirteenth Dynasty is not known for certain owing to uncertainties affecting earlier kings of the dynasty. Egyptologist Darrell Baker makes him the twenty-first king of the dynasty, Ryholt sees him as the twenty-second king and Jürgen von Beckerath places him as the seventeenth pharaoh of the dynasty. Furthermore, the identity of his predecessor is still debated: Baker and Ryholt believe it was Wegaf, but that pharaoh is confused with Khaankhre Sobekhotep, so that it is not known which one of the two founded the Thirteenth Dynasty and which one was Khendjer's predecessor. [1] [2]

The highest attested date for Khendjer's reign is the fourth month of the season of the Inundation), day 15 in his fifth regnal year. Kim Ryholt notes that two dated control notes on stone blocks from his unfinished pyramid complex give him a minimum reign of 3 or 4 years 3 months and 5 days. [10] The aforementioned control notes are dated to Year 1 I Akhet day 10 and Year 5 IV Akhet day 15 of his reign. [11] In these control notes, the names of three officials involved in building the pyramid are also identified. They are the chamberlain of the palace, Senebtyfy, the chamberlain Ameny and the chamberlain, Shebenu. [12] The latter is also attested by other sources.

Pyramid

Khendjer is known primarily from his pyramid complex excavated by G. Jequier at Saqqara which was perhaps completed as a pyramidion was found. [13] There was found a fragment of a canopic jar, which offers a partial name for his queen, Seneb ... "which may be restored as Sonb[henas]." [14] Other objects with the name of the king are a stela from Abydos recording building projects by the king at the Osiris temple at Abydos, and naming the vizier Ankhu. Another stela once in Liverpool (destroyed in World War II), provides the name of the king's son "Khedjer". He might be a son of the king. [15] Other objects with his name, according to the list provided by Ryholt, include three cylinder-seals from Athribis, a tile found near el-Lisht, scarab seals and an axe blade.

Related Research Articles

Qakare Ibi Egyptian pharaoh

Qakare Ibi was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the early First Intermediate Period and the 14th ruler of the Eighth Dynasty. As such Qakare Ibi's seat of power was Memphis and he probably did not hold power over all of Egypt. Qakare Ibi is one of the best attested pharaohs of the Eighth Dynasty due to the discovery of his small pyramid in South Saqqara.

Merneferre Ay Egyptian pharaoh

Merneferre Ay was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the mid 13th Dynasty. The longest reigning pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty, he ruled a likely fragmented Egypt for over 23 years in the early to mid 17th century BC. A pyramidion bearing his name shows that he possibly completed a pyramid, probably located in the necropolis of Memphis.

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt period of Ancient Egyptian history

The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom. The concept of a "Second Intermediate Period" was coined in 1942 by German Egyptologist Hanns Stock.

Userkare Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh

Userkare was the second pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty, reigning briefly, 1 to 5 years, in the late 24th to early 23rd century BC. Userkare's relation to his predecessor Teti and successor Pepi I is unknown and his reign remains enigmatic. Although he is attested in historical sources, Userkare is completely absent from the tomb of the Egyptian officials who lived during his reign. In addition, the Egyptian priest Manetho reports that Userkare's predecessor Teti was murdered. Userkare is often considered to have been a short-lived usurper. Alternatively, he may have been a regent who ruled during Teti's son's childhood who later ascended the throne as Pepi I.

Hor Egyptian pharaoh

Hor Awibre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty reigning from c. 1777 BC until 1775 BC or for a few months, c. 1760 BC or c. 1732 BC, during the Second Intermediate Period. Hor is known primarily thanks to his nearly intact tomb discovered in 1894 and the rare life-size wooden statue of the king's Ka it housed.

Imyremeshaw Egyptian pharaoh

Smenkhkare Imyremeshaw was an Egyptian pharaoh of the mid 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. Imyremeshaw reigned from Memphis, starting in 1759 BC or 1711 BC. The length of his reign is not known for certain; he may have reigned for 5 years and certainly less than 10 years. Imyremeshaw is attested by two colossal statues now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Sehetepkare Intef Egyptian pharaoh

Sehetepkare Intef was the twenty-third king of the 13th dynasty during the Second intermediate period. Sehetepkare Intef reigned from Memphis for a short period, certainly less than 10 years, between 1759 BC and 1749 BC or c. 1710 BC.

Merhotepre Sobekhotep Egyptian pharaoh

Merhotepre Sobekhotep was an Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt he was the thirtieth pharaoh of the dynasty, while Darrell Baker believes instead that he was its twenty-ninth ruler. In older studies, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke identified Merhotepre Sobekhotep with Merhotepre Ini, thereby making him Sobekhotep VI and the twenty-eighth ruler of the 13th dynasty.

Pepi III Egyptian pharaoh

Seneferankhre Pepi III may have been a pharaoh of the Sixteenth dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. According to Wolfgang Helck he was the fifth pharaoh of the dynasty. Alternatively, according to Jürgen von Beckerath, he was the thirteenth pharaoh of the dynasty. Because his position in the 16th dynasty is highly uncertain, it is not clear who were his predecessor and successor.

Neferkare II Egyptian pharaoh

Neferkare II was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Eighth Dynasty during the early First Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Jürgen von Beckerath and Darell Baker he was the third king of the Eighth Dynasty. As a pharaoh of the Eighth Dynasty, Neferkare II's capital would have been Memphis.

Sehetepibre Egyptian pharaoh

Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the early Second Intermediate Period, possibly the fifth or tenth king of the Dynasty.

Djehuti Egyptian Pharaoh

Sekhemre Sementawy Djehuti was possibly the second king of the Theban 16th Dynasty reigning over parts of Upper Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Alternatively, he may be a king of the late 13th Dynasty or the fourth king of the 17th Dynasty. Djehuty is credited with a reign of 3 years in the first entry of the 11th column of the Turin canon. According to Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was succeeded by Sobekhotep VIII.

Sobekhotep VI Egyptian pharaoh

Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI was an Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt he was the thirty-first pharaoh of the dynasty, while Darrell Baker believes instead that he was its thirtieth ruler. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the twenty-fifth king of the dynasty.

Seankhenre Mentuhotepi Egyptian pharaoh

Seankhenre Mentuhotepi was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the fragmented Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the fifth king of the 16th Dynasty reigning over the Theban region in Upper Egypt. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the fifth king of the 17th Dynasty.

The Abydos Dynasty is hypothesized to have been a short-lived local dynasty ruling over parts of Middle and Upper Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period in Ancient Egypt. The Abydos Dynasty would have been contemporaneous with the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties, from approximately 1650 to 1600 BC. It would have been based in or around Abydos and its royal necropolis might have been located at the foot of the Mountain of Anubis, a hill resembling a pyramid in the Abydene desert, close to a rock-cut tomb built for pharaoh Senusret III.

Wepwawetemsaf Egyptian pharaoh

Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was a king of the Abydos Dynasty, although they leave his position within this dynasty undetermined. Alternatively, the Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath sees Wepwawetemsaf as a king of the late 13th Dynasty, while Marcel Marée proposes that he was a king of the late 16th Dynasty.

Snaaib Egyptian pharaoh

Menkhaure Snaaib was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker he was a king of the Abydos Dynasty, although they leave his position within the dynasty undetermined. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees Snaaib as a king reigning near the end of the 13th Dynasty.

Pantjeny Egyptian pharaoh

Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was a king of the Abydos Dynasty, although they leave his position within this dynasty undetermined. Alternatively, Pantjeny could be a king of the late 16th Dynasty. According to Jürgen von Beckerath, Pantjeny is to be identified with Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw, whom he sees as the third king of the 13th Dynasty.

Sewahenre Senebmiu Egyptian pharaoh

Sewahenre Senebmiu is a poorly attested Egyptian pharaoh of the late 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath, he was the forty-first king of the 13th dynasty. Alternatively, Darrell Baker proposes that he may have been its fifty-seventh ruler. Kim Ryholt only specifies that Senebmiu's short reign dates to between 1660 BC and 1649 BC.

References

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Khendjer at Wikimedia Commons

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  2. 1 2 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 181
  3. Redford, Donald B., ed. (2001). "Egyptian King List". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. pp. 626–628. ISBN   978-0-19-510234-5.
  4. Thomas Schneider following Detlef Franke: Lexikon der Pharaonen
  5. The name Khedjer for private individuals appears on only two monuments: Stela Marischal Museum, University of Aberdeen ABDUA 21642 and on stela Liverpool M13635, see Iain Ralston: The Stela of Ibi son of Iiqi in the Marischal Museum, University of Aberdeen, In Discovering Egypt from the Neva, The Egyptologcial Legacy of Oleg D Berlev, edited by S. Quirke, Berlin 2003, pp.107-110, pl. 6 and W. Grajetzki: Two Treasurers of the Late Middle Kingdom, Oxford 2001, p. 28, pl. 2. Both monuments date to around the time of king Khendjer and the individuals there might have called themselves after the king.
  6. Ryholt, p.220 and footnote 763
  7. Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 2006 paperback, p.91
  8. Khendjer Titulary Archived 2012-05-27 at the Wayback Machine
  9. Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt 1964, 238
  10. Ryholt, p.193
  11. Ryholt, pp.193-195
  12. Felix Arnold: The Control Notes and Team Marks, The South Cemeteries of Lisht, Volume II, New York 1990, ISBN   0-87099-551-0, pp.176-183
  13. G. Jequier: Deux pyramides du Moyen Empire, Cairo 1933, S. 3-35
  14. Ryholt, op. cit., p.221 The object is Cairo JE 54498
  15. W. Grajetzki: Two Treasurers of the Late Middle Kingdom, Oxford 2001, p. 28, pl. 2
Preceded by
Wegaf
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Imyremeshaw