Amenemhat IV

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See Amenemhat, for other individuals with this name.

Amenemhat IV (also Amenemhet IV) was the seventh and penultimate [7] pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty of Egypt (c. 19901800 BC) during the late Middle Kingdom period (c. 20501710 BC), ruling for over nine years in the late 19th century BC or the early 18th century BC. [3] [5]

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt, is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.

Middle Kingdom of Egypt period in the history of ancient Egypt between about 2000 BC and 1700 BC

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period. The Middle Kingdom lasted from around 2050 BC to around 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. The Eleventh Dynasty ruled from Thebes and the Twelfth Dynasty ruled from el-Lisht. Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish around 1650, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay around 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt. During the Middle Kingdom period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion. The Middle Kingdom was followed by the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, another period of division that involved foreign invasions of the country by the Hyksos of West Asia.

Contents

Amenemhat IV may have been the son, grandson or step-son of his predecessor, the powerful Amenemhat III. His reign started with a two-year coregency with Amenemhat III and was seemingly peaceful. He undertook expeditions in the Sinai for turquoise, in Upper Egypt for amethyst and to the Land of Punt. He also maintained trade relations with Byblos as well as the Egyptian presence in Nubia. Amenemhat IV built some parts of the temple of Hathor at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai and constructed the well-preserved temple of Renenutet in Medinet Madi.

Amenemhat III pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt

Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III, was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from c. 1860 BC to c. 1814 BC, the highest known date being found in a papyrus dated to Regnal Year 46, I Akhet 22 of his rule. His reign is regarded as the golden age of the Middle Kingdom. He may have had a long coregency with his father, Senusret III.

Turquoise opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium

Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gemstone and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue. In recent times, turquoise has been devalued, like most other opaque gems, by the introduction onto the market of treatments, imitations and synthetics.

Amethyst Mineral, quartz variety

Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz.

Amenemhat IV's tomb has not been identified, although the Southern Mazghuna pyramid is a possibility. He was succeeded by Sobekneferu, possibly his sister or step-sister, whose short reign marked the end of the 12th Dynasty and the beginning of the Middle Kingdom's decline into the Second Intermediate Period.

Southern Mazghuna pyramid building in Egypt

The Southern Mazghuna Pyramid is an ancient Egyptian royal tomb which was built during the 12th or the 13th Dynasty in Mazghuna, 5 km south of Dahshur, Egypt. The building was never finished, and is still unknown which pharaoh was the owner, since no appropriate inscription have been found.
The pyramid was rediscovered in 1910 by Ernest Mackay and excavated in the following year by Flinders Petrie.

Sobekneferu Egyptian queen regnant

Sobekneferu reigned as pharaoh of Egypt after the death of her brother Amenemhat IV. She was the last ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt and governed Egypt for almost four years from 1806 to 1802 BC. Her name means "the beauty of Sobek."

Family

Amenemhat IV was the son of a woman named Hetepi. Hetepi's only known attestation is an inscription on the wall of the temple of Renenutet at Medinet Madi where she is given the title of "King's Mother" but not those of "King's Wife", "King's Daughter" or "King's Sister". [3] Consequently, her relation to Amenemhat III is unknown and she may have been non-royal. The relation of Amenemhat IV to Amenemhat III is similarly uncertain; the former could have been the son or grandson of the latter. [3] [8] Similarly, while Manetho states that he married his half-sister Sobekneferu, this claim is not yet supported by archaeological evidence. In particular, Sobekneferu is not known to have borne the title of "King's Wife". Instead, the egyptologist Kim Ryholt proposes that Amenemhat IV was adopted by Amenemhat III and thus became Sobekneferu's step-brother, thereby explaining the Manethonian tradition. [5]

Renenutet ancient Egyptian goddess

Renenūtet was a goddess of nourishment and the harvest in ancient Egyptian religion. The importance of the harvest caused people to make many offerings to Renenutet during harvest time. Initially, her cult was centered in Terenuthis. Renenutet was envisioned, particularly in art, as a cobra, or as a woman with the head of a cobra.

Manetho Egyptian historian and priest from Ancient Egypt

Manetho is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the early third century BC and authored the Aegyptiaca, a major chronological source for the reigns of the ancient pharaohs.

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Amenemhat may have died without a male heir, which could explain why he was succeeded by Sobekneferu. [4] However, some egyptologists, such as Aidan Dodson and Kim Ryholt, have proposed that the first two rulers of the 13th Dynasty, Sobekhotep I and Amenemhat Sonbef, were his sons. [12] Amenenmhat IV may have been Sobeknefru's spouse, but no evidence currently substantiates this hypothesis.

Sonbef 13th dynasty pharaoh

Mehibtawy Sekhemkare Amenemhat Sonbef was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker, he was the 2nd king of the dynasty, reigning from 1800 BC until 1796 BC.

Reign

Scarab-seal of Amenemhat IV. Amenemhat IV.png
Scarab-seal of Amenemhat IV.

Amenemhat IV first came to power as a junior coregent [14] of his predecessor Amenemhat III, whose reign marks the apex of the Middle Kingdom period. The coregency is well attested by numerous monuments and artefacts where the names of the two kings parallel each other. [14] The length of this coregency is uncertain; it could have lasted from one to seven years, [14] although most scholars believe it was only two years long. [3] [14] The Turin Canon, a king list redacted during the early Ramesside period, records Amenemhat IV on Column 6, Row 1, and credits him with a reign of 9 years, 3 months and 27 days. [5] Amenemhat IV is also recorded on Entry 65 of the Abydos King List and Entry 38 of the Saqqara Tablet, both of which date to the New Kingdom.

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Egyptian dynasty from -1295 to -1186

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. This Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne.

Abydos King List

The Abydos King List, also known as the Abydos Table, is a list of the names of seventy-six kings of Ancient Egypt, found on a wall of the Temple of Seti I at Abydos, Egypt. It consists of three rows of thirty-eight cartouches in each row. The upper two rows contain names of the kings, while the third row merely repeats Seti I's throne name and praenomen.

In spite of the Turin canon, the duration of Amenemhat's reign is uncertain. It was given as eight years under the name Ammenemes in Manetho's Aegyptiaca. In any case, Amenemhat's rule seems to have been peaceful and uneventful. Amenemhat IV is well attested by contemporary artefacts, including a number of scarab- and cylinder-seals. [15]

Expeditions and foreign relations

Four expeditions to the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai are dated to his reign by in-situ inscriptions. The latest took place in his ninth year on the throne and could be the last expedition of the Middle Kingdom, since the next inscription dates to Ahmose I's reign, some 200 years later. [3] In his Year 2, Amenemhat IV sent another expedition to mine amethyst in the Wadi el-Hudi in the south of Egypt. The leader of the expedition was the assistant treasurer Sahathor. [16] Farther south, three Nile-records are known from Kumna in Nubia that are explicitly dated to his Years 5, 6 and 7 on the throne, showing that the Egyptian presence in the region was maintained during his lifetime. [3]

Important trade relations must have existed during his reign with the city of Byblos, on the coast of modern-day Lebanon, where an obsidian and gold chest as well as a jar lid bearing Amenemhat IV's name have been found. [3] A gold plaque showing Amenemhat IV offering to a god may also originate there. [17]

Recently, continuing excavations at Wadi Gawasis on the Red Sea coast have produced two wooden chests and an ostracon inscribed with a hieratic text mentioning an expedition to the fabled Land of Punt in Year 8 of Amenemhat IV, under the direction of the royal scribe Djedy. [18] Two fragments of a stela depicting him and dating to his Year 7 were found at Berenice on the Red Sea. [19] [20]

Building activities

Amenemhat IV completed the temple of Renenutet and Sobek at Medinet Madi started by Amenemhat III, [21] [22] [23] which is "the only intact temple still existing from the Middle Kingdom" according to Zahi Hawass, a former Secretary-General of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA). [24] The foundations of the temple, administrative buildings, granaries and residences were uncovered by an Egyptian archaeological expedition in early 2006. Amenemhat IV possibly also built a temple in the northeastern Fayum at Qasr el-Sagha. [25]

Amenemhat IV is responsible for the completion of a shrine at the temple of Hathor in the Sinai [26] and may also have undertaken works in Karnak where a pedestal for a sacred barque inscribed with Amenemhat III and IV names was found in 1924. [3] [27] [28] [29] [30]

Legacy

Less than 10 years after Amenemhat IV's death, the 12th Dynasty came to an end and was replaced by the much weaker 13th Dynasty. [5] Although the first two rulers of this dynasty may have been sons of Amenemhat IV, political instability quickly became prevalent and kings rarely ruled beyond a couple of years. [5] The influx of Asiatic immigrants in the Nile Delta which had started during the reigns of Amenemhat IV's predecessor accelerated under his own reign, becoming completely unchecked. [31] Under the 13th Dynasty, the Asiatic population of the Delta founded an independent kingdom ruled by kings of Canaanite descent forming the 14th Dynasty and reigning from Avaris. [5] Around 80 years after the reign of Amenemhat IV, "the administration [of the Egyptian state] seems to have completely collapsed", [5] marking the start of the Second Intermediate Period.

Tomb

The remains of the Southern Mazghuna pyramid, possibly Amenemhat IV's tomb. Mazghouna-sud-photo.jpg
The remains of the Southern Mazghuna pyramid, possibly Amenemhat IV's tomb.

The tomb of Amenemhat IV has not been identified. He is nonetheless often associated with the ruined Southern Mazghuna pyramid. No inscriptions have been found within the pyramid to ascertain the identity of its owner, but its architectural similarity [32] with the second pyramid of Amenemhat III at Hawara led egyptologists to date the pyramid to the late 12th or early 13th Dynasty. [33] Less likely, Amenemhat IV could have been interred in Amenemhat III's first pyramid in Dashur, since his name has been found on an inscription in the mortuary temple. [3]

At Dahshur, next to the pyramid of Amenemhat II, the remains of another pyramid dating to the Middle Kingdom were discovered during building works. The pyramid has not yet been excavated, but a fragment inscribed with the royal name "Amenemhat" has been unearthed. It is therefore possible that this pyramid belongs to Amenemhat IV, although there are also kings of the 13th Dynasty who bore the name Amenemhat and who could have built the pyramid. Alternatively, the relief fragment may originate (come) from the nearby pyramid of Amenemhat II. [34]

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References

  1. The sphinx BM EA58892 on the catalog of the British Museum
  2. The sphinx BM EA58892 on the catalog of the British Museum
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 3032
  4. 1 2 Wolfram Grajetzki: Late Middle Kingdom, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (2013), available online
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, excerpts available online here.
  6. Michael Rice: Who is who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge London & New York 1999, ISBN   0-203-44328-4, see p. 11
  7. 1 2 Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : Philip von Zabern, 1999, ISBN   3-8053-2591-6, see pp. 8687, king No 7. and p. 283 for the dates of Amenemhat IV's reign.
  8. 1 2 Gae Callender, Ian Shaw (editor): The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, OUP Oxford, New Edition (2004), ISBN   978-0-19-280458-7, excerpts available online
  9. Erik Hornung (editor), Rolf Krauss (editor), David A. Warburton (editor): Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill 2012, ISBN   978-90-04-11385-5, available online copyright-free
  10. Digital Egypt for Universities: Amenemhat IV Maakherure (1807/06-1798/97 BCE)
  11. Alan H. Gardiner: The Royal Canon of Turin, Griffith Institute, Oxford 1997, ISBN   0-900416-48-3, pl. 3.
  12. Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004) ISBN   0-500-05128-3, p. 102
  13. Flinders Petrie: A history of Egypt from the earliest times to the 16th dynasty, London Methuen 1897, available online copyright-free
  14. 1 2 3 4 William J. Murnane: Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization (SAOC) 40, Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 1977, available online, direct access to pdf
  15. See for example seals 22 and 38 pp. 113 and 121 and pl. VI and IX in: Percy Newberry: Scarabs: An introduction to the study of Egyptian seals and signet rings, with forty-four plates and one hundred and sixteen illustrations in the text, 1906, available online copyright-free
  16. Ashraf I. Sadek: The Amethyst Mining Inscriptions of Wadi el-Hudi, Part I: Text, Warminster 1980, ISBN   0-85668-162-8, 44-45, no. 21
  17. Gold openwork plaque showing Amenemhat IV, on the British Museum website
  18. El-Sayed Mahfouz: Amenemhat IV at Wadi Gawasis, Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale A. (BIFAO) 2010, vol. 110, [165-173, 485, 491 [11 p.]], ISBN   978-2-7247-0583-6, see also
  19. Astonishing archaeological discoveries help rewriting the history of the Ancient Egyptian harbour
  20. Hense, M.; Kaper, O.E. (2015). "A stela of Amenemhet IV from the main temple at Berenike". Bibliotheca Orientalis. Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten. 72 (5–6): 585–601.
  21. Dieter Arnold, Nigel Strudwick (editor), Helen M. Strudwick (editor, translator): The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, I.B. Tauris 2001, ISBN   978-1-86064-465-8, p. 145
  22. Edda Bresciani, Antonio Giammarusti: Sobek's double temple on the hill of Medinet Madî, Les Dossiers d'archéologie (Dijon) A. 2001, n° 265, pp. 132140, see also
  23. The temple of Renenutet at Medinet Madi or Narmuthis.
  24. Middle East Times: Egypt finds clue to ancient temple's secret April 7, 2006
  25. Ian Shaw: Ancient Egypt: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN   978-0-19-285419-3, excerpt available online, see p.
  26. Flinders Petrie: Researches in Sinai, Dutton, New York (1906), see p. 63, 92, 93 & 98, available online copyright-free
  27. Maurice Pillet: Rapport sur les travaux de Karnak (1923–1924), ASAE 24, 1924, p. 5388, available online
  28. H. Gauthier: À propos de certains monuments décrits dans le dernier rapport de M. Pillet, ASAE 24, 1924, p. 196197, available online
  29. Photos of the pedestal
  30. Labib Habachi: New Light on Objects of Unknown Provenance (I): A Strange Monument of Amenemhet IV and a Similar Uninscribed One, Göttinger Miszellen (GM) Vol. 26, Göttingen (1977), pp. 2736.
  31. Toby Wilkinson: The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt, Bloomsbury Paperbacks (2011), ISBN   978-1-4088-1002-6, see in particular p. 183
  32. 1 2 Flinders Petrie, G. A. Wainwright, E. Mackay: The Labyrinth, Gerzeh and Mazghuneh, London 1912, available online.
  33. William C. Hayes: The Scepter of Egypt: A Background for the Study of the Egyptian Antiquities in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1, From the Earliest Times to the End of the Middle Kingdom, MetPublications, 1978, pp. 136138, available online
  34. Mark Lehner, The Complete Pyramids, Thames and Hudson, London 1997, p. 184. ISBN   0-500-05084-8.

Further reading

Preceded by
Amenemhat III
Pharaoh of Egypt
Twelfth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Sobekneferu