Ramesses V

Last updated

Usermaatre Sekheperenre Ramesses V (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt and was the son of Ramesses IV and Queen Duatentopet.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Ramesses IV The third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt

Heqamaatre Ramesses IV was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. His name prior to assuming the crown was Amonhirkhopshef. He was the fifth son of Ramesses III and was appointed to the position of crown prince by the twenty-second year of his father's reign when all four of his elder brothers predeceased him. His promotion to crown prince:

is suggested by his appearance in a scene of the festival of Min at the Ramesses III temple at Karnak, which may have been completed by Year 22 [of his father's reign].

Duatentopet Queen consort of Egypt

Duatentopet or Tentopet was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the 20th dynasty, the wife of Pharaoh Ramesses IV, and mother of Ramesses V. Even though the identity of Ramesses IV's wife has not been clearly stated in history, she is considered the most likely candidate by virtue of the titles she was given and which were found listed in her tomb (QV74).

Contents

Reign

Ramesses V's reign was characterized by the continued growth of the power of the priesthood of Amun, which controlled much of the temple land in the country and the state finances, at the expense of the ruling pharaohs. The Turin 1887 papyrus records a financial scandal during Ramesses' reign that involved the priests of Elephantine. A period of domestic instability also afflicted his reign, as evidenced by the fact that, according to the Turin Papyrus Cat. 2044, the workmen of Deir el-Medina periodically stopped work on Ramesses V's KV9 tomb in this king's first regnal year, out of fear of "the enemy", presumably Libyan raiding parties, who had reached the town of Per-Nebyt and "burnt its people." [1] Another incursion by these raiders into Thebes is recorded a few days later. [2] This shows that the Egyptian state was having difficulties ensuring the security of its own elite tomb workers, let alone the general populace, during this troubled time.

Amun is a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan Ogdoad. Amun was attested from the Old Kingdom together with his wife Amaunet. With the 11th dynasty, Amun rose to the position of patron deity of Thebes by replacing Montu.

Temple structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities

A temple is a building reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. It is typically used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a more specific term such as church, mosque or synagogue is not generally used in English. These include Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism among religions with many modern followers, as well as other ancient religions such as Ancient Egyptian religion.

Papyrus Writing and painting implement

Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge. Papyrus can also refer to a document written on sheets of such material, joined together side by side and rolled up into a scroll, an early form of a book.

The great Wilbour Papyrus, dating to Year 4 of Ramesses V's reign, was a major land survey and tax assessment document which covered various lands "extending from near Crocodilopolis (Medinet el-Fayyum) southwards to a little short of the modern town of El-Minya, a distance of some 90 miles." [3] It reveals most of Egypt's land was controlled by the Amun temples, which also directed the country's finances. The document highlights the increasing power of the High Priest of Amun Ramessesnakht whose son, a certain Usimare'nakhte, held the office of chief tax master.

The Wilbour Papyrus is a papyrus purchased by the New York journalist Charles Edwin Wilbour from a farmer when he visited the island of Elephantine near Aswan in 1893. There he purchased seventeen papyri from a local farmer. He did not realize the importance of his find and when he died in a hotel in Paris his belongings, including the papyri, were put in storage by the hotel and not returned to his family for nearly half a century. At the request of his widow, they were donated to the Brooklyn Museum.

Ramessesnakht ancient Egyptian high priest of Amun

Ramessesnakht was High Priest of Amun during many years in the 20th Dynasty. He was appointed as the High Priest at Thebes under Ramesses IV. He served in office until the reign of Ramesses IX. It was during Ramessesnakht's tenure that the power and importance of the Amun priesthood grew over Egypt while the Pharaoh's power began to noticeably decline.

Death

The circumstances of Ramesses V's death are unknown but it is believed he had a reign of almost four full years. It is possible he was dethroned by his paternal uncle and successor, Ramesses VI because Ramesses VI usurped his predecessor's KV9 tomb. [4] An ostracon records that this king was only buried in Year 2 of Ramesses VI, which was highly irregular since Egyptian tradition required a king to be mummified and buried precisely 70 days into the reign of his successor. [5]

Ramesses VI fifth ruler of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt

Ramesses VI Nebmaatre-Meryamun was the fifth pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt. He reigned for about eight years in the mid-to-late 12th century BC and was a son of Ramesses III and queen Iset Ta-Hemdjert. As a prince, he was known as Ramesses Amunherkhepeshef and held the titles of royal scribe and cavalry general. He was succeeded by his son, Ramesses VII Itamun, whom he had fathered with queen Nubkhesbed.

Ramesses V's mummified head. Ramses V mummy head.png
Ramesses V's mummified head.

However, another reason for the much delayed burial of Ramesses V in Year 2, second month of Akhet day 1 of Ramesses VI's reign (see KRI, VI, 343) may have been connected with Ramesses VI's need "to clear out any Libyans [invaders] from Thebes and to provide a temporary tomb for Ramesses V until plans for a double burial within tomb KV9 could be put into effect." [2] Moreover, a Theban work journal (P. Turin 1923) dated to Year 2 of Ramesses VI's reign shows that a period of normality had returned to the Theban West Bank by this time. [2]

The Season of the Inundation or Flood was the first season of the lunar and civil Egyptian calendars. It fell after the intercalary month of Days over the Year and before the Season of the Emergence.

The mummy of Ramesses V was recovered in 1898 and seemed to indicate that he suffered and subsequently died from smallpox, due to lesions found on his face. He was thought to be one of the earliest known victims of the disease. [6] [7] While a 2016 discovery has found that the shared ancestral form of smallpox dates back to 1580 AD, this study merely indicates that the strains of smallpox circulating at the time of smallpox eradication had a common ancestor in the late 16th century, specifically that "the VARV lineages eradicated during the 20th century had only been in existence for ∼200 years, at a time of rapidly expanding human movement and population size in the face of increasingly widespread inoculation and vaccination." Indeed, they say merely about ancient cases of smallpox that "if they were indeed due to smallpox, these early cases were caused by virus lineages that were no longer circulating at the point of eradication in the 1970s." [8] It is little surprise that the advent of vaccination or indeed even variolation in China and Japan during the middle ages could have altered the relative presence of smallpox strains and diminished the presence of ancient strains. [9] A 2015 review summarizing recent research into the question of smallpox evolution and divergence from its common ancestors suggests it is most likely that smallpox evolved 3000-4000 years ago in East Africa or India, which is not inherently contradicted by the study described [10] the latter of which contains descriptions of smallpox from before the first century AD at least. Finally, another genomic analysis places the evolution of smallpox at even 16,000 years before present, and mentions Ramses V specifically, writing that "if the pustular eruption of Ramses V was from smallpox, it could represent a smallpox outbreak from imported cases... rather than regional endemic disease. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that only three mummies in that period had similar lesions." [11]

Mummy Human or animal, whose skin and organs have been preserved

A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. Some authorities restrict the use of the term to bodies deliberately embalmed with chemicals, but the use of the word to cover accidentally desiccated bodies goes back to at least 1615 AD.

Smallpox eradicated viral disease

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977 and the World Health Organization (WHO) certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980. The risk of death following contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among babies. Often those who survived had extensive scarring of their skin and some were left blind.

Related Research Articles

Ramesses III Egyptian pharaoh

Usermaatre Ramesses III was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt. He is thought to have reigned from 1186 to 1155 BC and is considered to be the last great monarch of the New Kingdom to wield any substantial authority over Egypt. His long reign saw the decline of Egyptian political and economic power, linked to a series of invasions and internal economic problems that also plagued pharaohs before him. He has also been described as "warrior Pharaoh" due to his strong military strategies. He led the way by defeating the invaders known as "the Sea People", who had caused destruction in other civilizations and empires. He was able to save Egypt from collapsing at the time when many other empires fell during the Late Bronze Age; however, the damage of the invasions took a toll on Egypt.

Ramesses IX Egyptian pharaoh of the 20th dynasty

Neferkare Ramesses IX was the eighth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. He was the third longest serving king of this Dynasty after Ramesses III and Ramesses XI. He is now believed to have assumed the throne on I Akhet day 21 based on evidence presented by Jürgen von Beckerath in a 1984 GM article. According to Papyrus Turin 1932+1939, Ramesses IX enjoyed a reign of 18 years and 4 months and died in his 19th Year in the first month of Peret between day 17 and 27. His throne name, Neferkare Setepenre, means "Beautiful Is The Soul of Re, Chosen of Re." Ramesses IX is believed to be the son of Mentuherkhepeshef, a son of Ramesses III since Montuherkhopshef's wife, the lady Takhat bears the prominent title of King's Mother on the walls of tomb KV10 which she usurped and reused in the late 20th dynasty; no other 20th dynasty king is known to have had a mother with this name. Ramesses IX was, therefore, probably a grandson of Ramesses III.

Setnakhte first pharaoh of the 20th dynasty

Userkhaure-setepenre Setnakhte was the first pharaoh (1189 BC–1186 BC) of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt and the father of Ramesses III.

Ramesses VIII Egyptian pharaoh

Usermare Akhenamun Ramesses VIII or Ramesses Sethherkhepshef Meryamun, was the seventh Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt and was one of the last surviving sons of Ramesses III.

Ramesses X ninth ruler of the 20th dynasty of Ancient Egypt

Khepermaatre Ramesses X was the ninth pharaoh of the 20th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. His birth name was Amonhirkhepeshef. His prenomen or throne name, Khepermaatre, means "The Justice of Re Abides."

Ramesses XI Egyptian pharaoh

Menmaatre Ramesses XI reigned from 1107 BC to 1078 BC or 1077 BC and was the tenth and final pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt and as such, was the last king of the New Kingdom period. He ruled Egypt for at least 29 years although some Egyptologists think he could have ruled for as long as 30. The latter figure would be up to 2 years beyond this king's highest known date of Year 10 of the Whm Mswt era or Year 28 of his reign. One scholar, Ad Thijs, has suggested that Ramesses XI could even have reigned as long as 33 years.

Ramesses VII Ancient Egyptian sixth pharaoh of the 20th dynasty

Usermaatre Setepenre Meryamun Ramesses VII was the sixth pharaoh of the 20th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He reigned from about 1136 to 1129 BC and was the son of Ramesses VI. Other dates for his reign are 1138-1131 BC. The Turin Accounting Papyrus 1907+1908 is dated to Year 7 III Shemu day 26 of his reign and has been reconstructed to show that 11 full years passed from Year 5 of Ramesses VI to Year 7 of his reign.

KV9 tomb

Tomb KV9 in Egypt's Valley of the Kings was originally constructed by Pharaoh Ramesses V. He was interred here, but his uncle, Ramesses VI, later reused the tomb as his own. The layout is typical of the 20th dynasty – the Ramesside period – and is much simpler than that of Ramesses III's tomb (KV11). The workmen accidentally broke into KV12 as they dug one of the corridors.

KV2 tomb of Ramesses IV

Tomb KV2, found in the Valley of the Kings, is the tomb of Ramesses IV, and is located low down in the main valley, between KV7 and KV1. It has been open since antiquity and contains a large amount of graffiti.

Psusennes I Egyptian pharaoh

Psusennes I was the third pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty who ruled from Tanis between 1047–1001 BC. Psusennes is the Greek version of his original name Pasibkhanu or Pasebakhaenniut, which means "The Star Appearing in the City" while his throne name, Akheperre Setepenamun, translates as "Great are the Manifestations of Ra, chosen of Amun." He was the son of Pinedjem I and Henuttawy, Ramesses XI's daughter by Tentamun. He married his sister Mutnedjmet.

KV1 tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt

Tomb KV1, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Ramesses VII of the Twentieth Dynasty. Although it has been open since antiquity, it was only properly investigated and cleared by Edwin Brock in 1984 and 1985. The single corridor tomb itself is located in Luxor's West Bank, and is small in comparison to other tombs of the twentieth dynasty.

Valley of the Kings Necropolis in ancient egypt

The Valley of the Kings, also known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings, is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, rock cut tombs were excavated for the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom.

The period of Ancient Egyptian history known as wehem mesut or, more commonly, Whm Mswt can be literally translated as Repetition of Births, but is usually referred to as the (Era of the) Renaissance.

Iset Ta-Hemdjert Queen consort of Egypt

Iset Ta-Hemdjert or Isis Ta-Hemdjert, simply called Isis in her tomb, was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the twentieth dynasty; the Great Royal Wife of Ramesses III and the Royal Mother of Ramesses VI.

The Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt is the third and last dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1189 BC to 1077 BC. The 19th and 20th Dynasties furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period.

Articles related to ancient Egypt include:

References

  1. A.J. Peden, The Reign of Ramesses IV, (Aris & Phillips Ltd: 1994), p.21 Peden's source on these recorded disturbances is KRI, VI, 340-343
  2. 1 2 3 Peden, p.21
  3. Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, 1961
  4. Peter Clayton, Chronology of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, (1994), p.168
  5. Clayton, p.167
  6. Erik Hornung, "The Pharaoh" p.292 in The Egyptians (ed.) Sergio Donadoni and Robert Bianchi, University of Chicago Press, 1997
  7. Donald, R. Hopkins, "Ramses V"
  8. Duggan, Ana T.; Perdomo, Maria F.; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Marciniak, Stephanie; Poinar, Debi; Emery, Matthew V.; Buchmann, Jan P.; Duchêne, Sebastian; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Humphreys, Margaret; Golding, G. Brian; Southon, John; Devault, Alison; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Sahl, Jason W.; Dutour, Olivier; Hedman, Klaus; Sajantila, Antti; Smith, Geoffrey L.; Holmes, Edward C.; Poinar, Hendrik N. (19 December 2016). "17th Century Variola Virus Reveals the Recent History of Smallpox". Current Biology. 26 (24): 3407–3412. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.061. PMC   5196022 . PMID   27939314.
  9. https://biotech.law.lsu.edu/blaw/bt/smallpox/who/red-book/Chp%2006.pdf/ Early Efforts at Control: Variolation, Vaccination, and Isolation and Quarantine
  10. Babkin, Igor; Babkina, Irina (10 March 2015). "The Origin of the Variola Virus". Viruses. 7 (3): 1100–1112. doi:10.3390/v7031100. PMC   4379562 . PMID   25763864.
  11. Li, Y.; Carroll, D. S.; Gardner, S. N.; Walsh, M. C.; Vitalis, E. A.; Damon, I. K. (27 September 2007). "On the origin of smallpox: Correlating variola phylogenics with historical smallpox records". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (40): 15787–15792. doi:10.1073/pnas.0609268104. PMC   2000395 . PMID   17901212.

Further reading