Osorkon IV

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Usermaatre Osorkon IV was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the late Third Intermediate Period. Traditionally considered the very last king of the 22nd Dynasty, he was de facto little more than ruler in Tanis and Bubastis, in Lower Egypt. He is generally – though not universally – identified with the King Shilkanni mentioned by Assyrian sources, and with the biblical So, King of Egypt mentioned in the second Books of Kings.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

In law and government, de facto describes practices that exist in reality, even if not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure, which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards.


Osorkon ruled during one of the most chaotic and politically fragmented periods of ancient Egypt, in which the Nile Delta was dotted with small Libyan kingdoms and principalities and Meshwesh dominions; as the last heir of the Tanite rulers, he inherited the easternmost parts of these kingdoms, the most involved in all the political and military upheavals that soon would afflict the Near East. During his reign, he had to face the power, and ultimately submit himself—to the Kushite King Piye during Piye's conquest of Egypt. Osorkon IV also had to deal with the threatening Neo-Assyrian Empire outside his eastern borders.

Nile Delta delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River drains into the Mediterranean Sea

The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.

Ancient Libya region west of the Nile Valley

The Latin name Libya referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the Atlantic Mountains according to Diodorus. Its people were ancestors of the modern Libyan. They occupied the area for thousands of years before the beginning of human records in ancient Egypt. Climate changes affected the locations of the settlements.

The Meshwesh were an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin from beyond Cyrenaica. According to Egyptian hieroglyphs, this area is where the Libu and Tehenu inhabited.


Early years

Osorkon IV ascended to the throne of Tanis in c. 730 BC, [5] at the end of the long reign of his predecessor Shoshenq V of the 22nd Dynasty, [6] [7] [8] [9] who was possibly also his father. [10] However, this somewhat traditional collocation was first challenged in 1970 by Karl-Heinz Priese who preferred to place Osorkon IV in a lower–Egyptian branch of the 23rd Dynasty, right after the reign of the shadowy pharaoh Pedubast II; [11] this placement found the support of a certain number of scholars. [12] [13] [14] [15] Osorkon's mother, named on an electrum aegis of Sekhmet now in the Louvre, was Tadibast III. [16] Osorkon IV's realm was restricted only to the district of Tanis (Rˁ-nfr) and the territory of Bubastis, both in the eastern Nile Delta. [17] His neighbors were Libyan princes and Meshwesh chiefs who ruled their small realms outside of his authority. [18]

Shoshenq V Egyptian pharaoh

Aakheperre Shoshenq V was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the late 22nd Dynasty.

Pedubast II sovereign

Pedubast II was a Pharaoh of Egypt associated with the 22nd or more likely the 23rd Dynasty. Not mentioned in all King lists, he is mentioned as a possible son and successor to Shoshenq V by Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton in their 2004 book, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. They date his reign at about 743–733 BC, between Shoshenq V and Osorkon IV.

Electrum natural alloy of gold and silver

Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals. It has also been produced artificially, and is often known as green gold. The ancient Greeks called it 'gold' or 'white gold', as opposed to 'refined gold'. Its colour ranges from pale to bright yellow, depending on the proportions of gold and silver.

Closeup of the Victory Stela of Piye. Osorkon IV is the left one among the prostrating kings. Stele Piye submission Mariette.jpg
Closeup of the Victory Stela of Piye. Osorkon IV is the left one among the prostrating kings.

Around 729/28 BC, soon after his accession, Osorkon IV faced the crusade led by the Kushite pharaoh Piye of the Nubian 25th Dynasty. Along with other rulers of Lower and Middle Egypt – mainly Nimlot of Hermopolis and Iuput II of Leontopolis – Osorkon IV joined the coalition led by the Chief of the West Tefnakht in order to oppose the Nubian. [19] However, Piye's advance was unstoppable and the opposing rulers surrendered one after another: Osorkon IV found it wise to reach the Temple of Ra at Heliopolis and pay homage to his new overlord Piye personally— [20] an action which was soon imitated by the other rulers. As reported on his Victory Stela, Piye accepted their submission, but Osorkon and most of the rulers were not allowed to enter the royal enclosure because they were not circumcised and had eaten fish, both abominations in the eyes of the Nubian. [21] [22] Nevertheless, Osorkon IV and the others were allowed to keep their former domains and authority. [23] [24]

Religious war war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion

A religious war or holy war is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion. In the modern period, debates are common over the extent to which religious, economic, or ethnic aspects of a conflict predominate in a given war. According to the Encyclopedia of Wars, out of all 1,763 known/recorded historical conflicts, 123, or 6.98%, had religion as their primary cause. Matthew White's The Great Big Book of Horrible Things gives religion as the cause of 13 of the world's 100 deadliest atrocities. In several conflicts including the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Syrian civil war, and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, religious elements are overtly present but variously described as fundamentalism or religious extremism—depending upon the observer's sympathies. However, studies on these cases often conclude that ethnic animosities drive much of the conflicts.

Kingdom of Kush ancient African kingdom

The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the Sudanese and southern Egyptian Nile Valley.

Piye ancient Kushite king and Egyptian pharaoh

Piye was an ancient Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled Egypt from 744–714 BC. He ruled from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia, modern-day Sudan.

The Assyrian threat

In 726/25 BC Hoshea, the last King of Israel, rebelled against the Assyrian King Shalmaneser V who demanded an annual tribute, and, according to the second Book of Kings, sought the support of So, King of Egypt (2 Kings 17:4) who, as already mentioned, was most likely Osorkon IV (see below). For reasons which remained unknown – possibly in order to remain neutral towards the powerful Neo-Assyrian Empire, or simply because he did not have enough power or resources – King So did not help Hoshea, who was subsequently defeated and deposed by Shalmaneser V. The Kingdom of Israel ceased to exist, many Israelites were brought to Assyria as exiles, [25] and Assyrian and Babylonian settlers occupied Israel. [26] [27] [28]

Hoshea King of Israel

Hoshea was the last king of the Israelite Kingdom of Israel and son of Elah. William F. Albright dated his reign to 732–721 BC, while E. R. Thiele offered the dates 732–723 BC.

Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) Israelite kingdom, c. 930-720 BCE

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Historians often refer to the Kingdom of Israel as the "Northern Kingdom" or as the "Kingdom of Samaria" to differentiate it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah. For their parallel history see History of ancient Israel and Judah.

Shalmaneser V Assyrian king

Shalmaneser V was king of Assyria and Babylon from 727 to 722 BC. He first appears as governor of Zimirra in Phoenicia in the reign of his father, Tiglath-Pileser III. Evidence pertaining to his reign is scarce.

Sargon II, Osorkon's Assyrian opponent. Sargon II and dignitary (particular).jpg
Sargon II, Osorkon's Assyrian opponent.

In 720 BC, a revolt occurred in Palestine against the new Assyrian King Sargon II, led by King Hanno (also Hanun and Hanuna) of Gaza who sought the help of "Pirʾu of Musri", a term most probably meaning "Pharaoh of Egypt" and referring to Osorkon IV. Assyrian sources claim that this time the Egyptian king did send a turtanu (an army–commander) called Reʾe or Reʾu (his Egyptian name was Raia, though in the past it was read Sibʾe) as well as troops in order to support his neighboring ally. However, the coalition was defeated in battle at Raphia. Reʾe fled back to Egypt, Raphia and Gaza were looted and Hanno was burnt alive by the Assyrians. [29] [30]

Sargon II King of Assyria in late 8th century BC

Sargon II was an Assyrian king. A son of Tiglath-Pileser III, he came to power relatively late in life, possibly by usurping the throne from his older brother, Shalmaneser V. Sargon II suppressed rebellions, conquered the Kingdom of Israel, and, in 710 BC, conquered the Kingdom of Babylon, thus reuniting Assyria with its southern rival, Babylonia, from which it had been separate since the death of Hammurabi in 1750 BC.

The word 'Turtanu' is an Akkadian word/title meaning 'commander in chief' or 'prime minister'. The turtanu was not however the king of the entire Assyrian empire but rather a second in command. The Assyrian king would assign the individual who was turtanu to go to battle for him, thus giving great power and influence to the turtanu.

Egyptian language Language spoken in ancient Egypt, branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages

The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian stage. Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.

In 716 BC, Sargon II almost reached Egypt's boundaries. Feeling directly threatened this time, Osorkon IV (here called Shilkanni by Assyrian sources, see below) was carefully diplomatic: he personally met the Assyrian king at the "Brook of Egypt" (most likely el-Arish) and tributed him with a present which Sargon personally described as "twelve large horses of Egypt without equals in Assyria". The Assyrian king appreciated his gifts and did not take action against Osorkon IV. [31]


No mention of Osorkon IV is known after 716 BC. Some archaeological findings [32] suggest that shortly after this date, Bocchoris (Bakenrenef) of the 24th Dynasty may have expanded his realm eastward, supplanting Osorkon at Tanis. In 712 BC, Piye's successor Shebitku marched northward and defeated Bocchoris. [33] When around the same year King Iamani of Ashdod sought refuge from Sargon II in Egypt, Shebitku was in fact the sole ruler of Egypt, and returned Iamani to the Assyrians in chains. [34] [35] In any case, Osorkon IV was seemingly dead before that year. [36]
A few years later a man called Gemenefkhonsbak, possibly a descendant of the now-defunct 22nd Dynasty, claimed for himself the pharaonic royal titles and ruled in Tanis as its prince. [37]

Identification with Shilkanni and So

It is believed that Shilkanni is a rendering of (U)shilkan, which in turn is derived from (O)sorkon – hence Osorkon IV – as first proposed by William F. Albright in 1956. [38] [39] This identification is accepted by several scholars [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] while others remain uncertain [47] or even skeptical. [48] Shilkanni is reported by Assyrians as "King of Musri ": this location, once believed to be a country in northern Arabia by the orientalist Hans Alexander Winckler, is certainly to be identified with Egypt instead. [49] In the same way, the "Pir'u of Musri" to whom Hanno of Gaza asked for help in 720 BC could only have been Osorkon IV. [50] The identity of the biblical King So is somewhat less definite. Generally, an abbreviation of (O)so(rkon) is again considered the most likely by several scholars, [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] but the concurrent hypothesis which equates So with the city of Sais, hence with King Tefnakht, is supported by a certain number of scholars. [58] [59] [60] [61]


Small aegis of Sekhmet with the name of Osorkon and Tadibast, in the Louvre. Louvre egide tete lionne.JPG
Small aegis of Sekhmet with the name of Osorkon and Tadibast, in the Louvre.

Osorkon IV is attested by Assyrian documents (as Shilkanni and other epithets) and probably also by the Books of Kings (as King So), while Manetho's epitomes seem to have ignored him. [62] He is undoubtedly attested by the well-known Victory Stela of Piye [63] on which he is depicted while prostrating in front of the owner of the stela along with other submitted rulers. Another finding almost certainly referring to him is the aforementioned aegis of Sekhmet, found at Bubastis and mentioning a King Osorkon son of queen Tadibast whoas the name does not coincide with those of any of the other Osorkon kings' motherscan only be Osorkon IV's mother. [64]

About the throne name

Osorkon's throne name was thought to be Aakheperre Setepenamun from a few monuments naming a namesake pharaoh Osorkon, such as a faience seal and a relief–block, both in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden, [65] but this attribution was questioned by Frederic Payraudeau in 2000. According to him, these findings could rather be assigned to an earlier Aakheperre Osorkon – i.e., the distant predecessor Osorkon the Elder of the 21st Dynasty – thus implying that Osorkon IV's real throne name was unknown. [66] Furthermore, in 2010/11 a French expedition discovered in the Temple of Mut at Tanis two blocks bearing a relief of a King Usermaa(t)re Osorkonu, depicted in a quite archaizing style, which at first were attributed to Osorkon III. [67] In 2014, on the basis of the style of both the relief and the royal name, Aidan Dodson rejected the identification of this king with both the already-known kings Usermaatre Osorkon (Osorkon II and III) and stated that he was rather Osorkon IV with his true throne name. [68] A long-known, archaizing "glassy faience" statuette fragment from Memphis now exhibited at the Petrie Museum (UC13128) which is inscribed for one King Usermaatre, had been tentatively attributed to several pharaohs from Piye to Rudamun of the Theban 23rd Dynasty and even to Amyrtaios of the 28th Dynasty, but may in fact represent Osorkon IV. [69]

See also

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  1. Dodson (2014), pp. 7–8
  2. Dodson (2014), pp. 7–8
  3. Dodson (2014), pp. 9–10
  4. Dodson (2014), pp. 9–10
  5. Kitchen (1996) , p. 92
  6. Berlandini (1979) , pp. 100–101
  7. Edwards (1982) , p. 569
  8. Schneider (1985) , pp. 261–263
  9. Mitchell (1991) , p. 340
  10. Grimal (1992) , pp. 330–331
  11. Priese (1970) , p. 20, n. 23
  12. Leahy (1990) , p. 89
  13. von Beckerath (1997) , p. 99
  14. see also Jansen-Winkeln 2006, pp. 246–47 and references therein.
  15. Wilkinson (2011, p. XVIII) recognizes Osorkon IV as the last ruler of the 22nd Dynasty, though placing Pedubast II before him.
  16. Berlandini (1979) , pp. 100–101
  17. Kitchen (1996) , pp. 82; 92
  18. Grimal (1992) , pp. 330–331
  19. Kitchen (1996) , p. 325
  20. Grimal (1992) , p. 398
  21. Kitchen (1996) , pp. 325–326
  22. Wilkinson (2011) , pp. 397
  23. Grimal (1992) , p. 339
  24. Wilkinson (2011) , pp. 398
  25. 2 Kings 17:6
  26. 2 Kings 17:24
  27. Grimal (1992) , pp. 341–342
  28. Kitchen (1996) , pp. 333ff
  29. Grimal (1992) , pp. 341–342
  30. Kitchen (1996) , pp. 333ff
  31. Kitchen (1996) , p. 336
  32. Yoyotte (1971) , pp. 44–45
  33. Payraudeau (2014) , pp. 124–127
  34. Kitchen (1996) , pp. 463–464
  35. Payraudeau (2014) , pp. 124–127
  36. Kitchen (1996) , p. 526; revised table 6
  37. Kitchen (1996) , p. 357
  38. Albright (1956) , p. 24
  39. Kitchen (1996) , p. 115
  40. Dodson (2014) , pp. 9–10
  41. Grimal (1992) , pp. 341–342
  42. Edwards (1982) , p. 576
  43. Schneider (1985) , pp. 261–263
  44. Mitchell (1991) , p. 345
  45. Kitchen (1996) , pp. 115; 463
  46. Wilkinson (2011) , pp. 399–400
  47. Jansen-Winkeln (2006) , p. 260 & n. 117
  48. Yoyotte (1971) , pp. 43–44
  49. Kitchen (1996) , p. 115
  50. Kitchen (1996) , pp. 335; 463
  51. Edwards (1982) , p. 576
  52. Schneider (1985) , pp. 261–263
  53. Mitchell (1991) , p. 345
  54. Kitchen (1996) , pp. 333ff; 463–464
  55. Patterson (2003) , pp. 196–197
  56. Clayton (2006) , pp. 182–183
  57. Dodson (2014) , p. 9
  58. Goedicke (1963) , pp. 64–66
  59. Redford (1985) , pp. 197 & n. 56
  60. see also Kitchen 1996, § 463 and references therein.
  61. Kahn (2001) , pp. 13–14
  62. Kitchen (1996) , p. 418
  63. Jansen-Winkeln (2006) , p. 246; n. 91
  64. Berlandini (1979) , pp. 100–101
  65. Schneider (1985) , pp. 261–263
  66. Payraudeau (2000) , pp. 78ff
  67. Dodson (2014) , pp. 7–8
  68. Dodson (2014) , pp. 9–10
  69. Brandl (2011) , pp. 17–18