Ameny Qemau

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Ameny Qemau was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the 5th king of the dynasty, reigning for 2 years over most of Egypt, except perhaps the eastern Nile Delta, from 1793 BC until 1791 BC. [1] [4]

The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1803 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 154 years.

Nile Delta Delta produced by the Nile River at its mouth in the Mediterranean Sea

The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Lower Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.

Contents

Family

The Egyptologist Kim Ryholt notes that Ameny Qemau's name is essentially a filiative nomen, that is, a name specifying the filiation of its holder. Indeed, Ameny Qemau could be read as "Ameny['s son] Qemau". Ryholt concludes that the Ameny in question was Qemau's predecessor Sekhemkare Amenemhat V and that Qemau was his son. [4] This opinion is shared by Egyptologist Darrell Baker but not by Jürgen von Beckerath, who left Ameny Qemau's position within the 13th Dynasty undetermined in his handbook of Egyptian pharaohs. [1] [5] The successor of Ameny Qemau, Qemau Siharnedjheritef may have been his son as "Qemau Siharnedjheritef" may be read "The son of Qemau, Horus protects his father".

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

In Ancient Egyptian grammar, a filiative nomen is a name, typically of a pharaoh, that incorporates the name(s) of the person's father and possibly grandfather.

Filiation is the legal term for the recognized legal status of the relationship between family members, or more specifically the legal relationship between parent and child. As described by the Government of Quebec:

Filiation is the relationship which exists between a child and the child’s parents, whether the parents are of the same or the opposite sex. The relationship can be established by blood, by law in certain cases, or by a judgment of adoption. Once filiation has been established, it creates rights and obligations for both the child and the parents, regardless of the circumstances of the child’s birth.

Attestations

Beyond his pyramid in Dahshur, Ameny Qemau is a poorly attested king: his name does not appear on the Turin canon and the only contemporary attestations of him are fragments of four inscribed canopic jars found in the pyramid. An additional plaquette of unknown provenance bears his name [3] but may be a modern forgery. [1] Ameny Qemau's identity is therefore uncertain and attempts have been made to identify him with better attested kings of the period, in particular with Sehotepibre, who appears on the Turin canon after Amenemhat V. [6] Ryholt however believes that Qemau's name was lost in a wsf lacuna of the Turin canon located just before Amenemhat V. A wsf (literally "missing") lacuna denotes a lacuna in the original document from which the canon was copied in Ramesside times. [4]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Canopic jar type of ancient Egyptian funerary jar holding inner organs of the deceased

Canopic jars were used by the ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife. They were commonly either carved from limestone or were made of pottery. These jars were used by the ancient Egyptians from the time of the Old Kingdom until the time of the Late Period or the Ptolemaic Period, by which time the viscera were simply wrapped and placed with the body. The viscera were not kept in a single canopic jar: each jar was reserved for specific organs. The name "canopic" reflects the mistaken association by early Egyptologists with the Greek legend of Canopus - the boat captain of Menelaus on the voyage to Troy - "who was buried at Canopus in the Delta where he was worshiped in the form of a jar".

Pyramid

Ameny Qemau had a pyramid built for himself in the south of Dahshur. The pyramid was discovered in 1957 by Charles Musès and only investigated in 1968. It originally measured 50 square meters at its base and stood 35 meters high but is now completely ruined due to stone robbing. The substructures have also been extensively damaged. The burial chamber of the king was made of a single large block of quartzite, similar to those found in the pyramid of Amenemhat III at Hawara and the Mazghuna pyramids. [1] [7] [8] The block was hewn to receive the sarcophagus and canopic jars of the king but only fragments of these and unidentified bones where found onsite. [9]

Dahshur Village in Giza Governorate, Egypt

Dahshur is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Cairo. It is known chiefly for several pyramids, two of which are among the oldest, largest and best preserved in Egypt, built from 2613–2589 BC.

Charles Arthur Muses, was an esoteric philosopher who wrote articles and books under various pseudonyms. He founded the Lion Path, a shamanistic movement. He held unusual and controversial views relating to mathematics, physics, philosophy, and many other fields.

Quartzite hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone

Quartzite is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Pure quartzite is usually white to grey, though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). Other colors, such as yellow, green, blue and orange, are due to other minerals.

Additionally, the name of Ameny Qemau is believed to appear on an inscribed block which was found in a newly-discovered pyramid at Dahshur whose existence was announced in April 2017. [10] Many Egyptologists such as James P. Allen, Aidan Dodson and Thomas Schneider agrees that the royal name on the block is that of Ameny Qemau. Dodson further speculated that, given the relatively poor quality of the inscription and the oddity for a pharaoh to be the owner of two pyramids, the newly-discovered one may have originally belonged to one of Qemau's predecessors, and that he may have usurped the structure by chiseling out the royal names on the block and superimposing his own cartouches on it. [10] Among the artifacts found in the burial chamber were a sarcophagus, canopic jars, and boxes of wrappings. Inscriptions on the boxes mention one of the daughters of Ameny Qemau, Hatshepsut, suggesting that the pyramid may have been usurped for his daughter and may explain why he has two pyramids. [11]

Thomas Schneider is a German Egyptologist.

Cartouche oval with inscriptions

In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name. They came into common use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu, but earlier examples date to the mid Second Dynasty on Cylinder Seals of Seth-Peribsen. While the cartouche is usually vertical with a horizontal line, if it makes the name fit better it can be horizontal, with a vertical line at the end . The Ancient Egyptian word for it was shenu, and it was essentially an expanded shen ring. In Demotic, the cartouche was reduced to a pair of brackets and a vertical line.

Hatshepsut (kings daughter) ancient Egyptian princess

Hatshepsut was an Ancient Egyptian king's daughter of the 13th Dynasty, around 1750 BC. She is known from a limestone stela now in the Cairo Egyptian Museum and found at Abydos, where it is stated that she was the daughter of a king's wife Nofret. The name of her royal father is not recorded here. The queen Nofret is not known from other sources. Hatshepsut appears on this stela as wife of the military man Nedjesankh/Iu who had a second wife with the name Nubemwakh. On the stela is also mentioned her daughter, the lady of the houses Nebetiunet. A king's daughter Hatshepsut is also known from a scarab seal. In 2017 there was discovered a 13th Dynasty pyramid at Dahshur. In the pyramid was found a stone slab with pyramid texts and the name of the king Ameny Qemau. In the same pyramid was found a canopic box naming the king's daughter Hatshepsut.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 304
  2. El-Aref, Nevine (11 May 2017). "Egypt 'uncovers burial chamber of pharaoh's daughter'". BBC News. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  3. 1 2 Goedicke, Hans (1959). "A Puzzling Inscription". Journal of Egyptian Archaeology . 45: 98–99. doi:10.2307/3855469. JSTOR   3855469.
  4. 1 2 3 4 K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  5. Jürgen von Beckerath: Hanbuch der agyptische Konigsnamen, Muncher. Agyptologische Studien 49, Mainz, (1999), p. 102-103
  6. Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten. Glückstadt/ New York 1964, p. 41-42, 233, XIII. B
  7. Miroslav Verner: The Pyramids Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN   1-84354-171-8
  8. Mark Lehner: The Complete Pyramids, London: Thames and Hudson (1997) p.185 ISBN   0-500-05084-8.
  9. Nabil M. Swelim, Aidan Dodson: On the Pyramid of Ameny-Qemau and its Canopic Equipment, In: Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 54 (1998), p. 319 - 334
  10. 1 2 Jarus, Owen (4 April 2017). "2nd Pyramid Bearing Pharaoh Ameny Qemau's Name Is Found". Live Science . Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  11. Martinez, Alanna (12 May 2017). "3,700-Year-Old Egyptian Pyramid Was Probably Built for a Princess". The New York Observer. New York Observer, LP.
Preceded by
Amenemhat V
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Qemau Siharnedjheritef