Khuiqer

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Khuiqer was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh known only for a limestone lintel bearing part of his royal titulary, found in Abydos by Flinders Petrie at the beginning of the 20th century, and now located at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (E 17316 A-B). [2]
His datation is extremely uncertain since he was tentatively placed in both the First and the Second Intermediate Period.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Limestone Sedimentary rocks made of calcium carbonate

Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock that is often composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, foraminifera, and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). A closely related rock is dolomite, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolomite was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolomites or magnesium-rich limestones.

Dynastic collocation

After the finding of the lintel, Petrie believed the royal name to be Uaqerre but was doubtful about his datation, and simply placed him between the Seventh and the Fourteenth Dynasties. Shortly after, Gaston Maspero attributed the mysterious king to the SixthEleventh Dynasty of Egypt range. Max Pieper more correctly read the name Khuiqer, claiming that this king should have reigned between the Thirteenth and the 18th Dynasties. Ludwig Borchardt came to the same conclusion, while in 1907 Henri Gauthier, following instead Maspero, placed him again in the First Intermediate Period. [1] [2]
When, more recently, the German Egyptologist Detlef Franke proposed the existence of the Abydos Dynasty [3] (a dynasty of local pharaohs who might have shortly ruled upon the Abydene territory during the Second Intermediate Period), he placed Khuiqer inside of it. Jürgen von Beckerath attributed him to the Second Intermediate Period too, following the claim that the block came from a building of Senusret I, although he admitted that Khuiqer's Horus name, Merut, seemed peculiar for this period. [2]
This Horus name was also the main topic for Kim Ryholt's attribution: he argued that Merut is too simple when compared to the Horus names of the Second Intermediate Period, which usually are composed by two or even three different words. Ryholt then suggested an earlier placement for Khuiqer, at an imprecise time during the First Intermediate Period. [4]

The Seventh Dynasty of Egypt would mark the beginning of the First Intermediate Period in the early 22nd century BC but its actual existence is debated. The only historical account on the Seventh Dynasty was in Manetho's Aegyptiaca, a history of Egypt written in the 3rd century BC, where the Seventh Dynasty appears essentially as a metaphor for chaos. Since next to nothing is known of this dynasty beyond Manetho's account, Egyptologists such as Jürgen von Beckerath and Toby Wilkinson have usually considered it to be fictitious. In a 2015 re-appraisal of the fall of the Old Kingdom, the Egyptologist Hracht Papazian has proposed that the Seventh Dynasty was real and that it consisted of kings usually attributed to the Eighth Dynasty.

The Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt was a series of rulers reigning during the Second Intermediate Period over the Nile Delta region of Egypt. It lasted between 75 and 155 years, depending on the scholar. The capital of the dynasty was probably Avaris. The 14th dynasty existed concurrently with the 13th dynasty based in Memphis. The rulers of the 14th dynasty are commonly identified by Egyptologists as being of Canaanite (Semitic) descent, owing to the distinct origins of the names of some of their kings and princes, like Ipqu, Yakbim, Qareh, or Yaqub-Har. Names in relation with Nubia are also recorded in two cases, king Nehesy and queen Tati.

Gaston Maspero French egyptologist

Sir Gaston Camille Charles Maspero was a French Egyptologist known for popularizing the term "Sea Peoples" in an 1881 paper.

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References

  1. 1 2 Henri Gauthier, Le Livre des rois d'Égypte, recueil de titres et protocoles royaux, 1, Des origines à la XIIe dynastie, (= MIFAO 17) Cairo, 1907, p. 192.
  2. 1 2 3 Jürgen von Beckerath, Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten (= Ägyptologische Forschungen, 23). Augustin, Glückstadt / New York, 1964, p. 70.
  3. Detlef Franke, Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches. Teil II: Die sogenannte Zweite Zwischenzeit Altägyptens, In Orientalia, 57 (1988), p. 259.
  4. Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. (= The Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20, ISSN   0902-5499). The Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Near Eastern studies, Copenhagen 1997, ISBN   87-7289-421-0, p. 163 n. 595.