Sankhenre Sewadjtu

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Sankhenre Sewadjtu was the thirty-fourth pharaoh of the 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. [3] Sewadjtu reigned from Memphis, starting in 1675 BC and for a period of 3 years and 2 to 4 months. [1]

The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1803 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 154 years.

Contents

Attestations

Sankhenre Sewadjtu is unknown from contemporary historical records, and is exclusively attested by the Turin canon. This may be because he ruled Egypt at a time when the 13th Dynasty's control over Egypt was receding. He is listed as the successor of Ini in the Turin Canon, on column 7 line 5, and is given a reign of 3 years and 2 to 4 months in this document. [1]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Merhotepre Ini Egyptian pharaoh

Merhotepre Ini was the successor of Merneferre Ay, possibly his son, and the thirty-third king of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is assigned a brief reign of 2 Years, 3 or 4 Months and 9 days in the Turin Canon and lived during the early 17th century BC.

Kim Ryholt proposes that Sankhenre Sewadjtu is attested on the Karnak king list under a different name owing to a scribal error. Indeed, two prenomina Sewadjenre and two prenomina Snefer[...]re are recorded in this list but Ryholt points out that, in each case, only one king with such prenomen is known. Ryholt thus proposes that the two remaining names refer to Sankhenre Sewadjtu and Seankhenre Mentuhotepi. Indeed, Ryholt notes that wadj, nfr and ankh resemble each other in hieratic. [1] [3]

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Karnak king list Wikimedia list article

The Karnak king list, a list of early Egyptian kings engraved in stone, was located in the southwest corner of the Festival Hall of Thutmose III, in the middle of the Precinct of Amun-Re, in the Karnak Temple Complex, in modern Luxor, Egypt. Composed during the reign of Thutmose III, it listed sixty-one kings beginning with Sneferu from Egypt's Old Kingdom. Only the names of thirty-nine kings are still legible, and one is not written in a cartouche.

Seankhenre Mentuhotepi Egyptian pharaoh

Seankhenre Mentuhotepi was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the fragmented Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the fifth king of the 16th Dynasty reigning over the Theban region in Upper Egypt. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the fifth king of the 17th Dynasty.

Chronological position

The exact chronological position of Sankhenre Sewadjtu in the 13th dynasty is not known for certain owing to uncertainties affecting earlier kings of the dynasty. Darrell Baker makes him the thirty-fourth pharaoh of the dynasty, Kim Ryholt sees him as the thirty-fifth king and Jürgen von Beckerath places him as the twenty-ninth pharaoh of the dynasty. [4]

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1800–1550 B.C.. Museum Tuscalanum Press, 1997 (ISBN   87-7289-421-0)
  2. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Albatros, 2002
  3. 1 2 Darell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300 - 1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 419
  4. Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : P. von Zabern, 1999, ISBN   3-8053-2591-6, available online see p. 98-99
Preceded by
Merhotepre Ini
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Mersekhemre Ined